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Found 18 results

  1. Celiac.com 10/02/2008 - Whole grains are good sources of B-Vitamins and minerals such as calcium, iron, magnesium, and selenium, but one of their most important nutritional benefits is the fiber they bring to our diets. Whole grains such as wheat, brown rice, and oats include both soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber is easy to remember – it is water soluble, and as such can be assimilated into the body, where it plays an important role in blood sugar regulation and cholesterol balance. Soluble fiber also helps provide a sense of fullness or satiety. Insoluble fiber is - you guessed it - insoluble in water, and is not assimilated into the body, but passes through the digestive tract and is eliminated. That does not mean insoluble fiber has a less important nutritional role to play. Insoluble fiber is very important in keeping our digestive and elimination systems regular. Fiber aids the transit of toxic substances out of the body, and in doing so, helps to reduce the incidence of colon and rectal cancers. In eliminating gluten grains from your diet, have you wondered what you are missing nutritionally? Are you able to get adequate replacements for the nutrients in wheat, barley, rye, and oats, from the other nutritional components of your diet? The answer is a qualified yes. We know this on several levels. For tens of thousands of years, entire cultures have thrived without growing or consuming any of the gluten grains. We also know, from looking at what nutrients gluten grains provide, that there are more than adequate sources of these nutrients in alternative grains, and from vegetable sources. Fiber is something we do need to be aware of, though. Studies have shown that standard gluten-free diets are low in fiber, especially when baking with the “white” alternative products like white or sweet rice flour, tapioca starch, and potato starch. We can remedy this by eating alternative grains in whole, unprocessed states, and by including nuts, seeds, and other sources of fiber such as dried coconut and legumes in our diets. Wheat is an excellent source of Vitamin E, so those on gluten-free diets might want to supplement with a good brand of Vitamin E. Some commercial gluten-free flour blends seek to duplicate white flour, and are made primarily of white rice flour, tapioca starch, and potato starch (see the nutrition comparisons on the next page). These products are nearly devoid of nutrition and contain almost no fiber. Using these types of products result in baked goods that are the nutritional equivalent of wonder-bread. If you didn’t eat wonder-bread before going gluten-free, why should you attempt to duplicate it now? When making your flour blends, coming up with new recipes, and altering traditional wheat-flour recipes, try to include alternative grain products (and sometimes nut flours) that contain substantial amounts of fiber, protein, calcium, and iron, all nutrients found in whole grains, but in much smaller amounts in highly processed grains. Quinoa, sorghum, teff, amaranth, brown rice and millet flour are all good products to try. See the chart attached to this article (the link to it is in the "Attachments" section below) for the nutrient content of the many gluten-free alternative grains, starches, and nut flours. The highest levels of nutrients in each category are noted, and you can see what nutritional powerhouses grains like teff, quinoa, sorghum, and amaranth are compared to white rice flour, tapioca starch, and potato starch.
  2. Hi, Im a bit confused about my symptoms so hoping for some insight. I have been suffering from a range of symptoms, which all started just after I had my second child (who is nearly 3 now). I have constipation on and off, mucoua in stool, undigested food in stool, insomnia which sometimes is very severe...I cannot sleep for days, migraines, sinus pain, vertigo, burning feeling in ears, sore joints, pain in knees and lower back pain. I also suffer from wind when I am constipated. I dont really feel bloated and my stomach doesnt swell or anything. I didnt connect it to anything I was eating until recently. I assumed it was stress related. However I have noticed that when I eat grains, they come out undigested and I almost alseays have constipation about 2 or 3 days later. I ate the grain feekah a few days ago...and now am constipated again...with fully recognisable grains. Sorry for tmi! I am wondering if the fact the grains are undigested...is this a reliable way of determining that it is the culprit food and that is causing problems? Is it possible just to have an intolerence to grains but be ok with other wheat sources such as bread etc? I am also wondering if wheat allergy and/or gluten intolerence or celiac disease, can just develop out of the blue? I havent had any problems before until the past 2-3 years. Also, can it be triggered by stress/ pregnancy/giving birth? My doctors arent the best tbh...so I havent really gone back as I get fobbed off. Im going to try eliminating foods from diet to try to see what helps. Any advise etc greatly appreciated. Karolina
  3. Celiac.com 06/01/2017 - With low prices and slim margins, life is tough for people who trade in wheat, corn and soybeans these days. So much so that some traders are turning to obscure commodities like desert-grown tomatoes and chickpeas to turn a profit. Over the last several years, as farmers have produced far more of these crops than the marker can handle, margins for handling major grain crops have sunk. That has led some trading firms to seek higher margins in niche markets, such as tomatoes and organic grains, while other firms are looking to organic grains, and markets for costlier processed food ingredients or gluten-free products. One such company is Germany's BayWa AG. According to Jean-Francois Lambert, the founder and managing partner of consultant Lambert Commodities, "The general trading environment for agricultural commodities is rather difficult," and the challenge looks to continue, at least through next year. This fall in prices is a far cry from the price surge seen for much of the previous decade, when growing populations and burgeoning economies drove rising demand. Now, really huge firms are unlikely to see much benefit from investing in these smaller markets, no matter the margins. That's because the markets are still too small to have any major impact on their bottom line, and any gains would represent only tiny fractions of their overall portfolios. However, small and mid-sized traders can potentially do much better with investments in lesser-known commodities like quinoa or organic crops. For these traders, higher margins and growing demand can yield returns that improve their bottom line. One small company, Grain Services Srl, a brokerage based in Reggio Emilia, Italy, currently receives about 30 percent of its total revenue from gluten-free, organic or niche products, including quinoa, rice, amaranth and lentils, even though these make up just 7% of the firms overall business, says managing director Andrea Cagnolati. With prices for gluten-free grains and flours expected to surge over the next ten years, look for more investors to make big bets on that market, or to use it as a hedge against major market doldrums. Source: ESMMagazine.com
  4. Preface: The following information was supplied originally in 1991 in the form of a letter to Phyllis Brogden, Chairperson of the Greater Philadelphia Celiac Sprue Support Group, by Donald D. Kasarda, who was a Research Chemist with the US Department of Agriculture at that time. Copies were sent to four other major celiac patient groups in the US. Dr. Kasarda retired from the USDA in 1999, but updated the information in February of 2000. Dr. Kasarda wishes to add the following disclaimer to the information: These are my opinions based on quite a few years of research in the area of proteins as they relate to celiac disease. They do not necessarily represent those of the Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. If you have any questions or comments regarding the piece, you can address them to Don at: kasarda@pw.usda.gov The only plants demonstrated to have proteins that damage the small intestines of people with celiac disease are those from wheat, rye, and barley (and the man-made wheat-rye cross called triticale). Although oats had generally been considered harmful until 1996, several high quality studies published since then indicate that oats are not harmful either in celiac disease or dermatitis herpetiformis. Some physicians choose not to accept these findings or else point out that there is some potential problem of contamination of oats by wheat. The contamination question has not yet been adequately researched, but may be overemphasized. The three harmful species are members of the grass family and are quite closely related to one another according to various schemes of plant classification (taxonomy). However, not all members of the grass family damage the intestines of celiac patients. Rice and corn, for example, are apparently harmless. Many other grains have not been subjected to controlled testing or to the same scrutiny as wheat, rye, barley, oats, rice, and corn in relation to celiac disease. In fact, only wheat and oats have been extensively studied in controlled experiments with the most up-to-date methods. If we accept corn and rice as safe, however, and this seems reasonable to me, then members of the grass family that are more closely related to these species (on the basis of taxonomy) than to wheat are likely to be safe. Such grasses include sorghum, millet, teff, ragi, and Jobs tears, which appear to be reasonably closely related to corn. In some cases, there are protein studies in support of this conclusion, although the studies are not sufficiently complete to provide more than guidance. Scientifically controlled feeding studies with celiac patients would provide a better answer. However, such studies are not likely to be carried out in the next few years because of high costs and the difficulty of obtaining patient participation (such studies would likely involve intestinal biopsy). In lieu of feeding studies, further studies of protein (and DNA) would provide the next best way to evaluate my suggestion that millet, sorghum, teff, ragi, and Jobs tears are not likely