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Found 25 results

  1. Celiac.com 01/02/2019 - Way back in 2011, a team genetic engineering researchers at the University of Washington began to develop a new treatment for celiac disease. The team’s early research suggested that an oral enzyme that could break down the gluten proteins would be an ideal therapy for celiac disease. Taken before meals by a person with celiac disease, such an enzyme would ideally neutralize all trace of gluten before they could trigger an immune response. Their search to develop such a treatment would take them nearly a decade of effort. To fuel their goals, the team made use of pioneering computer software, called the Rosetta Molecular Modeling Suite, that helps design new proteins, including enzymes. They began by selecting a protein-digesting enzyme that was already known to work well in acidic conditions. However, the selected enzyme lacked the gluten-killing ability the team sought. Using a video game-like interface to Rosetta called Fold-it, the team created versions of the enzyme that would target gluten proteins. The team then chose about 100 of their most promising enzyme designs. They then physically created each of those designer enzymes in the lab and tested their ability to break down gluten. By combining the best performing enzymes, the team was able to create a prototype gluten-degrading enzyme, which they named KumaMax, as it is derived from the starter enzyme, kumamolisin. After years of additional tweaking of the prototype enzyme at the University of Washington’s Institute for Protein Design, the team was able to begin Phase I clinical trials on KumaMax. If clinical trials go well, the team is looking to follow with testing on human celiac patients. The results could give rise to a new commercially available enzymatic treatment for celiac disease. Read more at: ASCH.ORG
  2. Greetings Everyone, I was diagnosed 3 months ago with Celiac disease and am in the process of trying to get adjusted, and I've been feeling a lot better since I went gluten-free. However, lost a lof weight since I stopped working out. I've been having some trouble keeping my protein intake up and I've been going to start taking my protein shakes again. The one I'm looking at is called "Pure Paleo" by Designs for health that the company names. Have anyone here heard of this company? and my second question is Ensure max Protein is gluten-free? The label says that it is Gluten Free but I'm not sure about the ingredients. Thanks in advance
  3. Celiac.com 08/09/2018 - Whatever one might say about crawfish, shrimp and crustaceans in general, Americans don’t typically eat bugs. Can a former Ralph Lauren marketing executive turn the world on to flour made from crickets? Over the last few years, Americans have been presented with a buffet of alternative proteins and meals. Robyn Shapiro’s company, Seek, has created all-purpose, gluten-free, and Paleo blended flours, which can be used cup for cup in any recipe calling for flour. The company, which makes pure cricket powder for smoothies, ice creams, and other liquid-based foods, is now selling cinnamon-almond crunch cricket protein and snack bites. To get the public interested in its cricket protein and cricket flour products, Shapiro has collaborated with famous chefs to create recipes for The Cricket Cookbook. The book’s cast includes La Newyorkina chef Fany Gerson, a Mexico City native known for her cricket sundaes; noted Sioux chef and cookbook author Sean Sherman; and former Noma pastry chef Ghetto Gastro member, Malcolm Livingston, among others. Other companies have sought to promote the benefits of insect protein, including Chapul, which makes cricket protein bars and powders, and Exo, which makes dairy- and gluten-free cricket protein bars in flavors like cocoa nut and banana bread. These companies, along with others in the business tend to aim their products at Paleo dieters by promising more protein and no dairy. Seek’s chef-focused approach makes it unique. By pairing with noted chefs who already use bugs and bug protein in their cooking, Shapiro is looking to make the public more comfortable and confident in using bugs to cook and bake. So far, the response has been slow, but steady. Seek has already raised nearly $13,000 from 28 backers, well on its way toward its $25,000 goal. Seek’s cricket flours and other products will initially only be available via Kickstarter. If that goes well, the products will be sold on Seek’s website. Early backers will get a discount and a chance for a signed copy of the book. Seek hopes to debut their products nationwide starting in the fall. Could gluten-free cricket flour and the new cookbook be the next big gluten-free Christmas gift? Stay tuned for more on this and other gluten-free stories. Source: grubstreet.com
  4. Celiac.com 10/21/2014 - Insects offer one of the most concentrated and efficient forms of protein on the planet, and they are a common food in many parts of the world. So, could high-protein flour made out of crickets change the future of gluten-free foods? A San Francisco Bay Area company is looking to make that possibility a reality. The company, Bitty Foods, is making flour from slow-roasted crickets that are then milled and combined with tapioca and cassava to make a high-protein flour that is gluten-free. According to the Bitty Foods website, a single cup of cricket flour contains a whopping 28 grams of protein. So can Bitty Foods persuade gluten-free consumers to try their high protein gluten-free flour? Only time will tell. In the mean time, stay tuned for more cricket flour developments. What do you think? Would you give it a try? If it worked well for baking, would you use it?
