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Celiac.com 02/24/2014 - What kind of impact does gluten have in on the microbial gut activity of healthy people without celiac disease? A team of researchers set out to answer that question by studying the metabolism of gluten in healthy individuals, and the effects of gluten on their intestinal microbial activity. The research team included A. Caminero, E. Nistal, L. Arias, S. Vivas, I. Comino, A. Real, C. Sousa, J.M. de Morales, M.A. Ferrero, L.B. Rodríguez-Aparicio, and J. Casqueiro, all with the Área de Microbiología at the Universidad de León in León, Spain. The team analyzed fecal samples from eleven healthy subjects under four different diet regimens: a normal gluten diet, a strict gluten-free diet (GFD), a GFD with a supplemental intake of 9 g gluten/day and a GFD with a supplemental intake of 30 g gluten/day. In each case, they measured gluten content, fecal tryptic activity (FTA), short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and fecal glutenasic activity (FGA). Fecal gluten contents, FTA, SCFAs and FGA varied sharply, according to levels of dietary gluten intake. When patients received high gluten doses, over 30 grams per day, they showed sharply higher SCFA concentrations of around 70.5 mmoles per kg of feces, compared with concentrations of around 33.8 mmoles per kg feces during the gluten-free phase of the experiment. However, the FTA showed significant differences between the GFD (34 units) and the normal gluten-containing diet (60 units), and also between the GFD and the GFD + 30 g of gluten/day (67 units). In every case, when patients regularly consumed gluten, gluten was detected in the feces. This demonstrates that at least a portion of the ingested gluten is eliminated in the large intestine, thus offering a substrate for intestinal microbial proteases. The results also showed that fecal glutenasic activity increased proportionally with dietary gluten, showing an enzymatic activity of 993 units in DSG, 2,063 units in DSG + 9 g and 6,090 units in DSG + 30 g. Gluten consumption definitely influences the activity of intestinal microbes, and also increases gluten proteolytic activity in the feces of healthy, non-celiac individuals. Undoubtedly, more research needs to be done to determine what, exactly these findings mean for the study of celiac disease. Source: Eur J Nutr. 2012 Apr;51(3):293-9. doi: 10.1007/s00394-011-0214-3.
Celiac.com 05/02/2013 - Even though gluten-free baked goods are getting slowly better than in the past, many gluten-free baked goods on the market today taste worse than their traditional counterparts made with wheat flour, and may also lead to nutritional deficiencies of vitamins, minerals and fiber. Thus, the production of high-quality gluten-free products has become a very important issue. Microbial fermentation using lactic acid bacteria and yeast is one of the most ecological sensitive and economically sound methods of producing and preserving food. A team of researchers recently set out to determine how microbial fermentation with lactic acid bacteria might be used to make better gluten-free products. The research team included E. Zannini, E. Pontonio, D.M. Waters, and E.K.Arendt of the School of Food and Nutritional Sciences at the University College Cork in Western Road, in Cork, Ireland. Their recent article in Applied Microbiology and Microtechnology reviews the role of sourdough fermentation in creating better quality gluten-free baked goods, and for developing a new concept of gluten-free products with therapeutic and health-promoting characteristics. Source: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012 Jan;93(2):473-85. doi: 10.1007/s00253-011-3707-3.
Celiac.com 06/25/2010 - Recent scientific evidence suggests that gut microbiota may play a significant role in celiac disease. To further examine the role of gut microbiota in celiac disease, an Italian research team conducted a study of children with celiac disease. The research team included Serena Schippa, Valerio Iebba, Maria Barbato, Giovanni di Nardo,Valentina Totino, Monica Proietti Checchi, Catia Longhi, Giulia Maiella, Salvatore Cucchiara, Maria Pia Conte. To gain a better understanding of any role played by dominant duodenal microbiota, the team analyzed the mucosa-associated microbiota of 20 children with celiac disease, both before and after treatment with a gluten-free diet. The compared the results with a group of 10 control subjects. The team extracted total DNA from duodenal biopsies and amplification products of 16S ribosomal DNA. They then compared the results using temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE). They assessed TTGE profiles by statistical multivariate analysis. They found that, on average, patients with active celiac disease showed a significantly higher number of bands in TTGE profiles (P<0.0001) (n.b. 16.7 +/- 0.7), compared to patients with treated, or inactive disease (n.b. 13.2 +/- 0.8) compared to control subjects (n.b. 3.7 +/- 1.3). Average inter-individual similarity indices were 54.9% +/- 14.9% for active disease patients, 55.6% +/- 15.7% for treated (inactive) celiac disease, and 21.8% +/- 30.16% for controls. Similarity index between celiac children before and after treatment with gluten-free diet was 63.9% +/- 15.8%. Variation in microbiota biodiversity between active and remission state was P=0.000224. Between active celiac disease and control subjects, variation was P<0.001. Patients with celiac disease showed higher populations of Bacteroides vulgatus and Escherichia coli, compared to control subjects (P<0.0001). Overall, the results demonstrate a peculiar microbial TTGE array, coupled with substantially greater biodiversity of duodenal mucosa in children with celiac disease. Further study is needed to assess any possible pathophysiological role for these microbial differences. Source: BMC Microbiology 2010, 10:175