to be toxic in celiac disease, although even such studies are hampered at present by a lack of knowledge of which sequences in the wheat gluten proteins are harmful. There is evidence that a few sequences are harmful, but not all possibilities have yet been tested. The scientific name for bread wheat is Triticum aestivum var. aestivum--the first part of the name defines the genus (Triticum) and the second part, the species (aestivum). Species falling in the genus Triticum are almost certain to be harmful to celiac patients. Grain proteins of these species include the various types characteristic of the gluten proteins found in bread wheats (including the alpha-gliadins) that cause damage to the small intestine in celiac disease. Durum wheats (Triticum turgidum var. durum) used for pasta are also harmful to celiac patients. Some Triticum species of current concern include Triticum aestivum var. spelta (common names include spelt or spelta), Triticum turgidum var. polonicum (common names include Polish wheat, and, recently, Kamut), and Triticum monococcum var. monococcum (common names include einkorn and small spelt). I recommend that celiac patients avoid grain from these species. Also, given their very close relationship to bread and durum wheats, I think it is unlikely that these grains would be safe for those with classical allergic responses to wheat. Rye (Secale cereale) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) are toxic in celiac disease even though these two species are less closely related to bread wheat than spelta and Kamut. They belong to different genera, Secale and Hordeum, respectively, and lack alpha-gliadins, which may be an especially toxic fraction. There have been anecdotal reports suggesting a lack of toxicity in celiac disease for spelta and Kamut, along with anecdotal reports of the opposite, at least in the case of spelt-celiac patients who have been harmed by eating it. Controlled tests would be necessary to draw a firm conclusion, although they hardly seem necessary insofar as spelt and Kamut should be considered forms of wheat. The diagnosis, sometimes self-diagnosis, of celiac disease is occasionally made without benefit of reasonably rigorous medical or clinical tests, especially intestinal biopsy. Individuals who are diagnosed in this way without rigorous testing may not actually have celiac disease. Claims that particular foods cause this latter group no problems in relation to their celiac disease could cause confusion. Furthermore, celiac patients who report no problems in the short run with spelt or Kamut might experience relapse later. There is now adequate evidence that when celiac patients on a gluten-free diet (that is, a diet free of any proteins or peptides from wheat, rye, and barley) have wheat reintroduced to their diets, times-to-relapse vary enormously among individuals, ranging from hours to months, or even years. And this is for wheat, presumably the most toxic of all cereal grains to celiac patients. Additionally, the relapse may not be accompanied by obvious symptoms, but be recognized only by physicians through observation of characteristic changes in the small intestinal tissues obtained by biopsy. The reasons for the enormous variability of response times are not known. It may be speculated that the variability has something to do with the degree of recovery of the lining of the small intestine on a gluten-free diet, the degree of stress that the patient had been experiencing (including infections), and individual genetic differences. As I have indicated, all known grain species that cause problems for celiac patients are members of the grass family. In plant taxonomy, the grass family belongs to the Plant Kingdom Subclass known as monocotyledonous plants (monocots). The only other grouping at the Subclass level is that of dicotyledonous plants (dicots). Some other species about which celiac patients have questions actually are dicots, which places them in very distant relationship to the grass family. Such species include buckwheat, amaranth, quinoa, and rape. The seed of the last plant listed, rape, is not eaten, but an oil is pressed from the seeds that is commonly used in cooking. This oil is being marketed as canola oil. Because of their very distant relationship to the grass family and to wheat, it is highly unlikely that these dicots will contain the same type of protein sequence found in wheat proteins that causes problems for celiac patients. Of course, some quirk of evolution could have given rise in these dicots to proteins with the toxic amino acid sequence found in wheat proteins. But if such concerns were carried to a logical conclusion, celiac patients would have to exclude all plant foods from their diets. For example, buckwheat and rhubarb belong to the same plant family (Polygonaceae). If buckwheat were suspect for celiac patients, should not rhubarb, its close relation, be suspect as well? It may be in order to caution celiac patients that they may have undesirable reactions to any of these foods--reactions that are not related to celiac disease. Allergic reactions may occur to almost any protein, including proteins found in rice, but there is a great deal of individual variation in allergic reactions. Also, buckwheat, for example, has been claimed to contain a photosensitizing agent that will cause some people who have just eaten it to develop a skin rash when they are exposed to sunlight. Quinoa and amaranth may have high oxalate contents-approaching those of spinach and these oxalate levels may cause problems for some people. Such reactions should be looked for, but for most people, buckwheat, quinoa, or amaranth eaten in moderation apparently do not cause problems. (Buckwheat is sometimes found in mixture with wheat, which of course would cause a problem for celiac patients.) It seems no more necessary for all people with celiac disease to exclude buckwheat from their diets because some celiac patients react to it than it would be for all celiac patients to exclude milk from their diets because some celiac patients have a problem with milk. In conclusion, scientific knowledge of celiac disease, including knowledge of the proteins that cause the problem, and the grains that contain these proteins, is in a continuing state of development. There is much that remains to be done. Nevertheless, steady progress has been made over the years. As far as I know, the following statements are a valid description of the state of our knowledge: Spelt or spelta and Kamut are wheats. They have proteins toxic to celiac patients and should be avoided just as bread wheat, durum wheat, rye, barley, and triticale should be avoided. Rice and corn (maize) are not toxic to celiac patients. Certain cereal grains, such as various millets, sorghum, teff, ragi, and Jobs tears are close enough in their genetic relationship to corn to make it likely that these grains are safe for celiac patients to eat. However, significant scientific studies have not been carried out for these latter grains. There is no reason for celiac patients to avoid plant foods that are very distantly related to wheat. These include buckwheat, quinoa, amaranth, and rapeseed oil (canola). Some celiac patients might suffer allergies or other adverse reactions to these grains or foodstuffs made from them, but there is currently no scientific basis for saying that these allergies or adverse reactions have anything to do with celiac disease. A celiac patient may have an allergy to milk, but that does not mean that all celiac patients will have an adverse reaction to milk. Again, however, scientific studies are absent or minimal for these dicots. A list of my publications with pertinence to celiac disease follows. Cross-references to the literature for most of the points discussed above can be found in these publications. Kasarda, D. D., and DOvidio, R. 1999. Amino acid sequence of an alpha-gliadin gene from spelt wheat (Spelta) includes sequences active in celiac disease. Cereal Chem. 76:548-551. Kasarda, D. D. 1997. Celiac Disease. In Syllabus of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, 4th Annual Postgraduate Course, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, pp. 13-21. Kasarda, D. D. 1997. Gluten and gliadin: precipitating factors in coeliac disease. In Coeliac Disease: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Coeliac Disease (September 5-7, 1996), edited by M. Mäkki, P. Collin, and J. K. Visakorpi, Coeliac Disease Study Group, Institute of Medical Technology, University of Tampere,Tampere, Finland, pp. 195-212. Srinivasan, U., Leonard, N., Jones, E., Kasarda, D. D., Weir, D. G., OFarrelly, C., and Feighery, C. 1996. Absence of oats toxicity in coeliac disease. British Medical Journal 313:1300-1301. Tatham, A. S., Fido, R. J., Moore, C. M., Kasarda, D. D., Kuzmicky, D. D., Keen, J. N., and Shewry, P. R. Characterization of the major prolamins of tef (Eragrostis tef) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana). J. Cereal Sci. 24:65-71. 1996. Kasarda, D. D. 1994. Defining cereals toxicity in coeliac disease. In Gastrointestinal Immunology and Gluten-Sensitive Disease, edited by C. Feighery, and F. OFarrelly, Oak Tree Press, Dublin, pp. 203-220. Shewry, P. R., Tatham, A. S., and Kasarda, D. D. 1992. Cereal proteins and coeliac disease. In Coeliac Disease, edited by M. N. Marsh, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, U. K., pp. 305-348. De Ritis, G., Auricchio, S., Jones, H. W., Lew, E. J.-L., Bernardin, J. E. and Kasarda, D. D. 1988. In vitro (organ culture) studies of the toxicity of specific A-gliadin peptides in celiac disease. Gastroenterology 94:41-49. Kagnoff, M. F., Patterson, Y. J., Kumar, P. J., Kasarda, D. D., Carbone, F. R., Unsworth, D. J. and Austin, R. K. 1987. Evidence for the role of a human intestinal adenovirus in the pathogenesis of celiac disease. Gut 28:995-1001. Levenson, S. D., Austin, R. K., Dietler, M. D., Kasarda, D. D. and Kagnoff, M. F. 1985. Specificity of antigliadin antibody in celiac disease. Gastroenterology 89: 1-5. Kagnoff, M. F., Austin, R. K., Hubert, J. J., Bernardin, J. E. and Kasarda, D. D. 1984. Possible role for a human adenovirus in the pathogenesis of celiac disease. J. Exp. Med. 160: 1544-1557. Grains in Relation to Celiac (Coeliac) Disease by Donald D. Kasarda. An annotated copy: http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/topics/