  5. Celiac.com 08/22/2017 - The main source of protein in aquaculture feeds is fishmeal, which is expensive and not conducive to the long-term growth of the industry. Plant protein is much cheaper. However, replacing fishmeal with a plant-based diet reduces salmonid growth, and soy and other legumes can cause severe enteritis in the fish. Most rainbow trout are carnivores. Trout do fine on fishmeal, but trout fed a soy-based diet will usually develop gastroenteritis and other problems. One particular strain of trout, however, seems to tolerate soy just fine. Why? Researchers recently set out to identify genes critical to the rainbow trout strain's tolerance of a soy-based diet. The research team included Jason Abernathy and Ken Overturf from USDA-ARS, USA, and colleagues. For their study, the research team compared non-selected and selected rainbow trout raised for 12 weeks on either a fishmeal-based feed or a high-soy, all plant-protein feed. They then conducted a functional genetic analyses that included differential gene expression, co-expression, and metabolic pathway mapping in muscle and liver tissue. The team found 63 candidate genes that enable trout to tolerate a high-soy diet. The genes may help researchers to uncover and promote plant-diet tolerance in fish. The researchers also identified risk loci, which are implicated in human inflammatory bowel diseases, suggesting that rainbow trout selected for plant-diet tolerance may provide a biomedical model for better understanding ulcerative colitis and celiac disease. Source: PLOS ONE
  6. Just bought some nail polish remover and realised that it contains hydrolysed wheat protein. Is this safe to use considering I'm obviously not going to consume it? Will my nails absorb the wheat protein?
  7. Hey guys, So I'm looking for a nutrition bar/protein bar that not only has to be gluten free, but also nut free. My girlfriend and I live together and she is highly allergic to all tree nuts, so we can't have any nut products in the house (coconut is the exception). I'm looking for a product or recipe that satisfies both of these conditions. I've tried places like google and pinterest, as well as all grocery stores in my area, and everything I'm finding is free of one or the other, but never both. For what it's worth, we live in Ontario, Canada, right on the border of the US. While we don't necessarily want to shop over there with the exchange rate, we will consider it if their are no other options. Thanks in advance!
