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Found 11 results

  1. Celiac.com 03/03/2017 - Previous studies have shown us that men are generally less troubled living with celiac disease than are women, but most studies of men with celiac disease have been mostly quantitative, and have a bio-medical emphasis. A team of researchers recently set out to explore the social experience of young men with screening-detected celiac disease and to highlight daily life situations five years after diagnosis. The research team included Ethel Kautto, Cecilia Olsson, Anneli Ivarsson, Phil Lyon, Agneta Hörnell, and Lena Alex. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Food and Nutrition and Umeå Center for Gender Studies, Umeå University, Sweden, the Department of Food and Nutrition, Umeå University, Sweden, the Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University, Sweden, the School of Arts, Social Sciences and Management at Queen Margaret University, UK, and the Department of Nursing at Umeå University in Sweden. Using a large Swedish school-based celiac screening-study, the team arranged to interview seven young men, all of whom were diagnosed with celiac disease at 13 years-old. The semi-structured interviews were analyzed from a gender perspective which resulted in three themes. Those themes were of young adult men being subjected to changes, striving for normality and emphasizing commitment. Many of young men reported dissociating themselves from being seen as a person with a life-long chronic disease. The analysis also showed that the young men’s daily experiences of living with celiac disease largely depended on their use of characteristics known to be associated with masculinity: such as being self-assured, demanding, and behaving authoritatively. In food situations, where the young men had the ability to make use of such characteristics in their informal group, they experienced fewer negative aspects of the disease. If the young men did not hold a strong position in their informal group, their situation was insecure and vulnerable and this could lead to avoidance of contacts and social meal situations. So, basically, being relaxed and socially confident about eating gluten-free helps to ensure success with the diet. Source: International Journal of Celiac Disease Vol. 4, No. 4, 2016, pp 138-145. doi: 10.12691/ijcd-4-4-7
  2. Celiac.com 04/11/2016 - Growing evidence suggests that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in gene expression, especially that which influences inflammation. For example, researchers recently found that one lncRNA, lnc13, suppresses inflammatory gene expression in macrophages by interacting with proteins that regulate chromatin accessibility. Reduced levels of lnc13 in intestinal tissue from individuals with celiac disease suggests that lnc13 might also play a role in the development of immune-mediated diseases. In a recent issue of Science, a research team reports on the identification and characterization of a lncRNA, lnc13, that harbors a celiac disease–associated haplotype block and represses expression of certain inflammatory genes under homeostatic conditions. The research team included Ainara Castellanos-Rubio, Nora Fernandez-Jimenez, Radomir Kratchmarov, Xiaobing Luo, Govind Bhagat, Peter H. R. Green, Robert Schneider, Megerditch Kiledjian, Jose Ramon Bilbao, and Sankar Ghosh. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, the Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, and the Center for Celiac Disease, Department of Medicine at Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA; the Department of Genetics, Physical Anthropology, and Animal Physiology, University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU), at BioCruces Research Institute in Leioa, Basque Country, Spain; the Alexandria Center for Life Sciences, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; and with the Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USA. Their article describes how Lnc13 regulates gene expression by binding to hnRNPD, a member of a family of ubiquitously expressed heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). Upon stimulation, lnc13 levels decrease, thereby allowing increased expression of the repressed genes. The fact that Lnc13 levels are substantially decreased in small intestinal biopsy samples from patients with celiac disease suggests that down-regulation of lnc13 may contribute to the inflammation associated with celiac disease. Furthermore, the lnc13 disease-associated variant binds hnRNPD less efficiently than its wild-type counterpart, thus helping to explain how these single-nucleotide polymorphisms contribute to celiac disease. This discovery could lead to future treatment methods for celiac disease. Source: Science 01 Apr 2016: Vol. 352, Issue 6281, pp. 91-95. DOI: 10.1126/science.aad0467