  5. Dr. Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.

    It's Not Just Me

    Celiac.com 02/14/2017 - In 1999, Loren Cordain, the renowned professor of Exercise Physiology at Colorado State University who has since popularized the Paleodiet, published an extensive exploration of why our cultivation and consumption of cereal grains has been disastrous for the human race, resulting in many autoimmune, nutrient deficiency, and other modern diseases (1). Previously, in 1987, the famous physiologist, Jared Diamond characterized humanity's shift to agriculture as "The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race" (2). A year later, medical doctor and professor of Anthropology, S. Boyd Eaton and colleagues suggested a mismatch between the human genome and our current agricultural diet/lifestyle (3). And more than a decade prior to that, gastroenterologist, Walter L. Voegtlin, M.D., self published a book apparently asserting, based on his treatments and observations of patients, that dietary avoidance of cereal grains and sugars, offset by increased consumption of meats and animal fats, is an effective treatment regimen for a variety of intestinal ailments including Crohn's disease, colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, and indigestion (4). Each of these perspectives was informed by a different but solidly scientific approach to human health. The academic field of each of these authors varied from Exercise Physiology to Physiology, to Gastroenterology, to Anthropology. Yet each of these specialist researchers arrived at the very similar conclusion that cereal grains are not healthful foods for humans. Their strident declarations to that effect leave little room for doubt. Dr. Cordain acknowledges that the roots of some of his thinking lie with Dr. Eaton and his colleagues. Nonetheless, there is a convergence here, of ideas and insights drawn from separate bodies of data and investigative approaches. While there is some overlap between these scientific disciplines, they all lead to a clear indictment of cereal grains as little more than a starvation food for humans. These scientists point to myriad signs of illness that arise more commonly when populations make the transition to eating diets dominated by grains, especially when the grains are refined and when they are combined with sugar. One critic of this paradigm is the evolutionary biologist, Dr. Marlene Zuk of the University of California at Riverside. According to Alison George at New Scientist, Zuk asserts that the 10,000 years that humans have been cultivating and consuming cereal grains is an adequate time period for humans to evolve an adaptation to these foods (5). But surely this is a Eurocentric view. Simply because some Europeans have been cultivating and consuming cereal grains for ten or more thousands of years does not mean that the entire world's population, or even all Europeans, would or could have adapted to consuming these foods. Let's look back to see what we currently know about our human roots and how those early humans spread all over the world. A group thought to number about 200 humans left Africa sometime between 85,000 and 70,000 years ago, during a glacial maximum that lowered worldwide sea levels by about 300 feet below current levels. The enormous glaciers of the time so depleted the oceanic barriers we see today, that these bodies of water were made navigable even with very primitive flotation devices. The progeny of this relatively small group of early modern people multiplied and went on to parent almost all of today's non-African people of the world with some 1% to 4% of today's human, non-African genes having been derived from the Neanderthal branch of the hominid tree (6). This predominantly early modern human group's progeny would quickly find its way to Australia, the South Pacific, across Asia, to China, east to the Americas and west across India, finally arriving in Europe, where they would supplant the long-time Neanderthal residents who had survived some of Europe's harsh and inhospitable glaciations but apparently could not survive having our forebears as neighbors. While specific paths and dates for exiting Africa, and worldwide patterns and timing of human distribution remain controversial, most experts now accept that indigenous Australians had arrived there at least 60,000 years ago (6). A similarly recent finding places people in the Americas by at least 55,000 years ago, long prior to the date at which the Bering Land Bridge was thought to be available for human movement from Siberia into the Americas (8). This newer, admittedly controversial date raises the likely possibility that people arrived in the Americas, from Asia, by boats or rafts on which they followed the shoreline east to what is now Alaska, then south of the glaciated wastelands of much of what is now Canada. (Or perhaps they arrived by some other means that we have not yet imagined.) But only a small portion of these early Americans would eat wheat, rye, oats, or barley before the last 200 years or so, especially those living on the Great American Plains, or in the frigid north, the dense jungles or places that were otherwise isolated from the encroaching wave of "immigrants" from Europe and beyond. And none of those aboriginal peoples of the Americas were eating these grains prior to 1492. The epidemics of autoimmunity and obesity that may be seen among indigenous Americans are clear reflections of their recent shift to the gastronomic wonders of foods derived from these European grains. Further, even among Europeans, grain cultivation and consumption had not uniformly spread across most of Europe until, at most, less than half of the 10,000 years that Zuk says would be sufficient for human adaptation. In Britain, for instance, grain farming was only getting under way about 4,000 years ago, and availability of grains varied according to local geographies and economies. Also, in parts of Scandanavia, wheat bread was a rare treat until after World War II. Some Europeans are thought to have been cultivating grains for even longer than the 10,000 years ago suggested by Cordain, but the evidence is contradictory and accompanied by a range of expert opinions. Further, the health consequences of this nutritional path are consistently seen in the skeletal remains of those early farmers, many of which can now be seen reflected among indigenous peoples of the Americas, as they assimilate our grain and sugar dominated diet. Adaptation to eating grains is not a gentle, joyful process. Early farmers may have produced many more children than their hunting and gathering neighbors, but their lives were shorter, their bodies were less robust, with substantial reductions in stature, and they experienced widespread infectious diseases and ailments driven by nutritional deficiencies. By the time grains became a cash crop for many European farmers, cereals were disproportionately consumed by affluent urbanites. Those who were large consumers of cereal grains did not include all Europeans, even where yields were prodigious. In more remote, northerly, or mountainous areas, cereal grains, or foods made from them, were likely a rare treat rather than a daily staple. Jared Diamond points out, that in addition to "..... malnutrition, starvation, and epidemic diseases, farming helped bring another curse upon humanity: deep class divisions." He goes on to argue that only with farming and the storage and accumulation of food can Kings "and other social parasites grow fat on food seized from others". He also presents evidence that farming led to inequality between men and women. Conversely, contemporary hunter-gatherers have repeatedly been shown to be quite egalitarian, both regarding gender and political leadership (9). Roger Lewin is another critic of the health impact of European grain cultivation on humans. He points out that even in the very heart of the Fertile Crescent, where agriculture got its start, there was not a uniform adoption of farming. One agricultural center at Abu Hureyra, experienced two cycles of abandonment, one at 8,100 B.C.E., lasting about 500 years, and another at 5,000 B.C.E. These periods when agriculture at this locale was abandoned are "thought to be related to climatic change that became less and less conducive to agriculture" (10). Lewin also harkens to Mark Nathan Cohen's collation of "physical anthropological data that appear to show increasingly poor nutritional status coincident with the beginnings of agriculture.... " (10) suggesting, again, that grains were a starvation food. Eaton et al also approach grain cultivation from an anthropological perspective, suggesting that increased dietary protein and fats from animal/meat sources likely gave rise to increased stature of earlier humans, along with providing the necessary fatty acids for building larger brains, and allowing smaller gut sizes over the past 2.5 million years. It seems reasonable to assume that if it took our pre-historic ancestors that long to adapt to eating meats and animal fats, the very irregular adaptation period of between less than one hundred years and about 10,000 years that various world populations have been cultivating and consuming wheat, rye, barley and oats would be insufficient to allow full adaptation to eating these immune sensitizing cereal grains. Dr. Zuk's perspective might be tempered a bit if she considers that Europeans and their descendants do not comprise the entirety of the world's populations. There are several Asian populations that are not insignificant when compared with European populations and their progeny, including the residents of China, India, Pakistan, and South-East Asia. Even among those of us who appear quite European, there may be a mixture of genes derived from peoples of any of the other five populated continents. The approximately 10,000 year maximum period since humans began to cultivate cereal grains would have little adaptive impact on populations that have only been exposed to these grains for a period of somewhere between four or five centuries and seven or eight decades, as is the case among the indigenous people of the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, and much of Asia (6). Even if all humans had been cultivating and consuming cereal grains for the 10,000 years since this practice was first begun in the Middle East, the high frequency of intestinal, autoimmune, and other diseases that can be mitigated by a gluten free diet, even among descendants of Europeans, leaves little room to doubt that Dr. Zuk's projected adaptation simply has not occurred. The current prevalence of celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity identifies, at a bare minimum, between 7% and 12% of the American population that has not adapted to cereal grain consumption. While a few research projects suggest that molecular mimicry and the opioids from cereal grains contribute to autoimmunity, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardio-vascular disease, current research does not provide any clear sense of how many cases or to what degree these health conditions are driven by gluten consumption. We know that foods derived from cereal grains are often laced with refined sugar, but the insulin stimulating properties of gluten alone are such that their role in these conditions cannot, reasonably, be denied. I feel vindicated by these many experts who decry the folly in humanity's embrace of the European grains. I wonder how long it will take for this information to filter into, and be acknowledged by, those who claim that science has led them to advocate cereal grain consumption for everyone without celiac disease and, more recently, non celiac gluten sensitivity? Sources: Cordain, Loren. Simopoulos AP (ed): Evolutionary Aspects of Nutrition and Health. Diet, Exercise, Genetics and Chronic Disease. World Rev Nutr Diet. Basel, Karger, 1999, vol 84, pp 19–73 http://thepaleodiet.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Cerealgrainhumanitydoublesword.pdf Jared Diamond, "The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race," Discover Magazine, May 1987, pp. 64-66. http://www.ditext.com/diamond/mistake.html Eaton SB, Konner M, Shostak M. Stone agers in the fast lane: chronic degenerative diseases in evolutionary perspective. Am J Med. 1988 Apr;84(4):739-49. Voegtlin, Walter L. (1975). The stone age diet: Based on in-depth studies of human ecology and the diet of man. Vantage Press. ISBN 0-533-01314-3 George, A. " The Paleo Diet Is a Paleo Fantasy" New Scientist. April 7, 2013. http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/new_scientist/2013/04/marlene_zuk_s_paleofantasy_book_diets_and_exercise_based_on_ancient_humans.single.html Oppenheimer, Stephen. The Real Eve: Modern Man's Journey Out of Africa. Basic Books, NY, NY. 2004 Fagan, Brian. Cro-Magnon: How the Ice Age Gave Birth to the First Modern Humans. Bloomsbury Press, New York. 2011 http://www.utep.edu/leb/Pleistnm/sites/pendejocave.htm Brody, Hugh. The Other Side of Eden: Hunters, Farmers and the Shaping of the World. Douglas 7 McIntyre Ltd., Vancouver, B.C., Canada. 2000 Lewin, Roger. A Revolution of Ideas in Agricultural Origins. Science. vol 240, May 20, 1988
  6. Celiac.com 10/18/2016 - Whole grains, including gluten-free grains, have never been more popular, but as their fortunes grow as a whole, that of wheat is diminishing. The whole grains category includes both gluten-free grains, such as quinoa and other ancient grains, and gluten grains, such as barley, rye and triticale, but wheat products have never been less popular, and continue their downward sales slide. This year, 1,282 new products have registered for the Whole Grain Stamp so far, a pace set to meet or beat last year's record of 2,122 new products; up from 1,666 in 2014 and 1,622 in 2013, according to Cynthia Harriman, director of food and nutrition strategies at the Whole Grains Council. More than half of new products with the Whole Grain Stamp had a gluten-free first ingredient last year, an increase over 33% in 2007 to 2009, according to Harriman. However, even as scientists question the claimed benefits of gluten-free foods, such as weight loss, for people without celiac disease, many consumers are eating gluten-free foods "just for the variety," Harriman said. Either way, the market for gluten-free foods is set to approach $5 billion by 2021, up from $2.84 billion in 2014. Going forward, more of that market will go to gluten-free grains, lees to wheat. Flour used to be the main way consumers bought whole grains, but now consumers and manufacturers are embracing complete, minimally processed whole grains, which can improve product textures, flavors and health benefits. Sprouted grains are also receiving more attention and are expected to generate product sales of $250 million by 2018. Overall, 27% of consumers say they are eating more whole grains than they did six months ago, according to a recent survey. Read more at Fooddive.com.