  8. Celiac.com 12/16/2015 - Just a month after General Mills recalled nearly two million boxes of gluten-free Cheerios from store shelves and warehouses due to "inadvertent" gluten contamination, the company and its flagship brand Cheerios are facing yet another public relations challenge. General Mills is being sued for false advertising by a major consumer watchdog over its Cheerios Protein cereal, introduced in March, 2014, as a "healthy alternative" to both classic Cheerios and other breakfast cereals. According to an official complaint filed with the Northern California District Court by the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), "General Mills falsely and misleadingly markets Cheerios Protein to children and adults as a high protein, healthful alternative to Cheerios." According to General Mills’ official marketing language, Cheerios Protein "offers the benefits that go along with starting the day with 11g of protein and the great taste of Cheerios that kids and parents already know and love." According to the CSPI, while Cheerios Protein does contain a tiny bit more protein than classic Cheerios, General Mills has nearly doubled the recommended serving size for Cheerios Protein, making its protein content seem much greater than it actually is. So, while the "recommended serving size" of original Cheerios is 28g, the recommended serving of Cheerios Protein is 55g. When you crunch the numbers, Cheerios Protein only has just 7/10 of a gram more protein than regular Cheerios, hardly a major source of protein, or a major improvement over regular Cheerios. In their complaint, CSPI is accusing General Mills of engaging in what amounts to marketing sleight-of-hand, to trick consumers into paying an average of 70 cents more per box than other brands of Cheerios, for a product that contains an insignificant amount of extra protein, but 17 times more sugar than classic Cheerios. Yes, even though they have about the same amount of protein by weight, a serving of original Cheerios contains just 1g of sugar, while a serving of Cheerios Protein will give you a whopping 17g of sugar; about the same as half a can of Coke. Basically, eating two bowls of original Cheerios will give you about the same amount of protein as Cheerios Protein, but with far less sugar, and at a lower cost. That's where the lawsuit comes in. Basically, CSPI is hoping to use the courts to pressure General Mills to remove or revise their marketing cliams, which CSPI says, are little more than smoke and mirrors. Stay tuned for the latest developments on this and related stories. Read more at Inquisitr.com
  9. Celiac.com 10/01/2015 - Nutrilac protein from Arla Food Ingredients (AFI) offers manufacturers a way to make gluten-free products that are indistinguishable from products made with conventional flour, says John Kjaer, global sales manager for bakery at AFI. Kjaer points out that the gluten-free trend is huge right now, will only be sustainable if "bakery companies…can make gluten-free bread and cakes that are virtually indistinguishable from their conventional equivalents." According to AFI, Nutrilac can be incorporated into standard gluten-free baked goods, and offers gluten-free bakers a similar baking quality to wheat flour, producing an elastic dough that can be handled like standard wheat flour dough. This eliminates the problem of dry, crumbly gluten-free baked goods. Nutrilac uses completely natural milk proteins, which have a neutral, well-rounded milky taste, with no impact on overall product flavor. Products made with Nutrilac do not require new machinery or a change in standard manufacturing procedures, making it easier for companies to enter the gluten-free market, AFI said. AFI will be showcasing Nutrilac at IBA in Munich from the 12-17 September 2015.
  10. KidzShake was created by a physician and mother who wanted her children to have a beverage that does not contain sugar or artificial ingredients. KidzShake is made with a low glycemic protein blend and sweetened with stevia and xylitol, which makes it the perfect beverage for kids with blood sugar problems. This shake also contains a digestive blend and an enteric-coated probiotic blend – something you will not find in any other beverage for children on the market today. If you're looking for a shake that has vitamins, nutrients and other health benefits, KidzShake is worth trying. Visit their site for more info: www.kidzshake.com. Review written by Patricia Seeley.
  11. Celiac.com 04/28/2014 - Accumulation of dendritic cells (DCs) in duodenal mucosa is associated with celiac disease. Autophagy protein LC3 has recently been implicated in autoantigen formation. However, its role in celiac disease remains unknown. A team of researchers recently set out to examine role of autophagic protein LC3 expressed by activated DCs in celiac disease. The research team included P. Rajaguru, K. Vaiphei, B. Saikia, and R. Kochhar, with the Department of Histopathology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research in Chandigarh, India. The team analyzed thirty celiac disease patients at initial presentation and after 6 months of gluten-free diet (GFD). They examined duodenal biopsies for histological changes and CD11c, CD86, and MAP1LC3A expressions by double immunohistochemistry (IHC). They used Masson's trichrome (MT) staining to determine basement membrane (BM) thickness and Oil Red O (ORO) staining for mucosal lipid deposit. They also conducted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the HLA-DQ system. For statistical analysis, they used paired and unpaired t test, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and McNemar-Bowker test. A P-value They found HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 alleles in all study subjects. They also observed thicker BM in 63% of subjects, while 73% of subjects showed ORO-positive lipid in surface lining epithelium. Pre-treatment biopsies showed a higher number DCs expressing LC3, which dropped significantly in follow-up biopsies, and also showed significant reduction in BM thickness and ORO. These results show that histological improvement in duodenal biopsies is connected with less activated DCs expressing autophagic protein, which likely play important role in the development of celiac disease and other autoimmune disorders. Source: Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2013 Oct-Dec;56(4):342-8. doi: 10.4103/0377-4929.125282.