  3. Celiac.com 06/12/2015 - Some researchers have suspected that certain prenatal and perinatal factors might affect risk for development of celiac disease, but there is very little data. With this in mind, a team of researchers set out to determine if any prenatal and perinatal factors might affect risk for development of celiac disease in children. Their team assessed the association of fetal growth, birth weight, and mode of delivery with development of celiac disease within the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort Study. The research team included Louise Emilsson, Maria Christine Magnus, and Ketil Størdal. They are variously affiliated with the Primary Care Research Unit, Vårdcentralen Värmlands Nysäter, County Council of Värmland, Sweden, the Department of Health Management and Health Economy, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway, the Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway, and the Paediatric Department, Ostfold Hospital Trust, Fredrikstad, Norway. To make their determination, the team used the MoBa cohort, which contains pregnancy information on 95,200 women and data on their 114,500 children. The information was collected in Norway from 1999 through 2008; it is linked to the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry. The team used the National Patient Registry and women’s responses to MoBa questionnaires to identify women and children with celiac disease. The team calculated odds ratios (ORs) for celiac disease by using a multivariable logistic regression model, adjusting for maternal celiac disease, sex of children, and children’s age (model 1). In model 2, they adjusted for age of gluten introduction and duration of breastfeeding. The team identified 650 children with celiac disease and 107,828 controls in the MoBa database. They found no connection between birth weight or height with celiac disease, including for children who were born small for gestational age. They found no celiac disease connection based on mode of delivery (cesarean section, model 1: OR, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65–1.09, and model 2: OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.63–1.09). They did find that maternal celiac disease, adjusted for age and sex of the children and type 1 diabetes were associated with development of celiac disease in children, whereas maternal type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes were not. Their analysis of the Norwegian MoBa cohort shows that development of celiac disease in children is significantly associated with sex of the child, maternal celiac disease, and type 1 diabetes, but not with gestational development. Source: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2014.10.012
  4. Celiac.com 09/09/2011 - A team of researchers recently set out to assess the effects of milk-feeding behavior and the HLA-DQ genotype on intestinal colonization of Bacteroides species in infants with a risk of developing celiac disease. The research team included E. Sánchez, G. De Palma, A. Capilla, E. Nova, T. Pozo, G. Castillejo, V. Varea, A. Marcos, J. A. Garrote, I. Polanco, A. López, C. Ribes-Koninckx, M. D. García-Novo, C. Calvo, L. Ortigosa, F. Palau, and Y. Sanz. They are affiliated with the Ecofisiología Microbiana y Nutrición, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (CSIC) in Valencia, Spain. The team studied 75 full-term newborns with at least one first-degree relative who suffered from celiac disease. They classified the newborns according to milk-feeding practice (breast-fed or formula fed) and HLA-DQ genotype, which indicates high or low genetic risk. The team used PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to analyze stools at 7 days, 1 month, and 4 months. They found that formula-fed infants showed greater Bacteroides species diversity than did breast-fed infants. Breast-fed infants showed a higher prevalence of Bacteroides uniformis at 1 and 4 months of age, while formula-fed infants had a higher prevalence of B. intestinalis at all sampling times, of B. caccae at 7 days and 4 months, and of B. plebeius at 4 months. Infants with low genetic risk showed greater colonization of B. ovatus, B. plebeius, and B. uniformis, while those with high genetic risk showed a greater colonization of B. vulgatus. Among breast-fed infants, those with low genetic risk had greater colonization of B. uniformis than those with high genetic risk, who showed higher rates of B. vulgatus. Among formula-fed infants, the prevalence of B. ovatus and B. plebeius was increased in those with low genetic risk, while the presence of B. vulgatus was greater in those with high genetic risk. The results indicate that both the type of milk feeding and the HLA-DQ genotype influence the types of Bacteroides that colonize in the intestinal tract, and possibly also influence risk for developing celiac disease. Source: Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 Aug;77(15):5316-23. Epub 2011 Jun 3.
