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Found 17 results

  1. Hi, I’m new to this site so I don’t know if this is the right place for this. However, on Sunday I believe I was glutened (this was the only time I ate something out of the ordinary) it is now Friday night and I’m still having stomach cramps at random intervals during the day and bouts of D at night. I have gluten-free for nearly 3 years and I have never had a reaction this severe. I’ve stuck to liquids, no caffeine or carbonated drinks. Only dry food and cooked rice, veg and potatoes. I’ve had baths, napped, gotten early nights, drunk aloe Vera water, taken paracetamol, peppermint tea, hot water and lemon and I’m still suffering. Is there anything else I can possibly do?! I live on my own in a foreign country away from all my family and I’m really starting to get fed up and distressed by the situation. I’ve had to cancel plans with friends and miss out on so much because of this. I’ve lost a considerable amount of weight already and quite frankly I’m scared. Please help, thank you in advance Zoe :)
  2. I have been a diagnosed Celiac for 6 years now. The moment I was diagnosed I have lead a strict gluten free life, I wasn't taking any chances and wanted to feel better. Over the past 6 years I have never intentionally eaten gluten, but there have been times that I have had cross contamination, especially eating out. Yesterday was quite an experience and I've learned from it and upon trying to research it I found nothing....I'm hoping I'm not the only one, although I wouldn't wish this on anyone. About a year ago I found a Chinese restaurant that had an owner who's claim to fame was she had found ways to make just about everything on the menu gluten free. Gluten free Chinese food? Yes please!! I ate there 4 times with no reaction....ahh, life is complete!....until yesterday. I ordered the gluten free potstickers and sweet and sour prawns. About 2 hours later I started feeling really nauseous. The first thing I thought was maybe I got cross contaminated. Then within the hour I told my friend that I needed to go to the emergency room. I had SEVERE middle back pain and upper stomach pain. I was dizzy, extremely nauseous and my lips were burning and tingling. By the time we pulled up to the emergency room I couldn't stop throwing up....it was bad. And the pain was so intense I was told I was whimpering. They got me in right away and started me on an iv and gave me toradol for the pain and zofran for the vomiting. The doctor wanted to do blood work and an ultrasound because he was concerned it was my gallbladder. Well, everything was fine and it was the gluten, although they couldn't test or confirm it. It is day 2 and my lips are still tingly and I still have quite a bit of pain and nausea. I'm extremely tired and weak. I was looking online for people that have had the same or similar reaction and found nothing....am I the only one? Some things I know have helped me and hopefully they can help others....if you've been cross contaminated or "glutenized" as I call it....chew a handful of vitamin c chewables, it helps. Drink LOTS of water. Stick to a bland diet and NO caffeine for a few days to let your stomach heal. Heating pads help and get lots of rest. And there is an amazing product called GI Response, you can buy it on Amazon. It's expensive but you will thank me later. I don't know how long it will take to feel back to "normal", but I have sworn off eating out....I'd swear off eating if I could. Being gluten free sucks. But that's what we've been dealt and so we must deal with it the best we can. I hope that I've helped at least one person.....and if you are unfortunate enough to have the same reaction to gluten as me....know that you aren't alone.
  3. I have very slowly come to the conclusion that I have a problem with casein. This is despite being years into the gluten free life and having mostly avoided dairy for a long time. I say mostly because although I would never have had milk in a coffee or with cereal etc. I didn't worry too much if milk was listed in the ingredients of some gluten free processed treat or deny myself the odd milk chocolate if there was one handy. After all my reasoning would go, I deserve it for eschewing all the nice gluten things... I also hadn't given milk too much thought. I think I just thought I was probably lactose intolerant like my father. However although last time I had a fair amount of milk I got the lactose intolerance stomach signs I also got spots on my chest and back a couple of days later. I think, don't know, but think, my issues with dairy may extend to the casein protein rather than just the lactose. Well I've now had enough of my skin issues which I think are strongly linked to milk so I'm now on a new quest to try and remove dairy completely and finding it a little bit of a struggle. I hadn't realised how many of the nice gluten-free foods also contain milk. So I wondered how strict I have to be where casein is concerned. If you have an issue with it and avoid it, do you have to treat it in the same way you would gluten? Is a tiny amount in processed food enough for you to react? Should I get rid of any biscuits etc I have in which have milk listed as an ingredient? Does it matter if the ingredient is butter which I understand to have much lower casein content? What's the deal with casein?
