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Found 5 results

  1. Celiac.com 12/28/2018 - Beyond a few teaser studies, we don’t know enough about whether the individual micro-biome might play a role in the development of celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease. Top celiac researcher Alessio Fasano, together with colleague G. Serena, recently presented an overview of current knowledge regarding the contribution of the individual micro-biome to celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease. Their discussion includes a particular focus on how probiotics may be used as potential preventive therapy for CIDs. They are both affiliated with the Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center and Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children - Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. As part of their presentation, they write that, globally, cases of chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs) are undergoing a steep rise. This rise, together with limited effective strategies for slowing these disease explosions demands deeper knowledge of their physical mechanisms in order to reduce the adverse effects of the diseases on children. Several cross-sectional studies have shown a connection between intestinal microbial imbalance and active disease. Unfortunately, they note, these studies do not demonstrate any connection between changes in microflora as a factor in disease development, and so do not suggest any promising directions to explore for possible treatments. Fasano and Serena say that additional studies are needed to show conclusively whether intestinal dysbiosis plays a part in triggering CIDs. Furthermore, given the complexity of the microflora interaction with the host, it is necessary to design a systems-level model of interactions between the host and the development of disease by integrating micro-biome, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metabolomics with either clinical or environmental data. In their overview, Fasano and Serena discuss the current knowledge regarding the contribution of the individual microbiome to celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease. Their discussion includes a particular focus on how probiotics may be used as potential preventive therapy for CIDs. The article includes a paywall, but you may find it at: Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018 Dec 20. doi: 10.1007/5584_2018_317
  2. Celiac.com 07/25/2018 - Several recent research articles have emphasized the connection between intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn's disease with dysbiosis or an imbalance in the microbiota composition in the gut. However, little is known about the role of the microbiota in autoimmune pathologies affecting other tissues than the intestine. A team of researchers recently set out to examine the role played by gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of non-intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Grave's diseases, multiple sclerosis, Type-1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders. They wanted to see if microbiota can influence and determine the function of cells of the immune system. In their report, the team discusses how metabolites derived from bacteria could be used as potential therapies for non-intestinal autoimmune diseases. The report was reviewed by Richard Eugene Frye of Phoenix Children's Hospital, United States, and Matej Oresic at the University of Turku in Finland. The report was edited by Marina I. Arleevskaya of Kazan State Medical Academy in Russia. The authors conclude: "The current evidence supports the notion that changes or alterations of the microbial species that form part of the intestinal microbiota will affect the balance of Tregs and Th17 cells at the intestine, which could modify the immune response of non-intestinal autoimmune diseases. The experimental evidence suggesting that the cytokines secreted from Treg and Th17 will determine and influence non-intestinal autoimmune responses. It could also be possible that cells of the immune system located at the intestine could to move other organs to establish or modify an autoimmune response. The major message of this review is that the abundant data support the notion that the intestine is a critical organ the appropriate immune balance and for the prevention of non-intestinal autoimmune diseases. The key point is that by modifying the intestinal microbiota of a patient that suffers non-intestinal autoimmune disease it might be possible to improve the outcome of such illness." For more on the role of microbiota in influencing immune cell function and promoting individual wellbeing, read the full report in Frontiers in Microbiology. The research team included Maria C. Opazo, Elizabeth M. Ortega-Rocha, Irenice Coronado-Arrázola, Laura C. Bonifaz, Helene Boudin, Michel Neunlist, Susan M. Bueno, Alexis M. Kalergis, and Claudia A. Riedel. They are variously affiliated with the Laboratorio de Biología Celular y Farmacología, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile; Facultad de Medicina, Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile; Laboratorio de Inmunobiología, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Biología Celular y Tisular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico; Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Unidad de Investigación Médica en Inmunoquímica Hospital de Especialidades Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico; Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1235, Institut des Maladies de l'Appareil Digestif, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France; and the Departamento de Endocrinología, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad, Metropolitana, Chile.