  12. Celiac.com 04/14/2014 - Exposure to stressful stimuli, such as inflammation, cause cells to up-regulate heat shock proteins (Hsp), which are highly conserved immunomodulatory molecules. Research points to Hsp involvement in numerous autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune bullous diseases and celiac disease. To better understand the role of Hsp in autoimmune bullous diseases, a research team conducted the first investigation of the humoral autoimmune response to Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90 in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH; n = 26), bullous pemphigoid (BP; n = 23), and pemphigus vulgaris (PV; n = 16), the first representing a cutaneous manifestation of celiac disease. The research team included Kasperkiewicz M1, Tukaj S, Gembicki AJ, Silló P, Görög A, Zillikens D, Kárpáti S. They are affiliated with the Department of Dermatology at the University of Lübeck in Lübeck, Germany. In patients with active BP and PV, serum levels of autoantibodies against these Hsp matched the healthy control subjects (n = 9-14), while circulating autoantibodies against Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90 increased at the active disease stage of DH. Further analysis showed that in patients who adopt a gluten-free diet, these anti-Hsp autoantibodies decreased in relation to serum autoantibodies against epidermal and tissue transglutaminase during remission of skin lesions. Larger groups of patients must be studied to confirm these findings, but these results indicate that autoantibodies against Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90 play a key role in the development and maintenance of DH, possibly also in the underlying celiac disease, and may be important in potentially undiscovered disease biomarkers. Source: Cell Stress Chaperones. 2014 Mar 19.
  13. Celiac.com 05/14/2000 - Scientists from the University of Maryland have discovered that people with the autoimmune disorder celiac disease have higher levels of the protein zonulin in their bodies. This discovery may ultimately lead to more insight into the causes of other autoimmune diseases, including diabetes, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. In people with celiac disease who eat gluten, which is found in wheat, rye and barley, an autoimmune reaction is set off that creates antibodies that end up attacking their intestines. This causes symptoms like diarrhea and abdominal pain, and may lead to long-term damage and a large host of other problems. Researchers at the University of Maryland have finally found the cause of this curious reaction: a protein in the body called zonulin. Zonulin is a human protein that acts like a traffic conductor for the bodys tissues by opening spaces between cells, and allowing certain proteins to pass through, while keeping out toxins and bacteria. People with celiac disease have higher levels of zonulin, which apparently allows gluten to pass through the cells in their intestines, which triggers an autoimmune response in their bodies. Until now, researchers could never understand how a big protein like gluten could pass through the immune system. According to author Alessio Fasano, M.D., people with celiac have an increased level of zonulin, which opens the junctions between the cells. In essence, the gateways are stuck open, allowing gluten and other allergens to pass. Further: I believe that zonulin plays a critical role in the modulation of our immune system...(f)or some reason, the zonulin levels go out of whack, and that leads to autoimmune disease. Ultimately these finding may help doctors understand the causes of other, more severe autoimmune disorders.