  5. Celiac.com 06/07/2013 - A number of studies have indicated that people with celiac disease have an inadequate response to hepatitis B vaccination. In an effort to better understand the issue, a team of researchers recently set out to assess hepatitis B vaccination response in relation to gluten exposure status in patients with celiac disease. The research team included F. Zingone, P. Capone, R. Tortora, A. Rispo, F. Morisco, N. Caporaso, N. Imperatore, G. De Stefano, P. Iovino, and C. Ciacci. They are affiliated with the Department of Medicine and Surgery at the University of Salerno in Salerno, Italy. To measure the gluten exposure status at the time of vaccination, they compare three groups of patients, along with a control group. In all, the study included 163 celiac patients. Group A contained 57 patients exposed to gluten, including patients vaccinated as 12-year-old adolescents, for whom celiac disease diagnosis was established after vaccination. Group B contained 46 patients not exposed to gluten, including patients vaccinated as 12-year-old adolescents and on a gluten-free diet at the time of vaccination. Group C was composed of 60 infants, including those vaccinated at birth. Group D included 48 healthy, vaccinated, non-celiac subjects. The researchers then compared the response of celiac patients to hepatitis B vaccination with the response by healthy subjects. They found that 43.9% of patients in group A, 34.8% of patients in group B, 58.3% of patients in group C, and 8.3% of patients in group D showed inadequate response to hepatitis B immunization. Overall, group A versus group D, P less than 0.001; group B versus group D, P = 0.002; group C versus group D, P = 0.001, while they found no significant difference for group A versus group B and group A versus group C. This study suggests that gluten exposure does not influence the response to hepatitis B immunization, and that the human leukocyte antigen likely plays the main immunological role in poor responses to hepatitis B-vaccinated celiac patients. Source: Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013 May;20(5):660-2. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00729-12. Epub 2013 Feb 27.
  6. Celiac.com 04/15/2013 - Enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma (EATL) is a gut cancer that often ends in death. Currently, doctors have very little idea what factors might help patients survive. The manner in which clinical presentation, pathological features and therapies influence EATL outcome was the subject of a recent study by a team of researchers. The research team included: G. Malamut; O. Chandesris; V. Verkarre; B.Meresse, C. Callens, E. Macintyre, Y. Bouhnik, J.M. Gornet; M. Allez; R. Jian; A. Berger; G. Châtellier; N. Brousse, O. Hermine, N. Cerf-Bensussan, and C. Cellier. They are variously affiliated with the Université Paris Descartes, the Gastroenterology Department of Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, APHP, and Inserm U989 in Paris, France. For their study, the team evaluated the medical files of 37 well-documented patients with celiac disease and T-cell lymphoma. They then analyzed lymphoma and intestinal mucosa by histopathology, multiplex PCR and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes phenotyping. Using Kaplan-Meier curves with Logrank test and Cox Model they then analyzed patient survival and prognostic factors. They found 15 patients with lymphoma-complicated non-clonal enteropathy, celiac disease, two patients with type I refractory celiac disease, and 20 patients with clonal type II refractory celiac disease. Twenty-five patients underwent surgery with resection of the main tumor mass in 22 cases. Univariate analysis showed that non-clonal celiac disease, serum albumin levels under 21.6g/L at diagnosis, chemotherapy and surgical resection predicted good survival (p=0.0007, p Multivariate analysis showed that serum albumin level>21.6g/L, chemotherapy and reductive surgery were all significantly associated with increased survival rates (p The results reinforce the value of assessing celiac disease type in patients with T-cell lymphoma, and suggest that a combination of nutritional, chemotherapy and reductive surgery may improve survival rates in cases of EATL. Source: Dig Liver Dis. 2013 Jan 9. pii: S1590-8658(12)00438-0. doi: 10.1016/j.dld.2012.12.001.