  4. ok today is officially one week i've been gluten free and i haven't made any noticeable differences in feeling better. my first question is: how long should i wait to expect changes to occur? am i not giving it enough time? prior to going gluten free one of my issues was constipstion, as well as other health issues usually involving an upset stomach, nausea or an uneasy feeling in my stomach. but since going gluten free i have had a bowel movement different from usual. and today it was more loose and diarrhea like and it is very rarely like that. oh and about half way through the week i got a random rash pop up on one ankle???? advice or suggestions??
  5. I have 2 questions about tongue sores. When I am glutenized, I get 1 to 4 spots on my tongue, under the front tip or along the sides. They start red with a white border, then the white border spreads out leaving the red smoothness behind. They usually appear in 3 to 4 hours or if they are delayed by 2 or 3 days. I have been very careful for 2 weeks and have had no known exposure. Then I went to a restaurant that dedicates a space to gluten-free cooking and I've never had an issue there before and had no reaction till 3 days later. I am wondering whether delayed tongue spots is a possibility> 2. question...if this is happening to my tongue, what is happening to my insides? I generally don't get many other symptoms any more that I am so careful. Sometimes after the tongue sores start I am foggy brained or anxious for a day or two, but little digestive symptoms. I am paranoid about lymphoma now that I saw some statistic about celiacs being prone to it.
  6. Hi, I gave up gluten five years ago and have gradually been learning how to avoid cross contamination. Five months ago I started to get gluten reactions back to back and have only twice made it through two weeks without an obvious gluten reaction. I haven't been able to tolerate gluten free bread for a couple of years and recently went grain free which I believe helps. However, I have still been getting glutened up to twice a week. For instance, from airborne gluten (driving through a wheat field that was being harvested and walking past the air vent of an industrial sized bakery) and last night I got sick from cooking in my oven which had had a pizza cooked in it by my family - a rookie error, I know. I have finally got an agreement that my family won't use the oven for gluten and won't eat bread in the house, just cereal but this last one was the straw that broke the camel's back. I am losing hope that I will get a chance to heal. I live a few doors away from a Papa John's and on the other side is a pub kitchen. I just CANNOT face eating any more because I spend all day cooking from scratch vegetables, fruit, meat (I react to beans/eggs/soy and need to do a dairy challenge) but I am CONSTANTLY ill. I am even scared today to breath outside my house because of the Papa John! I have a young baby to care for and it's sunny outside but I am too weak, tired and depressed to do anything. Is there any hope for a (potentially) super sensitive. P.S. I am not diagnosed as I didn't know about celiac or NCGS etc when I gave it up. I am working with a dietician who very much approved of the range of nutrients I was getting, understands gluten etc. She wants us to find a way to get a kind of diagnosis and I am grateful but I know that I am on my own really because I have to be able to manage my environment. Have any super sensitives managed to go for any length of time without being glutened?
  7. For those of you that have determined you can't handle sulfites - how did you determine? What kind of symptoms did sulphites cause you? Was this during the healing process for you and were you able to add them back in?
  8. Nothin' to do at 3am but sit on the internet or curl on the bathroom floor, really. So here I am. Taking a break from crying and sweating after glutened by, I suspect, what got me last week too. Threw it all out etc. but am confused as to why I ate it for 3 days last week and felt like I was hit by a train, slept all day and had mild bloating and constipation but was ok. Then didn't for a few days just in case and had about half the quantity this week and am in AGONY. It's happened before, too. One bit of the wrong thing- agony. Whole pieces of something else given to me before I was in the habit of asking what was in it rather than is it gluten-free (no, guys. Rye is not...) and barely a reaction at all...? How long will this last? Should I abstain from things I was intolerant to after diagnosis for a while like dairy or would it take longer to redo that damage? I'm back to terrified now. Ow ow ow...