  14. Celiac.com 05/20/2013 - A team of researchers recently looked at the influence of various proteins on the quality of gluten-free bread formulas. Specifically, the team looked at the influence of different concentrates or isolates of protein on the structure, properties and aging of gluten-free bread. The research team included Rafał Ziobroa, Teresa Witczakb, Lesław Juszczakc, and Jarosław Korusa. They are affiliated with the Department of Carbohydrates Technology, the Department of Engineering and Machinery for Food Industry, and the Department of Analysis and Evaluation of Food Quality, at the University of Agriculture, in Krakow, Poland. For their study they made gluten-free breads from dough that included albumin, collagen, pea, lupine or soy protein. They then analyzed the rheological properties of the dough, and found that bread made with added test proteins showed major differences in its visco-elastic properties. Different flours had different effects on specific volume of the loaves. Soy protein and collagen reduced bread volume, while lupine and albumin significantly increased bread volume. In each case, the added proteins had a noticeable impact on the color and textural properties of bread crumbs. Most of the protein preparations significantly decreased hardness and chewiness of the crumb compared to the control sample. Overall, the dough that contained pea protein yielded bread with the most acceptable qualities. The study demonstrated that pea protein created the most acceptable flavor, color, smell and bread crumb in the final product. Soy protein proved to be the least acceptable of those tested, as it produced loaves with smaller volume and a compact structure. The results of this study show that adding pea protein can improve bread quality, and help to slow staling of starch based bread. Source: Science Direct
  15. Hi, I'm new to this board and I just wanted some advice on a subject that has truly concerned me for a while, now. At the end of 2009, I weighed close to 300 pounds. Wow! It was bad, and I was only 20 years old, nearly 21. After I turned (21), I decided that was it. I was sick of being fat, unhappy and unhealthy. I lost about 45 pounds, and then I fell very ill as I had at various points in my life. After I got over that illness, I went back to the gym and dropped even more weight. I was closing in on the 200 pounds mark but I got even sicker. I battled hard until last year, when I discovered my wheat sensitivity. I was 22 at the time, and I'm 23 right now. After cutting out wheat, I lost nearly 15 pounds in 2 weeks, and I felt damn amazing. I felt great and I was so glad I could continue my journey to a healthy weight. I was wrong, though. TLDR; I was a big guy who lost a lot of weight between multiple cycles of extreme illness. This is my current predicament. I simply have no energy to work out, you know? I manage a food food establishment, and I work very hard. That never stopped me, though. I went to the gym and it brought me even more energy for work. But now, I don't eat a lot of carbs. Since I'm a manager, I don't get to leave the store to eat and I can count my (very unfilling) food options on one hand. Also, I don't get a lot of time to eat, and I work for long periods of time without food. Also, sadly, I don't make a whole lot of money. Gluten free food is expensive and I honestly can't afford to bring food to work every day when my grocery bill stacks up as it is. I know it's my diet. After only an hour of looking, I discovered Rabbit Starvation. Too much protein and not enough carbs or fat, and it sounds right on the nose. So there are my questions to any of you great people that might be able to help! 1) Could my issue be rabbit starvation, realistically? 2) Is it a common issue with any particular group of people? 3) What would or do, or have you done, to avoid it? 4) What steps would you recommend so that I can work out without feeling terrible and out or energy. Again, my budget is tight. I know you're all thinking "Get a better job!" but I actually like my job most of the time, and I plan to stay until I finish college in a few years. Any help would be great, you have my gratitude just for reading this! Jeremy
  16. Celiac.com 06/18/2012 - Following US approval (SA GRAS) of its natural potato protein isolates, Dutch ingredients firm Solanic is touting their protein as a way for manufacturers to craft higher quality gluten-free baked goods. The protein is approved at levels of .01 to 10% in manufactured baked goods. The product is designed to create softer breads that will stay fresh longer, and which look and feel much more like regular wheat-based breads. According to Solanic manager for gluten-free, Paul Hart, the protein could bring the shelf-life for gluten-free bread products up to one-week. The company also claims that their protein also boasts a favorable amino acid profile that may help boost the nutritional value of products in which it is included. Solanic's protein isolates have been on the European market since 2008 and in the US market since 2009. The company is working to develop a gluten-free bread prototype by October 2012, and to develop cake prototypes thereafter. Stay tuned to see if the company's efforts help to put better gluten-free baked goods on store shelves in the near future. Source: http://www.bakeryandsnacks.com/Formulation/Gluten-free-bakery-potential-for-Solanic-s-potato-protein-isolates-after-SA-GRAS-approval
  17. I just tried Kay's Naturals Gluten-free Almond Delight Protein Puffs and I have to say that they were not a disappointment. With only 115 calories, 12 grams of protein and 2.5 grams of fat (no trans fats) per serving, I was a bit skeptical, but this crunchy snack kept me satisfied between meals--guilt free! I love that it is made with real almond meal and almond butter because I just despise any artificial flavorings. These little puffs are packaged in individual serving sized bags, which are not only convenient but they help keep the flavors and textures fresh. To find out more visit shop.kaysnaturals.com. Note: Articles that appear in the "Gluten-Free Food Reviews" section of this site are paid advertisements. For more information about this see our Advertising Page.