  7. Celiac.com 11/07/2011 - Fat-soluble vitamin malabsorption, inflammation and/or under-nutrition put children with celiac disease at risk for decreased bone mineral density. A research team recently set out to determine how vitamin D and K might influence bone mineral density and bone growth in children and adolescents with celiac disease. The study team included D. R. Mager, J. Qiao, and J. Turner. The team's goal was to examine the interrelationships between vitamin K/D levels and lifestyle factors on bone mass density in children and adolescents with celiac disease at diagnosis and after 1 year on the gluten-free diet. The team studied children and adolescents aged 3–17 years with biopsy proven celiac disease at diagnosis and after 1 year on the gluten-free diet. To measure bone mineral density the researchers used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, factoring in relevant variables including anthropometrics, vitamin D/K status, diet, physical activity and sun exposure. The children saw their lowest BMD-z scores for whole-body and lumbar-spine (−1) at diagnosis (10–20%) and after 1 year (30–32%), independent of symptoms. Older children (>10 years) showed substantially lower BMD-z scores for whole-body (−0.55±0.7 versus 0.72±1.5) and serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D (90.3±24.8 versus 70.5±19.8 nmol/l) as compared with younger children (10 years) (P<0.001). Overall, forty-three percent showed suboptimal vitamin D status (25(OH)-vitamin D <75 nmol/l) at diagnosis. Nearly half of these vitamin D deficiencies corrected after 1 year on the gluten-free diet. Also, twenty-five percent of the children showed suboptimal vitamin K status at diagnosis. All vitamin K deficiencies resolved after 1 year. Both children and adolescents with celiac disease face a substantial risk for suboptimal bone health at time of diagnosis and up to 1 year after adopting a gluten-free diet. This higher risk is likely due in part to suboptimal vitamin D/K levels. Children and teens with celiac disease may benefit from treatment regimens that promote optimal vitamin K/D intake. Source: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, (5 October 2011) | doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.176
  8. Celiac.com 03/14/2012 - A group of researchers recently studied the ways in which HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 might influence the severity of celiac disease. Specifically, the team wanted to study HLA-DQA1 and DQB1 profiles in adults with different forms of celiac disease, including adults with complicated and potential celiac disease, the most seriously affected, and those with the best preserved histologic end of the pathologic celiac spectrum. The researchers included F. Biagi, P.I. Bianchi, C. Vattiato, A. Marchese, L. Trotta, C. Badulli, A. De Silvestri, M. Martinetti, and G.R. Corazza. They are affiliated with the Coeliac Centre/First Department of Internal Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia, Italy. Patients with complicated celiac disease showed more HLA-DQB1*02 homozygosity than those with uncomplicated celiac disease. The team conducted HLA-DQA1 and DQB1 molecular typing for 218 adults with celiac disease. Of these, 169 had uncomplicated celiac disease, 27 had complicated celiac disease, and 22 had potential celiac disease. They used 224 healthy stem cell donors as a control group. The team analyzed HLA-DQA1 and DQB1 gene polymorphism using polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers and/or reverse polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotides. They found, as expected, that the frequency of HLA-DQB1*02 allele, DQB1*02 homozygosity, and DQB1*0302 gene were statistically different in the four groups. However, multivariate analysis showed that patients with potential celiac disease have a higher frequency of both HLA-DQB1*0302 and HLA-DQB1*0603 alleles, along with a reduced frequency of DQB1*02 homozygosity, as compared with patients with uncomplicated and complicated celiac disease. The increased frequency of DQB1*0302 coupled with the reduced frequency of DQB1*02 homozygosity in potential celiac disease supports the idea that variations in clinical/pathologic expressions of celiac disease might reflect different immune system triggers. This observation could impact the way in which celiac disease is understood and studied in the future. Source: J Clin Gastroenterol. 2012 Jan;46(1):46-50.