  7. A few months before my 22nd birthday and college graduation (late March), I started noticing daily GI issues including gas, bloating and diarrhea . I passed most of this off on the quality of the food at my school's dining hall, but once I moved out, the symptoms did not cease. In April, I went in to see the school nurse for a UTI, and as part of standard procedure, they sent the test offsite for further analysis. Later that week I received an email from the Nurse Practitioner that I had also tested positive for E. Coli, but the MacroBid I had been prescribed for the UTI should also work on the E. Coli. (Maybe of note, I was in Belize, Mexico, and Honduras for a week in early March). Took the antibiotics, and symptoms did not resolve. After graduation, I went on the Whole 30 diet to cut out soy, grains (including gluten), and dairy (I have been mildly lactose-intolerant for over a decade). My symptoms almost all but disappeared. After, I went back to eating indiscriminately, and my GI issues seemed to worsen exponentially. In July, I went to my GP and ended up doing a stool sample so she could have me tested again for E. Coli, but the test was negative. I have tried for the most part to cut gluten and dairy from my diet, but now even other grains, such as rice, give me problems where I had none in the past. Garlic is also a new problem, and has my gut feel like a gurgling hot tub. Just this past week (Mid-September), chicken pan-fried in coconut oil (with which I cooked during the Whole 30 program without issue) seems to have me running to the bathroom about 30-60 min after consumption. In the past month, eggs are giving me trouble as well. I'm scheduled to see a GI in DC in October, but looking for relief and advice in the mean time. My symptoms range from gas to diarrhea to abdominal pain, but have never included constipation. (Maybe of note, I had a strange rash on my nose that took several week to heal recently, closely resembled rug-burn, scabbing, and neosporin seemed to help a bit, but its still not back to normal). Any advice would be very welcome!
  8. being new to this, I have started avoiding gluten and dairy. I seem to be sensitive to other foods like corn, tomatoes, bananas, and possibly grains and sugars. I still get puffy in the face whenever I eat certain things. other than blood testing, does any meds help with this? Also, is gas X gel tablets ultra strength gluten free?
  9. Dr. Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.

    Gluten Grains are a Problematic Food for Humans

    Celiac.com 01/26/2016 - One part of our natural protection from the microbes and toxins in our environment is the innate part of our immune systems. This includes everything from our skin, to the mucous we produce in various tissues which engulfs unwanted or harmful particles, isolating them and ultimately expelling them from the body in fecal matter and mucous, such as from our sinuses. While our immune systems have other components, it is the innate system that provides most of our protection from the world outside our bodies. The intestinal mucosa is very much a part of this system. Thus, since Hollon et al found that "Increased intestinal permeability after gliadin exposure occurs in all individuals" (1), there should be little doubt that humans are not well adapted to consuming these storage proteins from wheat, or gliadin's near relatives from rye and barley. Anyone eating these grains is opening a portal into their bloodstreams so toxins, microbes, along with undigested and partly digested proteins can enter their circulation. Without gliadin's impact, these various substances would probably not have entered the bloodstream and would have been wasted with feces. Just as few of us would ever consider putting fecal matter on an open wound, neither would we knowingly introduce this same material into the bloodstream through the intestinal wall. Yet, that is the net effect of humans consuming gluten grains. We are giving microbes access to our circulation. These harmful substances may be destroyed by other parts of our immune systems. Or perhaps we will develop episodic or chronic inflammation, leading to vascular damage where plaques can accumulate to cause atherosclerosis. Or the inflammation may use up available serotonin and its precursor, tryptophan, leading to depression. Or this they may cause one of the many other forms of damage that can be induced by inflammation. Or perhaps these infectious agents will manifest in other ailments, the causes of which will often remain obscure, as they degrade our health. Just one example of this risk can be found in a recent report in which antibiotic resistant staph infections were detected in 13% of pasteurized milk samples, and in 75% of raw milk samples (2). The acid in our stomachs, another part of the innate immune system, may provide some protection against this hazard. On the other hand, microbes that have gained entrance into the circulation have also been implicated in some cases of arthritis, where the infectious agent binds to proteins in synovial fluid. Selective antibodies then target these complexes, causing damage to both the invader and the self tissues (3, 4). Toxins, especially those from insecticides and other chemicals likely to be found in or on our food supply are also cause for concern. Although most cases of organophosphate insecticide poisoning were the result of suicide attempts, these substances are widely used on a variety of food crops, and can be very dangerous (5). After all, both herbicides and pesticides are designed to kill small organisms. Because of our size, we may require more of these substances to get the job done but we, too, are organisms. One component of such substances is inorganic arsenic, which can also be found in natural rock deposits, some wood preservatives, rice, and sea foods, any or all of which can find its way to our bloodstreams (7) especially if we consume gluten grains. Of particular concern is that rice is often a staple of the gluten-free diet and it has been shown to have a strong affinity for inorganic arsenic, which "is a chronic, non-threshold carcinogen" (7). Thus, unlike smoking tobacco, even the smallest dose can result in cancer. Further, there are many areas of the United States where the groundwater is significantly contaminated with arsenic (8). Either drinking such water or excessive dietary reliance on rice grown in such a contaminated area can result in arsenic poisoning, as reported by Signes-Pastor et al (7) in a housewife in Saudi Arabia, who had celiac disease and relied heavily on rice. These authors first suspected dietary non-compliance until urine tests revealed an arsenic concentration at 46 times the highest value of the normal range (7). Her symptoms included: "progressive fatigue, profound watery diarrhea (12 times/d), palpitation, dry mouth, poor appetite, poor taste, sleeplessness, impaired concentration, and short-term memory" (7). Proteins from outside our bodies are eschewed by our selective immune systems, identifying them as foreign, and mount an attack against these "aliens". So any undigested proteins from the foods we eat, if they arrive in our bloodstream, are going to result in the mobilization of antibodies aimed at the destruction of these proteins. This sounds like a process for developing an allergic response against common foods. However, some proteins are worse than others. Gliadin, for instance, has long been recognized as harmful to many human cells (9). Humans also lack the necessary enzymes to fully digest it (10). Thus, after gliadin has caused increased zonulin production, leading to increased intestinal permeability, it can enter the bloodstream and travel to various tissues and organs where this undigested or partly digested family of proteins will induce one or more of their range of damaging impacts on the cells each molecule contacts. Dolfini et al have also reported that gliadin "induces an imbalance in the antioxidative mechanism of cells" (11) and it wreaks havoc on human cells by changing their shape, structure, and reducing their viability, as well as inhibiting enzyme production within the cell and/or inducing cell death (11). Since some humans have been consuming these grains for more than 10,000 years, one might expect that we would have evolved a digestive tract that could neutralize this threat to our wellness. Unfortunately, the issue isn't that simple. Only a small segment of the human population started cultivating gluten grains so long ago. The early development of this agriculture was also very localized and episodic. It would begin in one area then, for some unknown reason, the fields would be abandoned after some period of time. Then it would (excuse the pun) crop up in another, nearby area of the Fertile Crescent (what is now parts of Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, and Egypt). The net result was that it took some time before cereal agriculture was a thriving concern. This may be explained by the illnesses that are reflected in the bones of those early farmers (11). Gluten grains appear to have taken a much greater toll on their health than it does on us now, so some adaptation has probably occurred. Nonetheless, once grain cultivation got a good start, it spread fairly quickly across Europe, arriving in England by about 5,000 years ago. Populations living in environments that were not conducive to grain cultivation, either due to climate or soil conditions would wait much longer to incorporate gluten grains as a staple in their diets. Modern transportation systems were required to bring this crippling food to some doorsteps in Scandanavia, parts of Scotland and Ireland, and many other such environments throughout Europe. However, even in those halcyon days when the sun never set on the British Empire, Europeans really weren't the only people on the planet. They may have behaved as if they were, but that's an issue for another discussion. In the meantime, the bulk of the world's population had not eaten gluten grains until much more recently, when Europeans "shared" these grains almost everywhere they traveled. Most of the populations these Europeans met during their travels had also missed out on the many European plagues, including bubonic plague, smallpox, and typhoid fever, as well as the filthy living conditions that were common in Europe. These conditions had selected only those with the most vigorous immune systems to carry on as Europeans. When gifts such as smallpox-infected blankets were given to natives, these naive populations succumbed, in large numbers. Further, only a small percentage of these naive populations who were very recently introduced to gluten were developing celiac disease. For instance, only about 5.6% of Saharawi children of Northern Africa had developed celiac disease when tested by Dr. Catassi and colleagues some 50 years or so after they had begun to eat gluten (12). European "explorers" probably didn't really notice such illnesses among their grain-naive hosts. Nobody had the technology or the medical understanding to identify celiac disease or the many neurological ailments that gluten causes anyway. Many of us still deal with deep wells of medical ignorance, in the context of a very modern medical system, when it comes to our disease, so how could we expect anything more from those sea-faring Europeans of four or five centuries ago? Perhaps those gluten derived opioids probably felt pretty good to people who tried gluten. Whatever the reason, the rest of the world seems to have adopted Europe's dietary choices, pursuing the "comfort" of gluten grains while developing myriad forms of autoimmune disease, neurological dysfunction, gastrointestinal complaint, and a variety of other ailments. And most of the people I encounter would rather deny the health risks than give up donuts, cake, pie, and toast (13). Note: I'm proud to announce that I've been given the privilege of reviewing a new book that will be published early next year, under the Touchstone imprint, by Simon and Schuster. I will be writing about some interesting new insights this exciting book offers into the world of gluten sensitivity in the next issue of the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. Sources: Hollon J, Puppa EL, Greenwald B, Goldberg E, Guerrerio A, Fasano A. Effect of Gliadin on Permeability of Intestinal Biopsy Explants from Celiac Disease Patients and Patients with Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity. Nutrients 2015, 7, 1565-1576. Akindolire MA, Babalola OO, and Ateba CN. Detection of Antibiotic Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Milk: A Public Health Implication. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 10254-10275. Li S, Yu Y, Koehn celiac disease, Zhang Z, Su K. Galectins in the Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis. J Clin Cell Immunol. 2013 Sep 30;4(5). Cordain L, Toohey L, Smith MJ, Hickey MS. Modulation of immune function by dietary lectins in rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Nutr. 2000 Mar;83(3):207-17. Coskun R, Gundogan K, Sezgin GC, Topaloglu US, Hebbar G, Guven M, Sungur M. A retrospective review of intensive care management of organophosphate insecticide poisoning: Single center experience. Niger J Clin Pract. 2015 Sep-Oct;18(5):644-50. Hasanato RM, Almomen AM. Unusual presentation of arsenic poisoning in a case of celiac disease. Ann Saudi Med. 2015 Mar-Apr;35(2):165-7. Signes-Pastor AJ, Carey M, Meharg AA. Inorganic arsenic in rice-based products for infants and young children. Food Chem. 2016 Jan 15;191:128-34. United States Geological Survey. 2005. Arsenic in ground water in the United States. http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/trace/arsenic/ Last Modified: Thursday, 17-Nov-2011 Hudson DA, Purdham DR, Cornell HJ, Rolles CJ. Non specific cytotoxicity of wheat gliadin components towards cultured human cells. Lancet 1976; 1: 339-341. Kagnoff M. Private communication. 2005 Dolfini E, Elli L, Roncoroni L, Costa B, Colleoni MP, Lorusso V, Ramponi S,Braidotti P, Ferrero S, Falini ML, Bardella MT. Damaging effects of gliadin on three-dimensional cell culture model. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Oct 14;11(38):5973-7. Rätsch IM, Catassi C. Coeliac disease: a potentially treatable health problem of Saharawi refugee children. Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79(6):541-5. Cordain L. Cereal grains: humanity's double-edged sword. World Rev Nutr Diet. 1999;84:19-73.