  18. Needing extra protein in your gluten-free diet? Then I would highly suggest trying biPro's gluten-free unflavored whey protein. It is usually hard enough for me to find a gluten free-protein powder, but it is even more difficult to find one that is versatile and doesn't clump. Recently I tried biPro and I decided to just pour some of the protein powder in my cup of chocolate milk and just mixed it up with a spoon. Unless you try this for yourself, you probably won't believe me when I say that the chocolate milk tasted just like chocolate milk and the powder dissolved beautifully. For more info visit: www.biProUSA.com Note:Articles thatappearin the "Gluten-Free Food & SpecialtyProduct Companies" section ofthis site are paid advertisements. Formoreinformation about this seeour AdvertisingPage.
  19. Kay's Naturals makes snacking healthy, and they have done it yet again. The leader of high-protein, gluten-free snacks has come out with another delicious product. Cinnamon flavored, almond butter-filled Cookie Bites by Kay's Naturals, is a scrumptious bite sized cookie snack that tastes good right out of the box, or poured in a bowl with your favorite milk. Kay's Cinnamon Cookie Bites are light, flaky and crunchy all rolled into one full-flavored bite. The almond flavor is subtle and not over-powering, and each bite is coated with just the right amount of cinnamon, so it stay's flavorful (and crunchy) in milk. Not only are Kay's all natural Cookie Bites tasty, they're healthy too. Kay's Cookie Bites are made with all natural ingredients; no GMO ingredients are used to make Kay's products. Each serving comes with ten grams of protein (the protein equivalent of two eggs), three grams of fiber, and zero cholesterol. So if you are looking to build muscles, lose weight, or simply munch on something yummy and healthy, then these snacks are for you. Kay's Cookie Bites come in one ounce or five ounce bags, making them ideal for keeping a large box in your pantry, and popping some single serve bags into your purse or backpack for an on-the-go snack. Kay's snacks are low in sugar, only three grams per serving, and as a bonus, they are also low glycemic ( for those watching their sugar intake), making these high-protein snacks a great addition to your child's lunch box, or as an after-school snack. Kay's batch tests all of their products for gluten-free, so you can enjoy your snacks worry-free. For more information on ordering this and other Kay's Naturals products, visit their site: http://kaysnaturals.com/celiac/ Note: Articles that appearin the "Gluten-Free Product Reviews" section of this site are paid advertisements. For more information about this seeour Advertising Page.