  9. I started using Nerium about 6 months ago after the company and the friend I buy it from both assured me that the products are all gluten free. Meanwhile I have definitely been feeling different - at times I think maybe I'm getting glutened somewhere and at others I think no, because I have such a consistent reaction to gluten and this hasn't been a full blown reaction. I started to narrow down my reactions to corn products or to at least be certain that corn exacerbates my pain so today I started going through all my products out of curiosity to see what may have corn lurking in it. I checked my Nerium labels and the day cream has oats in it!!! How can they claim their product is gluten free if it has oats? I ALWAYS react to oats in lotions, etc. I am waiting on a call back from the company - maybe they use certified gluten free oats? I do not have problems with gluten free oats but I can't use lotions from Bath and Body works or other places that have regular oats or oatmeal in them. I have to be very careful. I am really freaked out about this. I have not felt well at all since I started this product BUT I started it literally the day my husband and I separated and I"ve been under a ton of stress and have attributed my ill feelings to that. And I'm not having full blown typical gluten reactions. I am mortified that I never checked the label myself - I've never done that before. It's been a long three years of learning how to do this gluten free diet right and the last two years I haven't slipped up other than one time accidentally using a Bath and Body works lotion with oats. I immediately got hives head to toe and jumped back in the shower and scrubbed off with no further reaction. I am mortified. Does anyone have any experience with Nerium???
  10. Celiac.com 09/16/2009 - People with certain genetic markers may be more likely to develop adverse gut-reactions, which may help trigger the development of other immune problems, such as Type 1 diabetes, according to Dr. Fraser Scott, a member of the research team and a senior scientist at the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute. In a recent study of 42 Ottawa-area young adults with Type 1 diabetes researchers analyzed white blood cells, looking for a response to partially-digested wheat proteins. They found that people with certain genes are more likely to develop an over-reaction to wheat in the gut. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the immune system attacks the pancreas, the organ that regulates blood sugar. No such response was seen in another 22 diabetics in the study, nor in a separate control group of non-diabetics. The gastrointestinal tract is home to the largest variety of immune cells in the human body. In healthy people, the presence of food molecules in the gut does not spark an immune response against food molecules, Scott said. However, if the normal process breaks down, the gut can become inflamed or damaged. Celiac disease is one example of such a breakdown. Folks with Type 1 diabetes suffer higher rates of celiac disease than non-diabetics. One hypothesis for this is that certain immune cells may be stimulated by food triggers and migrate to the pancreas, where they damage insulin-producing cells, Scott said. The human gut is one of the main places where the human body interacts with its environment, including food, chemicals, bacteria and toxins. “It important to understand the role the gastrointestinal tract plays in this disease and other autoimmune diseases,” says Scott. “There are probably a large number of people who have diabetes risk genes, but only a small proportion of them develop Type 1 diabetes. These people have difficulty handling what is present in the environment.” Previous research has shown a gluten-free diet to reduce rates of diabetes in animal models. However, that does not mean that parents who want to keep their children from developing diabetes should adopt a gluten-free diet, says Scott. The genetic risk for diabetes is very complex, he adds. First, it's not easy to know for certain who will contract diabetes; 9 out of 10 people who develop Type 1 diabetes don’t have a relative with Type 1, Scott said. In the mean time, the Ottawa study touches on a very important part of the diabetes mystery. A number of scientists have suspected a link between diet, the gut and Type 1 diabetes for about 20 years now, Scott said. This is one of the first studies to affirm this connection in human cells. For Scott, the fact that 22 diabetics in the Ottawa study did not show a reaction to wheat protein means only that the condition is far more complicated than clinicians can conceive at present. In theory, there are myriad ways in which people may come to develop diabetes, and, says Scott, each may have developed by a separate route. Source: Ottawa Hospital Research Institute
  11. Hey all...a little over a month ago I made bread from Against All Grain. I was really excited to try it because I've been missing bread. Got all the ingredients...made it. It was decent. Wouldn't want it for a turkey sandwich, but toasted with preserves it was good. I ate a few slices over a couple of days and then started not feeling well. Froze the remainder. I felt bad for a few weeks...went back to the chicken and rice type thing, added a food or 2 a day, kept a food journal. Things were improving. Saw the bread in the freezer last week and really wanted some. Had 2 slices over 2 days and started feeling bad again. Started going over things with my husband and he said isn't that the bread you had been eating the last time you started feeling bad? Yep. So...does anything in here stand out as causing issues? I will say that I have eggs, honey, baking soda and sea salt other times without any issues. Ingredients: Cashew Butter Eggs Honey Apple Cider Vinegar Almond Milk Coconut Flour (I used Bob's Red Mill) Baking Soda Sea Salt Thanks!