  10. Carol Fenster, Ph.D.

    Whole Grains for a Gluten-Free Diet

    This article originally appeared in the Autumn 2007 edition of Celiac.com's Journal of Gluten-Sensitivity. Celiac.com 03/19/2015 - Almost half of Americans eat no whole grains at all and those who do eat them only consume a single serving per day—far below the 3 to 5 daily servings recommended by the USDA. People often tell me, "I might eat more whole grains if I just knew which ones to choose and how to prepare them." There are many wholesome, gluten-free grains that add flavor, variety, and texture to our diet and—if you read this article—you'll know which ones to choose and you'll learn some easy ways to prepare them at home. A Quick Definition of Whole Grain What is a whole grain? Scientists use technical explanations, but to me it means the WHOLE grain or seed with everything intact and nothing removed. A whole grain contains the outside layer of bran and fiber, the middle layer or germ which contains important nutrients such as B-vitamins, and the inner part called the endosperm which provides energy and carbohydrates. Many whole grains are also naturally gluten-free, including amaranth, brown rice (but not white rice because the outer layers are milled away), buckwheat, hominy, millet, quinoa, sorghum, and teff. These grains are generally available at your natural food store. Some of these grains—such as buckwheat—are actually seeds of fruit but we treat them as grains in cooking. Gluten-free whole oats (or oat groats as they're typically called) are whole grain and are available from www.bobsredmill.com and www.creamhillestates.com. Be sure to check with your physician to see if these gluten-free oats are right for you. Whole Grains for Breakfast When we think of grains, we think of cereal. And, when we think of cereal, we automatically think of breakfast, so let's start there. Whole grains make terrific hot cereal, but they take a while to cook and most people don't have that much time in the morning. Of course, you can always cook whole grains the traditional way on the stovetop the night before, if you have time. In my latest book, Gluten-Free Quick & Easy, I encourage ways to more easily incorporate whole grains into our diets with minimal time investment. This is the perfect opportunity to pull that slow cooker out from the back shelf of your pantry or to invest in a pressure cooker. The slow cooker cooks the whole grains overnight or the pressure cooker does it quickly the night before. Slow Cooker Grains. Put 1 cup of any of the whole grains mentioned above, 3 ½ to 4 cups water, and ¼ teaspoon salt in a slow cooker. Cook on low all night and the next morning you have hot, cooked whole grains for breakfast. The grains will have softened and resemble porridge because they absorbed lots of water. Pressure Cooker Grains. Be sure to follow your pressure cooker's directions. Lorna Sass, in her James Beard award-winning cookbook, Whole Grains: Every Day, Every Way, suggests using 4 cups water, 1 tablespoon vegetable oil, and ½ teaspoon salt for each 1 cup of whole grain. Brown rice can be ready in 15 minutes while gluten-free oat groats take 30 minutes, but these times are significantly shorter than traditional cooking times. You can cook the grains while you're preparing dinner or after the dinner dishes are done. Drain any extra water from the grains and refrigerate the cooked grains before you go to bed. Unlike the slow cooker method, which produces a more porridge-like consistency, whole grains cooked in a pressure cooker more closely resemble their original shape. Cooked whole grains keep refrigerated for about a week. I simply reheat the refrigerated cooked grains in the microwave oven. Regardless of whether I cook the grains in a slow cooker or pressure cooker, I like to mix them with honey, agave nectar, brown rice syrup, chopped nuts, or brown sugar and a sprinkle of cinnamon and flax meal for a marvelous breakfast that is packed with fiber and nutrients. If you would like to make your own breakfast porridge with the sweeteners and fruit cooked in it, try my easy Slow Cooker Brown Rice Porridge recipe (page 12). Whole Grains as Side Dishes Whole grains such as brown rice, buckwheat, millet, quinoa, and sorghum stand in nicely for savory side dishes made from rice, couscous, wheatberries, and bulgur. And, the new gluten-free whole oat groats make nice side dishes as well. You will find an excellent Toasted Oat Pilaf recipe at www.bobsredmill.com that demonstrates how to use the new gluten-free steel-cut oats as a savory dish. The basic idea is to add herbs and seasonings to the cooked whole grains in the same way and in the same amounts as you would add them to cooked rice, couscous, wheatberries, or bulgur. Any recipe that uses these grains can be adapted to use your favorite gluten-free whole grains. Want to Learn More about Whole Grains? If you would like to know more about the whole grain stamp used on store-bought foods, go to www.wholegrainscouncil.org. Or, if you want to learn more about nutritional content of gluten-free grains, see Gluten-Free Diet: a Comprehensive Resource Guide by Shelley Case, RD, (Expanded Edition, Case Nutrition Consulting, 2006). To learn more about cooking whole grains using a variety of methods, see Whole Grains: Every Day, Every Way, by Lorna Sass (Clarkson Potter, 2006). Not all of the grains are gluten-free, but the cooking instructions and innovative preparation techniques for the gluten-free grains are very helpful.
  11. I am always amused by the argument that one grain or another is more likely to be contaminated than another, as I believe the real source of danger for contamination is found at mills and processing plants, and is more or less spread out equally for most gluten-free grains. Oats are often cited as having a higher chance of cross-contamination with wheat than other grains because it is often a rotational crop with wheat or barley, and kernels of these gluten-containing grains occasionally get mixed with the non-gluten grains. I do not understand why the same people who make this claim do no also include soy in this category, as it is one of the crops that is most commonly rotated with wheat. In any case, from the knowledge that I have gathered over the years about farming and processing grains, I must say that with most grains there is little likelihood of contamination due to the mixing of two different whole grains (i.e., the rotational crop hypothesis). This is due to the different sizes and shapes of different grains, and the machines which sort them after a harvest. If any grains do get mixed together the amount of actual contamination would likely be extremely low. In Trevor Pizzeys (Vice President of Operations for Can-Oat Milling) October 30, 1998 letter he expresses his belief that celiacs should avoid oats because he finds between 2.1 and 4.1 kernels of barley or wheat in every 4,000 (0.0525% and 0.1025% respectively). He says that this level can legally go up to a maximum level of 10 kernels per 4,000 (0.25%). In either of these scenarios we are talking about very low amounts. Even at these amounts the likelihood that a celiac eating these grains would eat 1 or 2 kernels of wheat or barley on a given day would be very, very low. Also, since most people who eat oatmeal tend to eat the whole oatmeal as a hot cereal, which means they can take very simple additional precautions to make their chances of eating any kernels of wheat or barley practically zero. The obvious way to do this is to look at the oats before you eat them or mill them and pull out any kernels that are of non-oat type. Now we turn to the other part of the argument to scare people away from grains that, taken by themselves, do not cause harm to people with celiac disease. This is the wheat dust in the mill (or during transport, or somewhere else) argument. There are many reasons, both health and safety, why mills take steps to keep dust levels down. Dust contamination is still possible, but I think we are also talking about even lower amounts that we were with the occasional kernel of wheat that pops up in oats, although there is no data that I know of to back this up. I think with whole oats (i.e., oatmeal) people can reduce any possible risk of wheat-dust contamination to almost zero by rinsing off their oats well with water before cooking or milling them. The famous oat study that was done in Finland and published in the NEJM used a source of non-contaminated oats to eliminate any possible factors that could ruin the results of their long and expensive study. It is possible that they could have used regular, uncontrolled Quaker oats for their study and gotten the same results, but again, the reasons for not doing so were to eliminate any possible factors that might affect the results of their study. This is the scientific process, and it is important with any study to eliminate any possible factors which could affect the outcome of the study. Last, there is a danger of contamination which comes from unclean equipment at mills, and at processing plants. This danger is present with any gluten-free grain, bean, etc., that is milled using the same equipment as is used to mill a gluten-containing grain. In other words we cannot speak of only oats with regard to this issue, as rice flour, soy flour, etc., could be contaminated equally in this way. Aside from legislation to require cleaning between milling runs, those who are worried about this need to buy flours from mills which they have researched and found to be gluten-free, or ones that adequately clean their equipment between runs. I think contamination issues are real, but need to be put in perspective with regard to other, perhaps more important issues, like labeling laws and getting agreement between the major celiac organizations in this country with regard to which grains are safe. See Also: Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Dec. 1997 v97n12p1413(4). Do oats belong in a gluten-free diet? by Tricia Thompson.