  20. Gastroenterology, Oct 2003, Vol 125, No 4, p1105-13 Celiac.com 10/30/2003 – It has long been known that celiac disease is caused by T-cell responses to wheat gluten-derived peptides, but the toxicity of other widely consumed grains has not been well studied. The researchers who conducted this study were aimed at determining the toxic T-cell stimulatory properties of barley hordeins, rye secalins, and oat avenins. Except for one instance, they found that there were no identical T-cell stimulatory gluten peptide matches in these grains. There were, however, similar responses found in "11 homologous sequences in hordeins, secalins, and avenins located in regions similar to those in the original gluten proteins," and seven of the 11 peptides were recognized by gluten-specific T-cell lines and/or clones from patients with celiac disease. The team discovered that key amino acids can be substituted, which will either partially or totally stop the T-cell stimulation by the gluten peptides, and that "single nucleotide substitutions in gluten genes will suffice to induce these effects." The researchers conclude: "These results show that the disease-inducing properties of barley and rye can in part be explained by T-cell cross-reactivity against gluten-, secalin-, and hordein-derived peptides. Moreover, the results provide a first step toward a rational strategy for gluten detoxification via targeted mutagenesis at the genetic level."
  21. Celiac.com 10/12/2007 - The presence of gluten serves to activate HLA-DQ2/DQ8-restricted intestinal specific T-cells. Currently, the only treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. A team of Italian researchers recently conducted a study to determine whether a new enzyme strategy might offer promise in abolishing adverse gluten-associated activity. The team used mass spectrometry to analyze enzyme modifications of immuno-dominant a-gliadin peptide P56-58 and modeling studies to determine the extent of peptide binding to HLA-DQ2.The team treated wheat flour with microbial transglutaminase and lysine methylesther. They then extracted, digested and deaminated the gliadin. They used biopsy specimens from 12 adults with known celiac disease to generate gliadin-specific intestinal T-cell lines (iTCLs), which they then challenged in vitro with various antigen solutions. The results showed that tissue TG-mediated transamidation with lysine methylesther of P56-58, or gliadin in alkaline conditions inhibited the interferon expression in iTCLs. Gastroenterology, Volume 133, Issue 3, September 2007; p780-789
  22. Celiac.com 04/23/2007 - A study published in a recent issue of the journal Gut suggests that wheat gliadin might trigger pathological development in mucosal cells that are already abnormal, but otherwise tolerated, within the intestinal tracts of individuals with celiac disease. Researchers at the Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II in Naples, Italy, led by Dr. Salvatore Auricchio looked at the effects of gliadin peptides on various cell lines and celiac mucosal cells in culture. More specifically, the study evaluated the effects of gliadin and affiliated toxic peptides such as A-gliadin P31-43 on endocytosis, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cytoskeleton rearrangements, and activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The researchers report that gliadin peptides induce EGF-like effects across a wide range of cell types. Actin rearrangements and cell proliferation are examples of these effects. Also, they state that gliadin peptides act not as ligands of the EGF receptor, but that they actually inhibit EGFR endocytosis. According to the research team, these observations of gliadin-induced delay of EGFR endocytosis, along with S-phase entry of epithelial intestinal cells, clearly indicate that EGFR plays a role in celiac disease. Dr. Auricchio proffers that a genetic factor in celiacs may bring about deregulated activity in the endocytotic pathway that is compensated in the absence of gliadin. The study concludes that wheat gliadin slows receptor deactivation of Epidermal Growth Factor. This may explain how wheat gliadin and related cereal prolamines trigger rapid increase in cell growth and associated disease activity in people with celiac disease. Gut 2007;56:480-488.