  12. Celiac.com 11/12/2012 - For the first time, researchers looking for a link between gluten and the immune system have been able to visualize the connection, according to new research in the scientific journal, Immunity. The discovery may help to pave the way for a treatment for celiac disease that can restore immune tolerance to gluten and allow patients to return to a normal diet including gluten. Such a treatment would certainly be welcome news to many people who suffer from celiac disease. The breakthrough is the result of a collective effort by researchers in Australia, the Netherlands and at Cambridge, Massachusetts-based ImmusanT Inc. The project was led by Professor Jamie Rossjohn and Dr. Hugh Reid at Monash University, Dr. Bob Anderson of ImmusanT and Professor Frits Koning at the University of Leiden. By using x-ray crystallography, the researchers were able visualize the way in which T cells interact with the gluten protein that cause celiac disease in patients with the DQ8 susceptibility gene. This discovery will help researchers better understand how celiac disease is triggered, and how pathology develops at the cellular level. About half the population carries the immune response genes HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8, making them genetically susceptible to celiac disease. At least one in 20 people who have the HLA-DQ2 gene, and about one in 150 who carry HLA-DQ8 will develop celiac disease, but people with other versions of the HLA-DQ genes seem to be protected from it. This fact made researchers wonder how the immune system can sense gluten. That wondering triggered research efforts that led to an answer. An important one. “This is the first time that the intricacies of the interaction between gluten and two proteins that initiate immune responses have been visualized at a sub-molecular level. It is an important breakthrough for celiac disease and autoimmune disease,” stated Professor Jamie Rossjohn, National Health and Medical Research Fellow, Monash University. The researchers used the Australian three GeV Synchrotron to determine how T-cells of the immune system interact with gluten. Unlike an accelerator such as the LHC, the Australian Synchroton is a light source rather than a collider, making it ideal for the new study. The end goal of the project is to produce a treatment which allows celiac sufferers to resume a normal diet. Understanding the gluten peptides responsible for celiac disease offers what Dr. Bob Anderson, ImmusanT's Chief Scientific Officer, calls "unique opportunity to interrogate the molecular events leading to a[n]...immune response.” To address this opportunity, ImmusanT is currently developing a blood test and a therapeutic vaccine, Nexvax2, for celiac disease patients who carry HLA-DQ2. Nexvax2 uses three gluten peptides commonly recognized by gluten-reactive T cells. Nexvax2 is intended to restore immune tolerance to gluten and allow patients to return to a normal diet including gluten. Future studies will investigate whether T cell activation by gluten in patients with HLA-DQ2 follows similar principles. If it were safe and effective, would you consider a treatment that restored your immune tolerance to gluten and allowed you to eat a normal diet including gluten? Comment below to let us know your thoughts. Source: Immunity
