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Found 6 results

  1. Celiac.com 06/10/2019 - Gluten-free wheat is surely an oxymoron, right? How can wheat be gluten-free? Well, researchers are currently creating wheat strains that exclude the proteins that trigger immune reactions in people with celiac disease and gluten-sensitivity. The result could be the first wheat that is safe for people with celiac disease. The omega-1,2 gliadins are a group of wheat gluten proteins that contain immunodominant epitopes for celiac disease and also have been associated with food allergies. The research team recently sat out to reduce the toxicity of gliadin proteins in wheat. To reduce the levels of these proteins in the flour, the team used an RNA interference plasmid, which targeted a 141 bp region at the 5′ end of an omega-1,2 gliadin gene, to genetically transform a strain of bread wheat known as Triticum aestivum cv. Butte 86. They used quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry to conduct a detailed analysis of flour proteins from two transgenic lines. In the first line, the omega-1,2 gliadins were missing from an otherwise normal proteome. In the second line, the team saw significant changes in the proteome, with nearly all gliadins and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) missing. The second line showed a rise in high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), with the largest increase seen in those with molecular weights slightly below the non-transgenic, possibly due to post-translational processing. The team also saw a rise in non-gluten proteins such as triticins, purinins, globulins, serpins, and alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors. When tested with serum IgG and IgA antibodies from a group of celiac patients, both flour types showed reduced reactivity. Now, there's a big difference between 'reduced reactivity' and 'no reactivity,' but it's a solid step in the right direction. The line without omega-1,2 gliadins showed improved mixing time and tolerance, while the line missing most gluten proteins showed inferior mixing properties. The data suggest that biotechnology approaches may be used to create wheat lines with reduced immunogenic potential in the context of gluten sensitivity without compromising end-use quality. The data say it's possible to create wheat lines with reduced gluten toxicity that are safe for people with gluten sensitivity. Such lines could give rise to celiac safe gluten-free or gluten-safe flours with excellent baking properties. Of course, such line would have to be tested on people with celiac disease. However, if celiac-safe lines can be developed, the landscape could change quickly for gluten-free bread and baked goods. Read more in Frontiers in Plant Science, 09 May 2019 The research team included Susan B. Altenbach, Han-Chang Chang, Xuechen B. Yu, Bradford W. Seabourn, Peter H. Green and Armin Alaedini. They are variously affiliated with the Western Regional Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Albany, CA, United States; the Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States; the Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States; the Hard Winter Wheat Quality Laboratory, Center for Grain and Animal Health Research, United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Manhattan, KS, United States; the Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States; and the Department of Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, United States.
  2. Celiac.com 02/15/2019 - Aiming for a wheat that is safe for people with coeliac disease and other gluten-sensitive individuals to consume, Professor Francisco Barro and colleagues of the CSIC Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain have developed transgenic wheat lines in which the gliadin proteins (the gluten elements responsible for the damaging immune response of people with coeliac disease) have been strongly, and specifically, supressed.(1) Now, a study published in December 2018 in the journal Nutrients(2) has shown that fresh bread, made from the new wheat line, causes no negative response in non-coeliac gluten sensitive (NCGS) individuals when consumed regularly over several days. The bread was considered highly palatable by the trial participants. Moreover, in addition to the success in not triggering any acute gut symptoms, analysis of gut microbial populations demonstrated that the low-gliadin bread caused clear changes in the microbial profile consistent with a more beneficial population of natural bacteria, when compared to the profile present whilst consuming a gluten-free diet. The new wheat lines are being developed as an alternative option for people with gluten sensitivity by commercial partners of Plant Bioscience Limited, a UK-based technology transfer company, who have also patented the new wheat lines on behalf of CSIC. Prof. Barro said "This wheat opens up exciting new perspectives for NCGS patients; it's like following a gluten-free diet but with the aroma and taste of traditional wheat bread and favouring a much healthier microbiome." Professor Alastair Forbes, Clinical Professor in Medicine at the University of East Anglia, a leader in gastroenterology clinical research said; "This work is really encouraging news for the gluten sensitivity research community and the patients it serves. With no apparent drawbacks we now have a promising new wheat line in development that is non-toxic and promotes a healthier gut microbiome than the often-unpalatable gluten-free options hitherto available." Sarah Sleet, Coeliac UK chief executive said: "This is an exciting development showing real potential to develop a new bread from wheat, that may be suitable for people with coeliac disease. We’re not quite there yet, as this paper shows that bread from LGW is acceptable to people with gluten sensitivity but it has not completed testing in individuals with coeliac disease. We look forward to seeing the results of the ongoing tests in coeliac patients, who currently must follow a lifelong strict gluten-free diet to manage this serious autoimmune condition." For enquiries regarding the low-gliadin wheat, please contact Plant Bioscience Limited on telephone +44 (0)1603 45600, or via email info@pbltechnology.com. The full article can be read for free here: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/12/1964 References: Effective shutdown in the expression of celiac disease-related wheat gliadin T-cell epitopes by RNA interference. Gil-Humanes J, Pistón F, Tollefsen S, Sollid LM, Barro F (2010). PNAS; 107(39): 17023-17028. The Dietary Intervention of Transgenic Low-Gliadin Wheat Bread in Patients with Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS) Showed No Differences with Gluten Free Diet (GFD) but Provides Better Gut Microbiota Profile. Carmen Haro, Myriam Villatoro, Luis Vaquero, Jorge Pastor , María J. Giménez, Carmen V. Ozuna, Susana Sánchez-León, María D. García-Molina, Verónica Segura, Isabel Comino, Carolina Sousa, Santiago Vivas, Blanca B. Landa and Francisco Barro (2018). Nutrients; 10(12), 1964.
  3. Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease. A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat. Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease. As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results. Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease. It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet. Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com
  4. Celiac.com 01/08/2018 - Imagine gluten-free wheat. Well, actually you don't have to imagine it, because a group of scientists has used a gene-editing technique called CRISPR/Cas9 to cut selected genes from a wheat genome, and presto, gluten-free wheat is a thing. As people in numerous countries debate genetically modified crops, some countries, including France and Germany, have passed laws to prohibit their cultivation. Remember, we're not talking about hybridization here, which is based on natural selection and works by interbreeding plant strains. Researchers have used hybridization to develop strains of wheat that are low in gluten, but so far no one has made a strain that is entirely free of gluten. In this case, we're talking about genetic modification; changing the basic genetic structure of the plant. The greatest objections around GMO practices have been focused on the insertion of DNA from one species into another species, says Francisco Barro, a plant biotechnologist at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Spain. To steer clear of this genetic process, Barro and his team used the gene-editing technique CRISPR/Cas9 to remove certain genes from a wheat genome. Their team focused on alpha-gliadins, gluten proteins that are thought to be the trigger for immune system reactions in people with celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. To accomplish their goal of removing the culprit gene(s), the research team used the scissorlike Cas9 protein to cut out 35 of the 45 alpha-gliadin genes. Lab tests showed that the new wheat strain reduced the immune response by 85 percent, the team reported. Far from being any kind of decisive breakthrough though, this is just one “really important step in maybe producing something that is going to be incredibly useful,” says Wendy Harwood, a crop geneticist at the John Innes Center in England. Meanwhile, Barro says his team is working on targeting more gluten-triggered genes to develop a completely safe strain of wheat for celiac patients. Source: Scientific American
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