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Jefferson Adams posted an article in Celiac Disease & Gluten Intolerance ResearchCeliac.com 07/28/2016 - Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Researchers know that innate immunity plays a role in triggering celiac disease, but they don't understand the connection very well at all. Although previous in vitro work suggests that gliadin peptide p31-43 acts as an innate immune trigger, the underlying pathways are unclear and have not been explored in vivo. The research team included RE Araya, MF Gomez Castro, P Carasi, JL McCarville, J Jury, AM Mowat, EF Verdu, and FG Chirdo. They are variously affiliated with the Instituto de Estudios Inmunológicos y Fisiopatológicos (IIFP)(CONICET-UNLP), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina; the Catedra de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina; the Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; the Centre for Immunobiology, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom; and with the Instituto de Estudios Inmunológicos y Fisiopatológicos (IIFP)(CONICET-UNLP), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina. Their team observed that introduction of p31-43 into the gut of normal mice causes structural changes in the small intestinal mucosa consistent with those seen in celiac disease, including increased cell death and expression of inflammatory mediators. The effects of p31-43 were dependent on MyD88 and type I IFNs, but not Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and were enhanced by co-administration of the TLR3 agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid. Together, these results indicate that gliadin peptide p31-43 activates celiac-related innate immune pathways in vivo, such as IFN-dependent inflammation. These findings also suggest a common mechanism for the potential interaction between dietary gluten and viral infections in the pathogenesis of celiac disease, meaning that certain viral infections may pave the way for celiac disease to develop. Source: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 Jul 1;311(1):G40-9. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00435.2015. Epub 2016 May 5.
Jefferson Adams posted an article in Gluten-Free Grains and FloursCeliac.com 05/09/2016 - Exciting gluten-free news from Japan, where researchers say they have successfully sequenced the entire buckwheat genome. This is a big deal, because buckwheat flour offers certain advantages over numerous other gluten-free flours, especially in noodle making. Those familiar with buckwheat know that, despite its name, it contains no wheat or gluten, and is, in fact actually a kind of fruit. The sequencing of the buckwheat gene is exciting because it provides information necessary to develop new kinds of gluten-free noodles and other buckwheat-based foods that may be tastier and chewier than traditional gluten-free products. Yasuo Yasui of Kyoto University and colleagues have sequenced the full buckwheat genome for the first time, identifying genes which could be modified for improved cultivation capabilities and taste appeal. Buckwheat is a central ingredient in soba noodles -- a traditional Japanese favorite -- and is also used to make other noodles from China and Korea. In Italy, buckwheat is used in a dish called pizzoccheri, a type of short tagliatelle, a flat ribbon pasta, made with 80% buckwheat flour and 20% wheat flour. Elsewhere in Europe, buckwheat is used in French gallettes, and Slovenian struklji, While in other regions of the world it appears in pancakes and other foods. In the study, published in DNA Research, the Japanese team found genes related to "mochi-ness", which refers to the soft, chewy texture of foods like marshmallows or fresh bagels. Until now, scientists had not succeed in getting the distinctive 'mochi' texture with buckwheat," says Yasui. "Since we've found the genes that could give buckwheat this texture, I think we can hope to see foods, including soba noodles and doughy European foods, with radical new sensations appearing on the market in the near future,” Yasui adds. Some people are allergic to buckwheat, and Yasui says that the sequencing information may help to make buckwheat safe for those individuals as well. So, stay tuned to learn more about the future of buckwheat in crafting new, chewier noodles, and more. Source: kyoto-u.ac.jp