  3. Celiac.com 02/01/2017 - More and more evidence shows a connection between gut inflammation and type 1 diabetes (T1D). A team of researchers recently set out to assess gut inflammatory profiles and microbiota in patients with T1D, and to compare them with healthy controls (CTRL) and with celiac disease patients as gut inflammatory disease controls. The research team included Silvia Pellegrini, Valeria Sordi, Andrea Mario Bolla, Diego Saita Roberto Ferrarese, Filippo Canducci, Massimo Clementi, Francesca Invernizzi, Alberto Mariani, Riccardo Bonfanti, Graziano Barera, Pier Alberto Testoni, Claudio Doglioni, Emanuele Bosi, and Lorenzo Piemonti. They are affiliated with the Diabetes Research Institute at the IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute in Milan, Italy. The team evaluated inflammatory status and microbiome composition in biopsies of the duodenal mucosa from 19 patients with T1D, 19 with celiac disease, and 16 healthy control subjects, recruited at San Raffaele Scientific Institute, in Milan, Italy, between 2009 and 2015. They assessed inflammation by gene expression study and immunohistochemistry and used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to analyze microbiome composition. Compared to CTRL and celiac disease patients, the team found an increased expression of CCL13, CCL19, CCL22, CCR2, COX2, IL4R, CD68, PTX3, TNFα and VEGFA genes in T1D patients. The immunohistochemical analysis confirmed T1D specific inflammatory status was mainly marked by increased monocyte/macrophage lineage infiltration, compared to healthy and celiac disease control tissues. The T1D duodenal mucosal microbiome also proved to be different from the control groups. This was mainly marked by increased Firmicutes, and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and a reduction in Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The expression of genes specific for T1D inflammation was associated with the excess of specific bacteria in duodenum. This study shows that patients with T1D show specific abnormalities in gut inflammation and microbiota. Greater knowledge of the complex pathogenesis of T1D will likely provide new directions for therapies targeting the gut. Look for more studies in this area in the near future, as scientists look to nail down specific treatments to prevent gut inflammation. Source: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2016-3222
  4. Celiac.com 09/16/2016 - Great news about poop transplants: They work! And now doctors kind of understand how and why they work. This is good news about a humor provoking, but very serious matter. Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most common health care-associated infections, and up to 40% of patients suffer from recurrence of disease following standard antibiotic therapy. C. difficile infection has proven to be very difficult to treat. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been successfully used to treat recurrent C. difficile infection. Doctors hypothesize that FMT promotes recovery of a microbiota capable of colonization resistance to C. difficile. However, they didn't really understand how it worked. Recently, a research team investigated changes in the fecal microbiota structure following FMT in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection, and imputed a hypothetical functional profile based on the 16S rRNA profile, using a predictive metagenomic tool. After FMT, they also noted increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreased abundance of Proteobacteria. The research team included Anna M. Seekatz, Johannes Aas, Charles E. Gessert, Timothy A. Rubin, Daniel M. Saman, Johan S. Bakken, and Vincent B. Young. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA; Essentia Health, Department of Gastroenterology, Duluth, Minnesota, USA; Essentia Institute of Rural Health, Duluth, Minnesota, USA; and St. Luke's Hospital, Section of Infectious Diseases, Duluth, Minnesota, USA. Their results showed that, after transplantation, fecal microbiota of recipients was more diverse, and more similar to the donor profile, than the microbiota before transplantation. Additionally, they observed differences in the imputed metagenomic profile. In particular, amino acid transport systems were over-represented in samples collected prior to transplantation. These results Indicate that functional changes accompany microbial structural changes following this therapy. Further identification of the specific microbiota, and functions that promote colonization resistance, may help to create better treatment methods for C. difficile infection. Source: mBio. 2014 May-Jun; 5(3): e00893-14. Published online 2014 Jun 17. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00893-14. PMCID: PMC4068257
  5. Celiac disease is known to be triggered, at least in part, by environmental factors. These factors can even affect one identical twin and not the other and seem to have their greatest impact during infancy when gluten is first introduced to the diet. Gut flora makeup and vitamin D levels are 2 factors which differ in infants and could affect the development of the immune system in ways leading to celiac disease. Recent research has shown that gut Bifidobacterium levels are lower in both treated and untreated celiac disease patients. Bifidobacterium species have properties which are beneficial to the immune system such as increasing IL-10 secretion and decreasing intestinal permeability. But other microbiota species may also have important effects and benefits to the developing immune system. Scientists are only beginning to scratch the surface both in cataloging the microbiota species found in the gut and understanding how environmental factors, such as antibiotics, affect their makeup and, in turn, how the makeup of gut microbiota affects human health. A new article on Medscape.com discusses the current state of this research and is excellent reading: Gut Reaction: Environmental Effects on the Human Microbiota Melissa Lee Phillips Published on Medscape.com: 07/15/2009 http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/705512_print It may be years before research fully understands how gut microbiota and vitamin D deficiency may be involved in triggering celiac disease. Both vitamin D and probiotic supplements (such as Bifidobacterium infantis) are cheap, readily available, and generally safe. There is much current research showing how important vitamin D is for overall health. Your infant's health is a matter of immediate concern and cannot wait 5 or 10 years for research to confirm whether such supplements can help prevent celiac disease. It would seem prudent to make use of these supplements now in both mother and infant during pregnancy, while breast-feeding, and prior to introducing gluten to your baby. Consult with your physician about how much is the right dose.
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