  12. This article originally appeared in the Spring 2003 edition of Celiac.com's Journal of Gluten-Sensitivity. -Yes, there’s more to life than rice and corn! Variety, it’s been said, is the spice of life. So what’s a person to do when they’re told to eliminate wheat and/or gluten from their diet? Most turn to rice, corn, and potatoes—an adequate set of starches, but ones that are sorely lacking in nutrients, flavor, and imagination. The superheroes of gluten-free grains are often referred to as “ancient” or alternative grains, which are loaded with nutrients and unique, interesting flavors. The following is a condensed excerpt from my newly published book, Wheat-Free, Worry-Free: The Art of Happy, Healthy, Gluten-Free Living. “Alternative” Grains: The Superheroes of Gluten-Free Grains If you’re an adventuresome eater, you’re in for a treat. In searching for alternatives to wheat, rye, or barley, you’ll discover a variety of wheat-free/gluten-free grains that you may never have heard of before, many of them loaded with nutrients and robust flavors not found in typical grains like wheat and rice. If you’re not the adventurous type and you just long for the ease of a few tried-and-true favorites, you’ll find them here as well. Perhaps you fall into still another category—you’ve been eating a wheat or gluten-free diet for a while and you think you already know everything there is to know. Okay, what’s quinoa, and how the heck is it pronounced? Is teff wheat-free? Do Job’s Tears have religious significance? If you don’t know the answers to these questions, or if you think ragi is a spaghetti sauce and sorghum is what you get when you have your teeth cleaned, it’s time to move on to lesson one. Alternative Grains and Non-Grains Even if you can’t eat wheat, rye, barley, or oats, there are several other grains, fruits, and legumes that are not only acceptable alternatives to them, but they also happen to be loaded with flavor and nutrients. Here are some of the many choices available to those on a wheat and gluten-free diet (WF/gluten-free): Amaranth (WF/gluten-free) Buckwheat/groats/kasha (WF/gluten-free) Cassava (arrowroot) (WF/gluten-free) Chickpea (garbanzo) (WF/gluten-free) Job’s Tears (WF/gluten-free) Millet (WF/gluten-free) Montina (WF/gluten-free) Oats (WF/gluten-free, but oats can be contaminated with wheat and other grains) Quinoa (WF/gluten-free) Ragi (WF/gluten-free) Rice (WF/gluten-free; only brown rice is whole grain) Sorghum (WF/gluten-free) Soy (WF/gluten-free) Tapioca (WF/gluten-free) Taro root (WF/gluten-free) Teff (WF/gluten-free) Many of the proteins found in these alternatives are a great source of complex carbohydrates. The fuel from these carbohydrates, found in plant kingdom starches, produces what nutritionists call a protein-sparing effect, which means the body can meet its energy requirements without dipping into its protein reserves. Several of these alternative grains and non-grains are high in lysine, an amino acid that controls protein absorption in the body. Because this amino acid is absent from most grains, the protein fraction of those grains is utilized only if eaten in conjunction with other foods that do contain lysine. All high protein grains are better utilized by the body when they are eaten with high-lysine foods such as peas, beans, amaranth, or buckwheat. Amaranth (WF/gluten-free): Loaded with fiber and more protein than any traditional grain, amaranth is nutritious and delicious, with a pleasant peppery flavor. The name means “not withering,” or more literally, “immortal.” While it may not make you immortal, it is extremely healthful, especially with its high lysine and iron content. Buckwheat (groat; kasha) (WF/gluten-free): It sounds as though it would be closely related to wheat, but buckwheat is not related to wheat at all. In fact, it’s not even a grain; it’s a fruit of the Fagopyrum genus, a distant cousin of garden-variety rhubarb, and its seed is the plant’s strong point. The buckwheat seed has a three-cornered shell that contains a pale kernel known as a “groat.” In one form or another, groats have been used as food by people since the 10th century b.c. Nutritionally, buckwheat is a powerhouse. It contains a high proportion of all eight essential amino acids, which the body doesn’t make itself but are still essential for keeping the body functioning. In that way, buckwheat is closer to being a complete protein than any other plant source. Whole white buckwheat is naturally dried and has a delicate flavor that makes it a good stand-in for rice or pasta. Kasha is the name given to roasted hulled buckwheat kernels. Kasha is toasted in an oven and tossed by hand until the kernels develop a deep tan color, nutlike flavor, and a slightly scorched smell. Be aware, however, that buckwheat is sometimes combined with wheat. Read labels carefully before purchasing buckwheat products. Millet (WF/gluten-free): Millet is said by some to be more ancient than any grain that grows. Where it was first cultivated is disputed, but native legends tell of a wild strain known as Job’s Tears that grows in the Philippines and sprouted “at the dawn of time.” Millet is still well respected in Africa, India, and China, where it is considered a staple. Here in the United States, it is raised almost exclusively for hay, fodder, and birdseed. One might consider that to be a waste, especially when considering its high vitamin and mineral content. Rich in phosphorus, iron, calcium, riboflavin, and niacin, a cup of cooked millet has nearly as much protein as wheat. It is also high in lysine—higher than rice, corn, or oats. Millet is officially a member of the Gramineae (grass) family and as such is related to montina. Montina (Indian Rice Grass) (WF/gluten-free): Indian rice grass was a dietary staple of Native American cultures in the Southwest and north through Montana and into Canada more than 7,000 years ago, even before maize (corn) was cultivated. Similar to maize, montina was a good substitute during years when maize crops failed or game was in short supply. It has a hearty flavor, and is loaded with fiber and protein. Quinoa (“KEEN-wah”) (WF/gluten-free): The National Academy of Science described quinoa as “the most nearly perfect source of protein from the vegetable kingdom.” Although new to North Americans, it has been cultivated in the South American Andes since at least 3000 b.c. Ancient Incas called this annual plant “the mother grain,” because it was self-perpetuating and ever-bearing. They honored it as a sacred food product, since a steady diet appeared to ensure a full, long life; and the Inca ruler himself planted the first row of quinoa each season with a gold spade. Like amaranth, quinoa is packed with lysine and other amino acids that make a protein complete. Quinoa is also high in phosphorus, calcium, iron, vitamin E, and assorted B vitamins. Technically a fruit of the Chenopodium herb family, quinoa is usually pale yellow in color, but also comes in pink, orange, red, purple, and black. Quinoa’s only fault is a bitter coating of saponins its seeds. The coating comes off with thorough rinsing prior to cooking, and some companies have developed ways to remove the coating prior to delivering quinoa to stores. Sorghum (milo) (WF/gluten-free): Sorghum is another of the oldest known grains, and has been a major source of nutrition in Africa and India for years. Now grown in the United States, sorghum is generating excitement as a gluten-free insoluble fiber. Because sorghum’s protein and starch are more slowly digested than that of other cereals, it may be beneficial to diabetics and healthy for anyone. Sorghum fans boast of its bland flavor and light color, which don’t alter the taste or look of foods when used in place of wheat flour. Many cooks suggest combining sorghum with soybean flour. Soy and Soybeans (WF/gluten-free): Like the ancient foods mentioned at the beginning of this section, soy has been around for centuries. In China, soybeans have been grown since the 11th century b.c., and are still one of the country’s most important crops. Soybeans weren’t cultivated in the United States until the early 1800s, yet today are one of this country’s highest yielding producers. Soybeans are a legume, belonging to the pea family. Comprised of nearly 50 percent protein, 25 percent oil, and 25 percent carbohydrate, they have earned a reputation as being extremely nutritious. They are also an excellent source of essential fatty acids, which are not produced by the body, but are essential to its functioning nonetheless. Teff (WF/gluten-free): Considered a basic part of the Ethiopian diet, teff is relatively new to Americans. Five times richer in calcium, iron, and potassium than any other grain, teff also contains substantial amounts of protein and soluble and insoluble fiber. Considered a nutritional powerhouse, it has a sweet, nutty flavor. Teff grows in many different varieties and colors, but in the United States only the ivory, brown, and reddish-tan varieties can be found. The reddish teff is reserved for purveyors of Ethiopian restaurants, who are delighted to have an American source for their beloved grain. A Word About Sprouted Grains Some people believe that “sprouted grains,” even ones that contain gluten such as wheat, are gluten-free—not true! The sprouting process sparks a chemical reaction that begins to break down gluten, so some people who are slightly sensitive to gluten may find that they can tolerate sprouted grains better, but too many of the peptides that are reactive for celiacs are still present, so sprouted grains are not safe for people with celiac disease or gluten intolerance.