  13. This is a story about a super-sensitive event and is not the expected celiac reaction. Well, I hit one of those bumps two weeks back! I went with my family to a natural food coop and they had supper. I shopped around. I accidentally touched a package with gluten on the label. I picked up, as a special treat, some Go Papaya, a dried product. It only contains dried only papaya according to the label. I went out to the car and ate my dinner. Notice, I neglected to wash my hand, so I simply brushed them off. I tried not to touch my food as I ate. On the drive home I experienced waves of nausea, and tummy cramps, I thought I was coming down with the flu and fast. I experienced the old familiar fatigue for a couple of days. My thighs swelled noticeably, my other body parts are probably swollen also on my right side. Like, I can't bend my fingers around to meet my fingers on my right hand. I have talked to my health practitioners about it and they feel it had to do with the eating event I describe above. We are watching to see improvement and going from there. I am saying that I am still swollen in the lymph glands 2 weeks later. I am so glad the fatigue didn't hang on this long. I know I have felt this before, but it seems ever so much more dramatic when one has somewhat recovers and has a sort of relapse. Can anyone remember a similar experience? Do you understand what I mean about having old familiar symptoms that scare you more now, because they are not all the time. Anyone not care to buy any packaged foods, personally I think I may be able to go without the Go Papaya snack next time! I am really getting into making it at home. Dried apples are my current occupation. I have an orchard with fresh apples just now! I still feel pretty good, just a bit swollen and achy D
  14. Phew! Well I found out I am Celiac at age 19, and am now 22 years old. I eliminated everything I could pretty quickly. Since then my body seemed to get more sensitive to many foods; I can't eat GMO corn, no non-organic dairy at all, and organic foods as much as possible. Also, for some reason bananas aren't great. Then it started to get a little less sensitive for a while, I felt like my immune system was level, and my digestive system was pretty solid! Then one day, I went to my tried and true- trusted restaurant who are normally extremely good about preparing Gluten-Free foods. I ordered the burger on a gluten-free bun. Hooray! I was starving,so when it came, I chowed down. About 3 bites in I thought "Dang, this is awesome, this bun tastes so good" Then it hit me, oh no.. This isn't a gluten-free bun is it.. So I asked, and it definitely wasn't.. I hadn't eaten that much gluten since age 19!! I almost started crying right there , I was so afraid of what was going to happen. Well I immediately went to the store and purchased probiotics, gluten-ease enzymes, a papaya, everything and anything to help! It was weird, I got really bloated but didn't quite have the same reaction I was expecting. A couple days later then it started to happen. I started having all the normal symptoms, rashes, abnormal bowel movements, bloating, foggy head, fatigue, immune system depression, etc. It's been a couple weeks, but now I'm reacting to so much! Two times in the past week I've had to call in sick to work and just sleep. I've been completely forgetting tasks at work, mood swings out the wazoo (Sorry boyfriend!! I feel like such a jerk sometimes for my crazy mood swings ). I don't know if I've got some sort of contamination happening, or maybe since that hamburger incident my gut was re-damaged and now I'm hyper sensitive again? I worked so hard to get it back to normal. I'm also having swollen lymphs, and hard time sleeping.. Any advice on how to deal with this? How to speed the repair along so I can get back to normal? Also..any advice on how to deal with a significant other during mood swing times? That's another whole can of worms.. PS. thanks for the ranting space--this helps so much!!
