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Showing results for tags 'immunotherapy'.
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Jefferson Adams posted an article in Diabetes and Celiac DiseaseCeliac.com 10/29/2018 - Researchers Emma L. Smith with UCB Pharma Ltd., Slough, United Kingdom, and Mark Peakman from the Department of Immunobiology, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom recently set out to catalog clinical advances in peptide immunotherapy for Type 1 diabetes. Autoimmune and allergic diseases occur when a person’s body has an incorrect immune response to an antigen from the person’s own body, or to an innocuous antigen from outside the body. This triggers a pathogenic T-cell response which causes damage to certain tissues and organs. In Type 1 diabetes, this process results in the destruction of the insulin-secreting β cells, which leads to permanent need for recombinant insulin to make up for the loss. The best way to restore immune homeostasis and prevent further tissue damage is to reduce or cease the pathogenic T-cell response by using antigen-specific peptide immunotherapy. Smith and Peakman found that recent clinical advances with peptide therapy approaches in both Type 1 diabetes and other diseases are beginning to show encouraging results. New treatments that target peptides specific to certain cell types are also moving from the development stages into clinical use. Drug developers still face numerous hurdles in reaching full clinical use, including determining optimal dose and dosing frequency, but peptide immunotherapy for Type 1 diabetes is clearly becoming a very active field of drug development. Read their full report: Front Immunol. 2018; 9: 392.Published online 2018 Feb 28. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00392PMCID: PMC5836708PMID: 29541078
Jefferson Adams posted an article in Celiac Disease & Gluten Intolerance ResearchCeliac.com 06/19/2013 - Currently, immunosuppressant drugs are the only real treatment option for most autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease and Type 1 diabetes. However, researchers are busily exploring the possibilities offered therapeutic vaccines, known as antigen-specific immunotherapy. ImmusanT is one company working to develop a vaccine that will allow patients with celiac disease to safely eat gluten (the antigen). That vaccine is presently undergoing clinical trials. ImmusanT and its research partners are looking to build on their expertise in celiac disease to improve their understanding of antigen-specific immunotherapy for other autoimmune diseases. In Current Opinion in Immunology, researchers Bob Anderson and Bana Jabri describe how identification of pathogenic T cell epitopes (segment of the antigen) and recent initiatives to optimize immune monitoring have helped drive rational vaccine design in human autoimmune diseases. Celiac disease has provided researchers with the first opportunity to design and test epitope-specific immunotherapy with a thorough understanding of disease-causing T cell epitopes. This approach offers "truly customized immunotherapy for patients with celiac disease according to their genetics and the molecular specificity of their immune response to gluten," said Bob Anderson, PhD, MBChB, Chief Scientific Officer of ImmusanT. Because celiac disease shares key features, such as susceptibility genes, presence of autoantibodies and destruction of specific cells, with other autoimmune disorders, like Type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis, it provides a model for understanding and exploring the triggers and drivers of autoimmunity, in general, write Drs. Bana Jabri and Ludvig Sollid in the Perspectives section in Nature Reviews Immunology. By factoring in the association with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), post-translation modifications, the antigen and the tissue, researchers can design methods that help to the spot potential drivers of autoimmune disease. Because peptide-specific therapy specifically targets the immune cells that drive the disease process, "it offers the potential to prevent and cure disease, without inducing general immunosuppression," said Bana Jabri, MD, PhD, Director, University of Chicago Celiac Center; Professor, Department of Medicine, Pathology and Pediatrics, University of Chicago; and Senior Scientific Advisor to ImmusanT. Ludvig M. Sollid, MD, PhD, is Director, Centre for Immune Regulation; Professor of Medicine, Department of Immunology, University of Oslo; Consultant, Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet; and member of ImmusanT's Scientific Advisory Board. Dr. Jabri is Co-Chair of the 15(th) International Celiac Disease Symposium to be hosted by the University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center, September 22-25, 2013. The event will draw the world's top scientists and physicians to discuss the most recent scientific advances in managing and treating celiac disease and gluten-related disorders.
Jefferson Adams posted an article in Celiac Disease & Gluten Intolerance ResearchCeliac.com 04/24/2009 - Currently, one of the more promising areas of celiac disease research looks to be in peptide-based therapies. One of the keys to creating an effective peptide-based therapy for celiac disease lies in identifying the gluten peptides that trigger intestinal T cell responses when people with celiac disease consume wheat, rye, or barley. A team of Italian researchers recently set out to do just that. The team was made up of A. Camarca, R.P. Anderson, G. Mamone, O. Fierro , A. Facchiano, S. Costantini, D. Zanzi, J. Sidney, S. Auricchio, A. Sette, R. Troncone, and C. Gianfrani. Their efforts were supported by the Institute of Food Sciences-National Research Council, Avellino, Italy. Their research carries strong implications for a peptide-based therapy in celiac disease. Presently, several gluten peptides are known to be active in celiac disease. The identification of additional gluten peptides eliciting intestinal T cell responses is critical for designing a successful peptide-based immunotherapy for celiac disease. In their study, the research team assessed the recognition profile of gluten immunogenic peptides in adult HLA-DQ2(+) celiac patients. They did so by creating several lines of polyclonal, gliadin-reactive T cells from jejunal mucosa. They then tested for both proliferation and IFN-gamma production in reaction to 21 peptides from wheat glutenins and alpha-, gamma-, and omega-gliadins. They then conducted a magnitude analysis of the IFN-gamma responses to determine the spectrum of individual peptide activity, and to rank them accordingly. Notably, 12 of the 14 patients responded to a different array of peptides. All alpha-gliadin stimulatory peptides mapped the 57-89 N-terminal region, thus affirming the importance of the known polyepitope 33-mer, although only 50% of subjects recognized 33-mer. By contrast, 11 of 14 celiac subjects, nearly 80%, responded to gamma-gliadin peptides. A 17-mer variant of 33-mer, QLQPFPQPQLPYPQPQP, posessing only a single copy of DQ2-alpha-I and DQ2-alpha-II epitopes, displayed the same potency as 33-mer in triggering intestinal T cell responses. One particular peptide from omega-gliadin, QPQQPFPQPQQPFPWQP, though structurally related to the alpha-gliadin 17-mer, is a separate epitope and activated in 5 out of 14 subjects. The team's data reveal that intestinal T cells respond to a wide array of peptides, and that this heterogeneity emphasizes the relevance of gamma- and omega-gliadin peptides in celiac disease pathogenesis. Their findings indicate that, in DQ2(+) celiac patients, the most active gluten peptides are alpha-gliadin (57-73), gamma-gliadin (139-153), and omega-gliadin (102-118). J Immunol. 2009 Apr 1;182(7):4158-66.