  13. Celiac.com 08/31/2010 - In my work as an author, researcher, and gluten-free advocate, I know how challenging the gluten-free diet can be. One of the most vital and tricky parts of the diet is learning what foods have gluten and which are "naturally" gluten-free as well as learning how to read labels. Unfortunately, these aren't always enough. Just because a grain is supposed to be "naturally" gluten-free, doesn't mean that it is. In fact, a recent study tested 22 so-called "inherently" gluten-free grains and found that over thirty percent of them had gluten. Gluten is a protein found in the grains wheat, barley, and rye, and is inherently lacking in grains such as oats, buckwheat, quinoa, millet, soy, sorghum, flaxseed, rice, and amaranth seed. A study tested 22 of these "naturally" gluten-free grains, and 7 of them had a gluten amount higher than 20 ppm, which would disqualify them from being labeled as gluten-free under the proposed FDA guidelines. One type of soy flour tested had nearly 3,000 ppm of gluten, two millet flour products had an average of between 305-327 ppm, and the sorghum flour had a mean average of 234 ppm. Four of those seven products didn't have allergen advisory statements. What's the reason behind these alarming research results? Dr. Mercola, an osteopathic physician and board-certified family medicine doctor, attributes the cause to cross-contamination during the processing of these grains and also to a lack of testing of final products for gluten. Dr. Mercola, who is trained in both traditional and natural, or holistic, medicine, raises the question, however, about whether not only celiacs but people in general should even be consuming grains in the first place. According to Dr. Mercola, "Most people need to avoid grains." On his website, he states that several autoimmune disorders, not just celiac disease, can be "significantly improved by avoiding grains," and eliminating grains from your diet can also decrease your risk of heart disease, high cholesterol, Type 2 Diabetes, and cancer. This is due to the fact that, as Dr. Mercola explains, "grains and sugars are inherently pro-inflammatory and will worsen any condition that has chronic inflammation at its root – and not just inflammation in your gut, but anywhere in your body." In his experience, about 75-80% of all people benefitted from going grain-free. According to Grain Free Living, the health benefits of going grain-free have been proven "through the personal experience of hundreds of people worldwide who have experienced significant relief from symptoms of Crohn's disease (and many other illnesses of the digestive system) and also for chronic fatigue." The mainstream medical community has been critical of the "anecdotal evidence" from the testimonies of those who have reported an improvement in health. Clinical studies on the matter have yet to be carried out. A grain-free diet doesn't have to be boring. In fact, grain-free cookbooks have come out with grain-free recipes for favorite American foods such as pancakes, muffins, lasagna, cakes, and cookies. For those who have a digestive or other condition or who wish to eliminate health risks, I would recommend talking to your healthcare practitioner about a grain-free diet. For the gluten-free community who wishes to continue to eat grains, this study of the gluten content of "naturally" gluten-free grains can be startling. Look for grain products that are certified gluten-free by such organizations as the Gluten-Free Certification Organization (GFCO) or make sure to do thorough company research before you try "inherently" gluten-free grains. References: Thompson T, Lee A, Grace T. Gluten contamination of grains, seeds, and flours in the United States: A pilot study. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110:937-940. Abstract available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20497786 Thompson, T. Contamination of Naturally Gluten-Free Grains. Living Gluten-Free. June 1, 2010. Available at: http://www.diet.com/dietblogs/read_blog.php?title=&blid=19524
  14. Celiac.com 06/05/2012 - Even though public awareness of celiac disease is growing thanks to the recent surge in popularity of gluten-free dieting, gluten-free is still an uncontrolled term. The FDA proposed a < 20ppm gluten rule for gluten-free labeling in 2007 and reopened the proposed rule for comment last August, but many feel that too little is being done too slowly to control labeling of gluten content in foods. In a move that is raising some eyebrows, Tim Lawson, a sufferer of celiac disease and CEO and founder of New Grains Gluten Free Bakery is suing Utah Senator Orrin Hatch for obstructing FDA progress on the issue. Lawson, who feels the plight of the roughly nine million celiac disease sufferers in America, asserts that more funding should be allocated to expedite the FDA's regulation process of gluten-free labeling. Whether or not his concern is valid, it is doubtful that such a lawsuit will hold up in court. Lawson is essentially suing senator Hatch for refusing to exert his influence to raise funds for the FDA. Hatch is certainly not the only senator guilty of such inaction, so it is unclear why Lawson would single him out. According to Hatch's spokesman, Matthew Harakal, “... there is no legitimate cause of action against a legislator for failing to appropriate taxpayer dollars to address any one constituent's specific, individual desires.” Paul Cassell, a law professor at the University of Utah also comments, “Anybody could allege that, as a result of a member of Congress not voting one particular way they've then suffered some kind of adverse effect...” It is hard to hold Hatch liable for any hardship suffered by celiacs when, as Cassell suggests, literally every action taken by any American senator works against the favor of some group or another. At the very least though, Lawson is making it known that he, and many celiac disease sufferers are unhappy with how gluten-free labeling is currently handled in America. Even if it is doubtful that he will win his lawsuit, he has likely gotten Hatch's attention, and sometimes that is all it takes to get things done. Source: http://www.sltrib.com/sltrib/politics/54142724-90/disease-dying-fda-free.html.csp
  15. This article originally appeared in the Winter 2003 edition of Celiac.coms Scott-Free Newsletter. Evolution is an interactive process. Those of us who learn quickly and well are more likely to survive, thrive, and reproduce. Learning capacities then, are factors in the survival of our genes. Research is now revealing that cereal grains, along with other allergenic and highly glycemic foods, pose a serious threat to our sustained ability to learn. These foods have been shown to interfere at almost any stage of the learning process, impeding our attempts to focus our attention, observe, ponder, remember, understand, and apply that understanding. Grains can alter learning capacities in four specific ways: as sequelae of untreated celiac disease; through an immune sensitivity to gluten; through dietary displacement of other nutrients and; through the impact of grain on blood sugar/insulin levels. There are many reports of learning problems in association with untreated celiac disease. A majority of children with celiac disease display the signs and symptoms of attention deficit disorder (ADD/ADHD)1, 2 a range of learning difficulties3 and developmental delays4-6. Many of the same problems are found more frequently among those with gluten sensitivity7 a condition signaled by immune reactions against this most common element of the modern diet. Grain consumption can also cause specific nutrient deficiencies that are known to play an important role in learning. Grains can also cause problems with blood sugar/insulin levels resulting in reduced capacities for learning. Further, foods derived from grain are an important element in the current epidemic of hypoglycemia, obesity, and Type 2 diabetes8-10. Our growing understanding of the biological impact of cereal grain consumption must move educators to challenge current dietary trends. Part of our improved understanding comes from new testing protocols which are revealing that celiac sprue afflicts close to 1% of the general population, making it the most common life-long ailment among humans, with frequencies ranging from 0.5% to more than 5% of some populations11, 12. It is widespread and appears to occur more frequently among populations that have experienced relatively shorter periods of exposure to these grains13. The importance of this newly recognized high frequency of celiac disease becomes obvious when we examine the impact it has on learning and behavior. Research has identified ADHD in 66-70% of children with untreated celiac disease, which resolves on a gluten-free diet, and returns with a gluten challenge1, 2. Several investigators have connected particular patterns of reduced blood flow to specific parts of the brain in ADHD13-15. Other reports have connected untreated celiac disease with similarly abnormal blood flow patterns in the brain16. One might be able to dismiss such reports if viewed in isolation, but the increased rates of learning disabilities among celiac patients3, and the increased rates of celiac disease among those with learning disabilities leave little to the imagination17. Further, there is one report of gluten-induced aphasia (a condition characterized by the loss of speech ability) that resolved after diagnosis and institution of a gluten-free diet18. Still other investigations suggest a causal link between the partial digests of gluten (opioid peptides) and a variety of problems with learning, attention, and development. Gluten sensitivity, afflicting close to 15% of the general population19, 20 is an immune reaction to one or more proteins in found in grains. When a persons immune system has developed antibodies against any of these proteins, undigested and partly digested food particles have been allowed entry into the bloodstream21. The leakage of food proteins through the intestinal wall signals a failure of the protective, mucosal lining of the gastrointestinal tract, as is consistently found in untreated celiac disease. Many of the same health and learning problems that are found in celiac disease are significantly overrepresented among those with gluten sensitivity for the very good reason that many of the same proteins are being leaked into the blood of those with gluten sensitivity. Our cultural obeisance to grains is at odds with the remains of ancient humans. Archaeologists have long recognized that grains are a starvation food—one for which we are not well suited. Grains result in consistent signs of disease and malnourishment in every locale and epoch associated with human adoption of grain cultivation. Grains are a poverty food. As we increase our grain consumption, we cause deficiencies in other nutrients by overwhelming the absorptive and transport mechanisms at work in our intestines. For instance, diets dominated by grains have been shown to induce iron deficiency22—a condition that is widely recognized as causing learning disabilities23-29. This should not be surprising since iron is the carrier used to distribute oxygen throughout our bodies, including various regions of our brains. There is little room to dispute the hazards to learning posed by reductions in oxygen supply to the brain. Iron deficiency reduces available oxygen in the brain, revealing yet another dimension of gluten grains as mediators of learning difficulties. There is more. The impact of grain consumption on our blood sugar levels is yet another facet of its contribution to learning problems. We evolved as hunter-gatherers, eating meats, and complex carbohydrates in the form of fruits, vegetables, and seeds. Refined sugars were a rare treat wrested from bees with