  15. Celiac.com 12/31/2012 - In people with celiac disease, eating wheat, barley, or rye triggers inflammation in the small intestine. Left unchecked, this inflammation causes the gut damage that is associated with untreated celiac disease. Specifically, the storage proteins in these grains (gluten) trigger an adaptive Th1-mediated immune response in individuals carrying HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 as major genetic predisposition. Researchers actually have a pretty good understanding of this aspect of celiac disease, part of a process called adaptive immunity. However, there has been some research that suggests that gluten proteins might trigger an immune response in people who do not have celiac disease, and who do not carry the HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 genetic markers that predispose them to developing celiac disease. Such a response is part of a process called innate immunity, and is far less understood than the adaptive immunity process. The innate immune system provides an early response to many microbial and chemical stimuli and is critical for successful priming of adaptive immunity. To better understand the relationship between adaptive immunity and innate immunity in celiac disease, a research team recently set out to determine if gliadin digests might induce innate immune responses in celiac and non-celiac individuals. Specifically, they wanted to know if wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors drive intestinal inflammation, and if so, by what receptor mechanism. The research team included Yvonne Junker, Sebastian Zeissig, Seong-Jun Kim, Donatella Barisani, Herbert Wieser, Daniel A. Leffler, Victor Zevallos, Towia A. Libermann, Simon Dillon, Tobias L. Freitag, Ciaran P. Kelly, and Detlef Schuppan. They are affiliated variously with the Division of Gastroenterology and the Proteomics and Genomics Center at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center at Harvard Medical School in Boston, with the Department of General Pediatrics and the Department of Internal Medicine I at the University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein Kiel in Kiel, Germany, the Department of Experimental Medicine at the University of Milano-Bicocca in Milan, Italy, the German Research Center for Food Chemistry in Garching, Germany, the Hans-Dieter-Belitz-Institute for Cereal Grain Research in Freising, Germany, the Division of Molecular and Translational Medicine in the Department of Medicine I at Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany, and with the Department of Bacteriology and Immunology at the Haartman Institute at the University of Helsinki in Finland. A number of earlier studies (Molberg et al., 1998; Anderson et al., 2000; Shan et al., 2002) have found HLA-DQ2– and HLA-DQ8–restricted gluten peptides that trigger the adaptive immune response in people with celiac disease. However, only 2–5% of individuals who show these HLAs develop celiac disease, which means that other factors, especially innate immune activation, are at play in the generation of celiac disease. Responsive innate cells are primarily macrophages, monocytes, DCs, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes that by means of their pattern-recognition receptors, such as TLRs, trigger the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, resulting in recruitment and activation of additional inflammatory cells (Medzhitov, 2007). Earlier studies (Maiuri et al., 2003) showed that peptides p31-43 or p31-49 from α-gliadin, that lack adaptive stimulatory capacity, triggered innate immune reactions by inducing IL-15 and Cox-2 expression in patient biopsies, and MHC class I polypeptide–related sequence A (MICA) on intestinal epithelial cells (Hüe et al., 2004). However, these studies have proven difficult to reproduce in cell culture, and researchers could not identify any specific receptor responsible for the observed effects. In a subsequent study, gliadin, in cell culture, reportedly triggered increased expression of co-stimulatory molecules and the production of proinflammatory cytokines in monocytes and DCs (Nikulina et al., 2004; Cinova et al., 2007). Two other studies (Thomas et al., 2006; Lammers et al., 2008) implicated the chemokine receptor CXCR3 in increased intestinal epithelial permeability upon gliadin challenge in a MyD88-dependent manner. However, those studies failed to reproducibly identify a specific gliadin peptide as the trigger. So far, no clear picture of the role of the innate immune system in celiac disease has emerged. In this study, the researchers show that members of the non-gluten α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs), CM3 and 0.19, pest resistance molecules in wheat and related cereals, are strong triggers of innate immune responses in human and murine macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells. Their results show that ATIs activate the TLR4–MD2–CD14 complex and lead to up-regulation of maturation markers and elicit release of proinflammatory cytokines in cells from celiac and nonceliac patients and in celiac patients’ biopsies. They also show that mice deficient in TLR4 or TLR4 signaling are protected from intestinal and systemic immune responses upon oral challenge with ATIs. These findings define cereal ATIs as novel contributors to celiac disease. Moreover, ATIs may fuel inflammation and immune reactions in other intestinal and nonintestinal immune disorders. The findings of this study mean that the proteins in wheat may trigger immune reactions not just in people with celiac disease, but in people without celiac disease, and that these reactions may be actively contributing to the development of numerous other intestinal and non-intestinal immune disorders. That's a pretty big deal. Stay tuned to see how future studies elaborate these findings. Read the entire study in the Journal of Experimental Medicine. Source: J Exp Med. 2012 Dec 17;209(13):2395-408. doi: 10.1084/jem.20102660