  9. Celiac.com 06/10/2011 - Children born in the spring or summer seem to have higher rates of celiac disease, according to a study of Massachusetts children. This higher rate could be tied to certain seasonal and environmental factors, according to researchers at the Massachusetts General Hospital for Children. Potential triggers for celiac disease seem to include the timing of infants' introduction to gluten and of viral infections during the first year of life. The research team hypothesized that the season of a child's birth might influence rates of celiac disease, since babies commonly receive their first foods with gluten at about six months of age, which for children born in spring or summer would mean the beginning of the winter cold season. The research team assessed 382 patients with biopsy-confirmed celiac disease, whose age at diagnosis ranged from 11 months to 19 years. Among older children (ages 15 to 19), there was virtually no difference in birth season (categorized as light, meaning March to August, or dark, defining September to February). But the group of 317 children under 15 years old showed an significant difference. As a group, 57 percent had been born in a light season, whereas 43 percent were born during a dark season. Given the prevalence of celiac disease in children, the study carries potential importance for families and doctors. Lead researcher and clinical research fellow, Pornthep Tanpowpong, MD, MPH, said the findings might invite researchers health care professionals to rethink their recommended time frame for introducing a children to cereals and other foods that contain gluten. He adds that other potential causative season-of-birth factors, such as sunlight exposure and vitamin D status, also deserve investigation. For people born in the spring or the summer, it might be more appropriate to introduce gluten at a different point than someone born in the fall or winter, said Dr. Tanpowpong. "Although we need to further develop and test our hypothesis, we think it provides a helpful clue for ongoing efforts to prevent celiac disease." Source: EurekAlert
  10. Celiac.com 05/30/2011 - Income plays a major role in whether patients with uncommon symptoms of celiac disease are accurately diagnosed, according to a new study from the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston. A team of researchers led by Daniel Leffler, MD, compared data of nearly 800 adult patients with celiac disease based on presenting symptoms and household and per capita earnings. Some patients had complained of acute gastrointestinal distress, while others complained of classic celiac disease signs like weight loss and anemia, and others of less typical issues. Regardless of patient symptoms upon complaint, the research team found "a very striking linear correlation" between levels of diagnosis and in higher versus lower income groups. Basically, people with better socioeconomic status, had better chances of being diagnosed, according to Dr. Leffler, director of clinical research at the hospital's celiac center. The income disparity may reflect differences in both health awareness and access to health information between higher and lower income groups. The difference serves as a "marker for patients having the resources to educate themselves as to what might be the underlying cause of their disorder," Dr. Leffler said. "Celiac testing is often prompted by patient request rather than physician suspicion, which almost certainly contributes to the diagnostic disparity seen in this study." He believes the study shows a need for greater awareness among both physicians and the public. "Although we need physicians to be more proactive in celiac testing, we can't just focus on physician training if we want to make a difference," he said. "There are likely significant gains to also be made in patient education." Dr. Leffler's findings were included as part of presentations for Digestive Disease Week (DDW), the largest international gathering of physicians, researchers and academics in the fields of gastroenterology, hepatology, endoscopy and gastrointestinal surgery. DDW is sponsored jointly by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, the AGA Institute, the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract.
  11. Celiac.com 02/16/2010 - A team of German clinicians recently noted a case that indicates that tumors may influence immunologic reactions. The team included F. Mühr-Wilkenshoffa, M. Friedricha, H.-D. Fossb, M. Hummelb, M. Zeitza, and S. Dauma. They are associated with the Medical Clinic I, Gastroenterology, Rheumatology and Infectious Diseases, and with the Department of Pathology, Charité at University Medicine Berlin. They recently reported on the case of a 72-year-old patient who suffered from celiac disease that had been diagnosed in his early fifties. The patient had not followed a gluten-free diet. Rather, he had eaten a normal diet. However, he showed no evidence of enteropathy or celiac-associated antibodies. Still, the patient developed a jejunal T-cell lymphoma. Due to perforation, the team performed a resection, and added four courses of IMVP-16. The patient switched to a strict gluten-free diet. After two years, he presented with weight loss and a clonally divergent refractory sprue type II with loss of antigen (CD8; T-cell receptor-β) expression in intraepithelial lymphocytes. At that point, even though he remained on a strict gluten-free diet, he showed elevated blood levels of celiac-associated antibodies. The team notes several interesting facets to the case. First, the lack of enteropathy under a gluten-containing diet supports the notion that malignant diseases, especially non-Hodgkin lymphoma, trigger immune suppression. Secondly, the fact that, while still on a strict gluten-free diet, the patient developed an early form of a second independent T-cell lymphoma (refractory sprue type II), coupled with the celiac-associated antibodies, raises the question whether the clonal intraepithelial lymphocytes might be stimulating antibody production. Thus, taken alone, the detection of celiac-associated antibodies in patients with celiac disease is not sufficient to prove noncompliance with gluten-free diet. Source: Digestion 2010;81:231-234 (DOI: 10.1159/000269810)
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