some difficulty. At best, it was a rare treat for our pre-historic ancestors. Today, with unprecedented agricultural/industrial production of refined sugars along with cultivation and milling of grain flours, these products have become very cheap and available, particularly over the last fifty years. During that time, we have added enormous quantities of grain-derived starches to the overwhelming quantities of sugar we consume. The result of this escalating dietary trend may be observed in the current epidemic rates of Type 2 diabetes, hypoglycemia, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. In the classroom, we see these trends manifest in students mood swings, behavioral disorders (fluctuating between extreme lethargy and hyperactivity), chronic depression, forgetfulness, and muddled thinking—all of which reflects the inordinate, counter-evolutionary burden placed on many homeostatic systems of the body, particularly those related to blood sugar regulation. The pancreas has many functions. One important activity of the pancreas is to stabilize blood sugar levels. When blood sugar is not well regulated, learning is impaired30. The pancreas secretes carefully monitored quantities of glucagon and insulin. The pancreas responds to the presence of proteins, sugar, and starch in the digestive tract by producing insulin. It produces glucagon in response to fats. The balanced presence of both of these hormones in the bloodstream is critical to learning because they regulate the transport of nutrients into cells. Too little or too much insulin can cause blood sugar levels go out of control inducing a wide range of symptoms. Today, when the insulin/glucagon balance goes awry, it is frequently due to insulin overproduction due to a diet dominated by sugars and starches. This overproduction is caused by chronic consumption of highly glycemic foods. The resulting elevated levels of insulin cause rapid movement of nutrients into cells, either for storage as fat, or to be burned as energy, causing increased activity levels, "hot spells", sweating, increased heart rate, etc. This energized stage requires a constant supply of sugars and starches to be maintained. Otherwise, it is soon followed by bouts of lethargy, light-headedness, tremors, and weakness, which are all signs of hypoglycemia or very low blood sugar levels. Despite having stored much of the blood sugars as fats, there is insufficient glucagon to facilitate its use for energy. As this condition progresses, and as blood sugar levels plummet, periods of irrational anger and/or confusion often result. These moods often result from adrenaline secreted to avoid a loss of consciousness due to low blood sugar levels. The next step in the progression, in the absence of appropriate nutritional intervention, is lapsing into a coma. In the short term, the answer to these fluctuations is more frequent consumption of sugars/starches. However, the long term result of such an approach is either a state of insulin resistance, where more and more insulin is required to do the same task, or a state of pancreatic insufficiency, where the pancreas is simply unable to keep pace with the demand for insulin. In either case, once this stage is reached, the individual may be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. This disease has so increased among North Americans, particularly among children, that an autoimmune form of diabetes, previously called juvenile onset, had to be renamed to "Type 1 diabetes". By now, it will not surprise the reader to learn that Type 1 diabetes has also been shown to be significantly associated with gluten. Research reveals that there is considerable overlap between celiac disease and Type 1 diabetes. About 8% of celiacs also have Type 1 diabetes31-33, and 5-11% of Type 1 diabetics have celiac disease34-38. Further, Scott Frazer et al. have repeatedly shown, in animal studies, a causal, dose-dependent relationship between type 1 diabetes and gluten39-42. The growing reaction against gluten and other allergenic foods should not be confused with the several dietary fads of the 20th Century. The vegetarian perspective ignores the vitamin deficiencies that result from a strict vegetarian diet. The low-fat craze is another fad that has mesmerized the industrialized world for the last 30-40 years. Fortunately, this perspective has recently come under scrutiny. Despite having served as the driving force behind most physicians dietary recommendations during the last several decades, the low fat dictum is overwhelmingly being discredited by research reported in peer reviewed publications. Recognition and avoidance of allergenic and highly glycemic foods is a whole new trend that is based on scientific research and evidence. It reflects an improved understanding of the function of the gastrointestinal tract, the endocrine system, particularly the pancreas, and the immune system. Past dietary fads are consistently deficient in important nutrients that are necessary to our good health and survival. Further, they frequently contain substances that are harmful to us, such as the phytates that are abundantly present in whole grain foods, and interfere with absorption of many minerals. It is increasingly clear that grains, especially those that contain gluten, are contraindicated for human learning. The evidence is overwhelming. The mandate of eating to learn is learning to eat as our ancestors did. Ron Hoggan is an author, teacher and diagnosed celiac who lives in Canada. His book "Dangerous Grains" can be ordered here. References: Kozlowska, Z: (1991). Results of investigation on children with coeliakia treated many years with glutethen free diet Psychiatria Polska. 25(2),130-134. Paul, K., Todt, J., Eysold, R. (1985) [EEG Research Findings in Children with Celiac Disease According to Dietary Variations]. Zeitschrift der Klinische Medizin. 40, 707-709. Grech, P.L., Richards, J., McLaren, S., Winkelman, J.H. (2000) Psychological sequelae and quality of life in celiac disease. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 31(3): S4 Reichelt, K., Sagedal, E., Landmark, J., Sangvic, B., Eggen, O., Helge, S. (1990a). The Effect of Gluten-Free Diet on Urinary peptide Excretion and Clinical State in Schizophrenia. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. 5(4), 169-181. Reichelt, K., Ekrem, J., Scott, H. (1990b). Gluten, Milk Proteins and Autism: DIETARY INTERVENTION EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOR AND PEPTIDE SECRETION. Journal of Applied Nutrition. 42(1), 1-11. Reichelt, K., Knivsberg, A., Lind, G., Nodland, M. (1991). Probable etiology and Possible Treatment of Childhood Autism. Brain Dysfunction. 4, 308-319. Hoggan, R. (1997a). 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  16. Celiac.com 10/26/2009 - With the ever-increasing awareness of celiac disease comes an expanding market of gluten-free options. The days of lengthy supermarket trips spent pouring over labels has given way to the tiny oasis of the “gluten-free” section is many grocery stores. While this section is still limited in many respects, the food production industry as a whole has become aware of the need to cater to the expanding gluten-free community. Gluten-free snacks, prepackaged meals, and baking supplies are no longer elusive, and the variety is continually expanding. While rice, potato, and corn flours are common strongholds in a Celiac’s kitchen, there is now a new wave of flavorful flours from Peru making their way into the United States. Many Peruvian heritage grains, dating back to pre-Incan times, have been found to be naturally gluten-free and incredibly nutritious. The first wave of these grains and flours to hit the U.S. market come to us from Zocalo Gourmet. Marching to shelves are kaniwa, mesquite, purple corn, and sweet potato flours. Each has a distinct flavor and “personality” that is sure to delight any gluten-free baker and reinvigorate their favorite recipes. Kaniwa is a species of goosefoot, closely related to quinoa. This tiny grain is packed with protein and has an Earthy taste that lends itself well to breads, pancakes, and muffins. Mesquite is also protein rich and imparts a warm, sweet, slightly smoky taste on foods while enhancing the flavors of cinnamon, chocolate, caramel, and coffee. Adding mesquite flour to your favorite recipes will transform their flavor and put a completely new spin on your old favorites. Purple Corn can be used in any recipe calling for traditional corn meal or flour while providing an antioxidant boost. Although similar in nutrition to yellow corn, purple corn contains substantial amounts of phenolics and anthocyanins, among other phytochemicals, which gives the corn its vibrant color. Its main colorant is cianidin-3-b-glucosa which is a known antioxidant. The high anthocianin content does not degrade with heat exposure. Sweet Potato is a velvety flour that holds moisture well, imparts a subtle sweetness on baked goods, and is incredibly versatile. With these flours come more complete flavor and nutritional profiles for the gluten intolerant. To learn more about these flours and how they can be used check out: http://www.zocalogourmet.com/products/floursgrains2.html and http://zocalogourmet.blogspot.com/
  17. The following was written by Donald D. Kasarda who is a research chemist in the Crop Improvement and Utilization Research Unit of the United States Department of Agriculture. If you have any questions or comments regarding the piece, you can address them to Don at: kasarda@pw.usda.gov. Most sprouted wheat still has gluten or gluten peptides remaining. Although the sprouting begins enzymatic action that starts to break down the gluten (a storage protein for the plant) into peptides and even amino acids. Generally this is not a complete process for sprouts used in foods so some active peptides (active in celiac disease) remain.
  18. The common list of forbidden grains is: wheat, rye, barley and oats. Unfortunately, there are variants out there that go by other names. Durum and semolina are names for certain kinds of wheat that have been bred for specific uses. Both spelt and kamut are versions of wheat. (Other names for these: spelt, Polish wheat, einkorn and small spelt). Bulgur is wheat thats been specially processed. Triticale, a grain crossbred from wheat and rye, is definitely on the toxic list. Though corn (maize) is one of those grains that many people -- not just celiacs -- may be allergic to, it is not a grain that is thought to cause damage to the villi in celiacs. It is tolerated by most celiacs. Of the common grains, rice is the favorite as it rarely troubles anyone. Aside from corn and rice, there is a wide variety of other grains that are used in gluten-free cooking. We even use beans and peas (legumes, pulses). The following can be milled into flour: amaranth*, buckwheat* (or kasha), chickpeas (garbanzos), Jobs tears (Hato Mugi, Junos Tears, River Grain), lentils, millet*, peas, quinoa*, ragi, sorghum, soy, tapioca, teff*, and wild rice. Many of these flours are available in health food stores. Some (like rice flour) may be available in grocery stores. (The products marked with an "*" are listed as grains to avoid by some physicians and celiac societies. See the discussion below about anecdotal evidence and possible contamination of flours for more information.) To improve the texture of gluten-free baked goods, most cooks use one or more of the following: xanthan gum, guar gum (though this sometimes has a laxative effect), methylcellulose, or a new product called Clear Gel. These can be obtained either through health food stores, specialty cooks stores, or some of the mail order sources listed below. Oils popular in cooking include: corn, peanut, olive, rapeseed (canola), safflower, soy, and sunflower.
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