  16. Celiac.com 04/10/2009 - According to the latest findings by a Norwegian research team, the inner workings of a particular enzymatic reaction is helping scientists figure out how celiac disease develops. In the latest issue of the Journal of Proteome Research, doctors Siri Dørum, Burkhard Fleckenstein, and associates at Norway’s University of Oslo and Rikshospitalet University Hospital describe how they used a quantitative MS method to chart a significant association between the amount of deamidation and the rate at which various epitopes are recognized by T cells of people with celiac disease. The team set out to determine whether the rate of TG2 deamidation correlates with T cell recognition of gluten peptide epitopes. Celiac disease is a common digestive disorder, in which people suffer from an adverse reaction to gliadin proteins in the gluten of wheat, barley, and rye. When people with celiac disease eat gluten, an adverse immune reaction occurs, in which the intestinal villi, the finger-like projections that line the small intestine and serve to absorb nutrients, suffer damage and eventually flatten and disappear. Currently, the only treatment is the adoption of a gluten-free diet that eliminates exposure to the proteins that trigger the immune response. In most cases, the gluten-free diet heals the intestinal damage. So, how does gluten exposure cause this adverse immune system reaction? Much of this process remains a mystery, but there appears to be a strong genetic component. It is known that most people with celiac disease display the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules DQ2 or DQ8, which function as receptors on antigen-presenting cells. The standard method of measuring deamidation is to tie the transglutaminase activity to a secondary enzymatic reaction, which gives off ammonium. But this method is not direct, and if there are multiple peptides in a mixture, which may be highly complex, one can only assess the total production of ammonium. By contrast, the MS method allows the detection of changes on each peptide, and allows the locations of those modifications to be pinpointed within each peptide. The team achieved their results by measuring the centroid masses of the peptides’ isotopic envelopes before TG2 treatment, and comparing the results to the values obtained after TG2 treatment. Depending on the sequence context, the glutamine residues were shown to influence the extent of residual deamidation by TG2. Additionally, they team revealed that peptide length also plays a key role in the process—the longer the given gliadin peptide, the more likely it is to have deamidated glutamines. The team examined an array of gluten peptides with known epitopes, both individually and in mixture, to assess the degree of deamidation. A 33-mer, shorter α-gliadin peptides, and one peptide from γ-gliadin all showed rapid deamidation. The rest of the peptides showed only partial deamidation, even after a long period of incubation. They observed that the frequency of the T cell response in celiac disease patients seems to be tied to the rate of peptide deamidation. T cells from nearly every patient recognized the 33-mer and the α-gliadin peptide, which also served as good TG2 substrates. In comparison, the glutamines of most γ-gliadin peptides were deamidated less often and were recognized less frequently by patient T cells. However, one γ-gliadin peptide showed itself to be an exception. The γ-II epitope functions as an excellent substrate for TG2, but is poorly recognized by T cells. Another factor may be proteolytic stability, as it is understood that the γ-II epitope is part of a gluten fragment that is less stable than the 33-mer. By analyzing gluten peptides using MS, researchers were able to figure out whether the rate of glutamine deamidation by TG2 impacts the recognition of these peptides by the immune systems of those with celiac disease. J. Proteome Res., 2009, 8 (4), pp 1748–1755
  17. The following post if from Karoly Horvath, M.D., khorvath@POL.NET, who is one of the two directors of the celiac center at University of Maryland in Baltimore. Q: Does that mean I could be getting damage without knowing it because I have no obvious reaction? A: Based on our studies a typical (biopsy proven flat mucosa, proved immune reactions to gluten) gluten intolerant patient does not react immediately with clinical symptoms for a gluten challenge (J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1989, 9:176-180). However, ingestion of GRAMS OF GLUTEN causes several changes in the intestine. There is an accumulation of inflammatory cells One cell type -so called mast cells- releases factors which factors in long-term damage the villi and they also release a factor which; Increases the permeability -leakiness- of the intestine, which is a temporarily change after a single ingestion but may be permanent after repeat dietary mistakes. Karoly Horvath, M.D., Ph.D., Baltimore