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  1. Celiac.com 03/07/2019 - Researchers don’t have much good data on the distribution of the related alleles in the type 1 diabetes Iranian population. In an effort to generate better data, a team of researchers recently set out to assess the frequency of HLA DQ2 and DQ8 haplotypes in patients with type 1 diabetes, with and without celiac disease, and to compare them to the healthy population. The research team included Ali Moheb-Alian, Flora Forouzesh, Amir Sadeghia, Kamran Rostami, Elham Aghamohammadi, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani, and Mohammad Reza Zali. The team looked at 70 type 1 diabetes patients who did not have celiac disease, 60 type 1 diabetes cases with celiac disease, and compared them with 150 healthy individuals. They collected ten milliliter Gheparinized blood samples, extracted genomic DNA, and genotyped alleles in Real-time PCR using SYBR Green as a low-resolution method. They found HLA-DQ2 genotypes in 51% of type 1 diabetes patients without celiac disease, and HLA-DQ8 in 23% of such patients. Just over twenty percent of those patients carried both alleles, while 5% carried neither allele. More than 70% of type 1 diabetes patients with celiac disease had DQ2, while nearly 12% carried DQ8. Compared to diabetes patients without celiac disease and the control group, 14% carry both alleles, and 3% carrying neither allele. The frequencies of DQ2 and DQ8 alleles in Iranian healthy population were 19 and 5% respectively. The similarities in genetic background for celiac disease and type 1 diabetes show that HLA-typing can be serve as a helpful tool for spotting celiac disease in people with type one diabetes. Read more in the Journal of Diabetes and its Complicationshttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2018.10.001 The researchers are variously affiliated with the Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; the Department of Genetics, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; the Department of Gastroenterology MidCentral District Health Board, Palmerston North Hospital, New Zealand; the Basic and Molecular Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; and the Proteomics Research Center, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  2. Celiac.com 07/21/2014 - The presence of HLA haplotype DR3–DQ2 or DR4–DQ8 is associated with an increased risk of celiac disease. In addition, nearly all children with celiac disease have serum antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (tTG). A research team recently set out to determine the risk of celiac disease autoimmunity and celiac disease, by age and by halpotype, in children. The research team included Edwin Liu, M.D., Hye-Seung Lee, Ph.D., Carin A. Aronsson, M.Sc., William A. Hagopian, M.D., Ph.D., Sibylle Koletzko, M.D., Ph.D., Marian J. Rewers, M.D., M.P.H., George S. Eisenbarth, M.D., Ph.D., Polly J. Bingley, M.D., Ezio Bonifacio, Ph.D., Ville Simell, M.Sc., and Daniel Agardh, M.D., Ph.D. for the TEDDY Study Group. The team studied 6403 children with HLA haplotype DR3–DQ2 or DR4–DQ8 prospectively from birth in the United States, Finland, Germany, and Sweden. The study’s primary end point was the development of celiac disease autoimmunity, which the team defined as the presence of tTG antibodies on two consecutive tests at least 3 months apart. The secondary end point was the development of celiac disease itself, which they defined as either a diagnosis on biopsy or persistently high levels of tTG antibodies. The average follow-up was 5 years, with an overall range of 46 to 77 months. A total of 786 children (12%) developed celiac disease autoimmunity. A total of 350 children underwent biopsy, and 291 of those were diagnosed with celiac disease. Another 21 children did not undergo biopsy, but showed persistently high levels of tTG antibodies. For children with a single DR3–DQ2 haplotype, rates of celiac disease autoimmunity and celiac disease by the age of 5 years were 11% and 3%, respectively. For those with two copies (DR3–DQ2 homozygosity) rates of celiac disease autoimmunity and celiac disease by the age of 5 years were 26% and 11%, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratios for celiac disease autoimmunity were 2.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70 to 2.56) among children with one gene, and 5.70 (95% CI, 4.66 to 6.97) among children with both genes, as compared with children who had the lowest-risk genotypes (DR4–DQ8 heterozygotes or homozygotes). Living in Sweden was also independently associated with an increased risk of celiac disease autoimmunity (hazard ratio, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.61 to 2.25). Children with the HLA haplotype DR3–DQ2, especially homozygotes, were found to be at high risk for celiac disease autoimmunity and celiac disease early in childhood. People in Sweden face a higher risk for celiac disease autoimmunity and celiac disease than residents of other countries. These finding highlight the importance of studying environmental factors associated with celiac disease. Source: N Engl J Med 2014; 371:42-49July 3, 2014. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1313977
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