  23. Celiac.com 09/29/2006 - A new study identified a peptide which causes an immune reaction in a majority of active celiac disease patients but no such reaction in any celiac disease patients on a gluten-free diet. Antibodies to this celiac peptide also recognize and bind to the rotavirus protein VP-7 and cause increased intestinal permeability. Antibodies to VP-7 produced in rabbits also increase intestinal permeability. The celiac peptide also binds to Toll-like receptor 4 and activates monocytes (white blood cells active in innate immunity.) IgA and IgG antibodies to rotavirus protein VP-7 are present in a majority of celiac disease patients and to a much lesser percent of the general population. This suggests VP-7 may be involved in the pathogenesis of celiac disease through a molecular mimicry mechanism. Below is the abstract of the study: PLoS Medicine Volume 3, Issue 9, SEPTEMBER 2006 In Celiac Disease, a Subset of Autoantibodies against Transglutaminase Binds Toll-Like Receptor 4 and Induces Activation of Monocytes Methods and Findings: "In our attempt to clarify the pathogenesis of celiac disease, we screened a random peptide library with pooled sera of patients affected by active disease after a pre-screening with the sera of the same patients on a gluten-free diet. We identified a peptide recognized by serum immunoglobulins of patients with active disease, but not by those of patients on a gluten-free diet. This peptide shares homology with the rotavirus major neutralizing protein VP-7 and with the self-antigens tissue transglutaminase, human heat shock protein 60, desmoglein 1, and Toll-like receptor 4. We show that antibodies against the peptide affinity-purified from the sera of patients with active disease recognize the viral product and self-antigens in ELISA and Western blot. These antibodies were able to induce increased epithelial cell permeability evaluated by transepithelial flux of [3H] mannitol in the T84 human intestinal epithelial cell line. Finally, the purified antibodies induced monocyte activation upon binding Toll-like receptor 4, evaluated both by surface expression of activation markers and by production of pro-inflammatory cytokines." Conclusions: "Our findings show that in active celiac disease, a subset of anti-transglutaminase IgA antibodies recognize the viral protein VP-7, suggesting a possible involvement of rotavirus infection in the pathogenesis of the disease, through a mechanism of molecular mimicry. Moreover, such antibodies recognize self-antigens and are functionally active, able to increase intestinal permeability and induce monocyte activation. We therefore provide evidence for the involvement of innate immunity in the pathogenesis of celiac disease through a previously unknown mechanism of engagement of Toll-like receptor 4."
  24. TI- Klinika nietolerancji biaLek mleka krowiego i glutenu u dzieci. AU- Kaczmarski M JN- Pol Tyg Lek; 44 (4) p86-8 PY- Jan 23 1989 AB- In two comparative groups of 50 children with cow milk proteins and 45 children with gluten intolerance retrospective analysis of initial symptoms was carried out. The initial symptoms of intolerance included: vomiting, loss of appetite, recurrent diarrhea, and weight gain disorders. These symptoms closely correlated with the type of nutrition (mixed, artificial) and the duration of exposition to harmful component of the food. The symptoms appeared within first days after birth with peak intensity in 6-8 weeks of life in the group with cow milk proteins intolerance. The symptoms of intolerance were most frequent in children of group II in 7-12 months of life. To prevent food intolerance in Polish children, it is recommended to feed them naturally as long as possible and to introduce flour and 4 basic grains late (after the 6th months of life).
  25. TI- Proba prowokacyjna u dzieci z nietolerancja biaLek mleka krowiego i glutenu: ocena reakcji klinicznych i zmian w bLonie sluzowej jelita cienkiego. AU- Kaczmarski M CS- Kliniki Chorob Zakaznych Dzieci AM w BiaLymstoku. JN- Pol Tyg Lek; 45 (8-9) p161-5 PY- Feb 19-26 1990 AB- Provocation test (re-introduction of the noxious protein) was carried out in two groups of patients: (a) with intolerance to the cow-milk proteins (41 children) treated with milk-free diet for 6-24 months, and ( with gluten intolerance (26 children) treated with gluten-free diet for 6-36 months. The following parameters were compared: type and frequency of the clinical symptoms seen in these patients prior to the introduction of allergen-free diet. Moreover, the type of observed morphological changes in the small intestine mucosa following provocation test were analyzed in the groups of 7 patients. A two-year elimination of milk from the diet produces milk tolerance in about 61% patients; clinical symptoms in the remaining children are diversified. Re-introduction of gluten with the diet (provocation test) produces recurrence of gluten intolerance in 96% of children treated with gluten-free diet for 2-3 years. Recurrence of the disease was accompanied by the atrophy of the intestinal villi.
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