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  1. Karen Robertsons Amaranth Bread This article originally appeared in the Summer 2003 edition of Celiac.coms Scott-Free Newsletter. Gluten-free bread making the first few times is an incredibly frustrating experience that begs the question...is it really worth it? After my many trials I must say yes it is definitely worth it! We are now able to make an excellent bread that we can all enjoy. Being able to make bread allows my kids to take a sandwich to school, the fact that the bread is good (and looks good) is equally important to them. Since they cannot eat the hot lunch at school due to its "gluten in every bite" nature, it is important to have the option of sending a sandwich the children like (and will eat). Other kids taste the bread, they like it, and say hey this gluten-free diet is pretty good! The benefits to these exchanges are priceless. It took awhile to get to this point but one day I was lucky enough to meet Lee Tobin. He gave me a recipe (originally developed by Barbara Emch) and I had success! I then began to shape this recipe to accommodate the various alternative flours stocked in my pantry. The recipe is fool-proof and it tastes great...especially with teff, amaranth, or buckwheat flour. In this class you will learn how to make a perfect loaf of bread. I will review alternative flours and why I use them. You will learn the tricks for successful gluten-free bread making. And you will learn how to change the template recipe for your own specific needs. In an effort to provide you with a brief recipe for future use—all of the comments I would typically make during a cooking class will be found in the text that precedes the recipe. Why Use Alternative Flours? My experience has been that these flours simply make a superior gluten-free bread. Additionally, many celiacs struggle with weight gain after diagnosis and find their diet may lack important nutrients. As you adjust to the gluten-free diet it is a good time to understand how your body uses the food you eat. Simple carbohydrates are quickly digested and are broken down into simple sugar glucose. When the cells in your body need fuel they use this glucose. Extra glucose is converted into glycogen. If your body already has enough glycogen stored up, the glucose is turned into fat. The typical American diet is overloaded with simple carbs and the celiac diet is no exception. Complex carbohydrates not only take longer to digest but they provide slow consistent energy. You feel full longer and your body doesnt feel the wide fluctuations of blood sugar swings. Beans, whole grains, nut butters, oatmeal, soy, sweet potatoes, and vegetables are complex carbs. They provide needed vitamins, minerals, fiber, and consistent energy. Many celiacs lack B vitamins, calcium, iron, and other nutrients—why not get them from your baked goods and reap the benefits of complex carbs? We try to incorporate the alternative flours in most of our baking. When making sweet breads, cookies, bread, pizza crust, biscuits, and bread sticks I try to substitute about ½ of the flour called for in a recipe with a healthy alternative flour. Our favorites are teff, amaranth, brown rice, and buckwheat. Quinoa and millet flours can be substituted in the same fashion. Be sure you buy from manufacturers who provide pure, gluten-free flour—from the field all the way to the package. In our family we treat corn, carrots, potatoes, and white rice as if they were sweets (i.e. sugar = excess weight gain). They are all simple carbs as are most of the products made from them (chips, cereal, snacks). Here is a quick overview of the various healthy gluten-free flours and their attributes: Amaranth is a whole grain dating back to the time of the Aztecs. It is high in protein (15-18%), and contains more calcium, folic acid, Vitamin A, C, and E than most grains. The flavor is similar to that of graham crackers without the sweetness. Bean Flour is a light flour made from garbanzo and broad beans. When using this flour in your favorite recipes, replace the white sugar with brown or maple sugar (or combine with sorghum) to cut the bitter taste of the beans. Brown Rice Flour is milled from unpolished brown rice, and has a higher nutrient value than white rice flour. Since this flour contains bran, it has a shorter shelf life and should be refrigerated. As with white rice flour, it is best to combine brown rice flour with several other flours to avoid the grainy texture. Much higher than white rice in protein, fiber, zinc, folic acid, B vitamins, calcium and vitamin E (15 times the E in white rice). Buckwheat is the seed of a plant related to rhubarb. It is high in fiber, iron, and B vitamins. Great in many baked goods, pancakes & waffles too. Millet is a small round grain that is a major food source in Asia, North Africa, and India. A rich source of B vitamins. Nut Flours are high in protein and, used in small portions, enhance the taste of many baked goods. Finely ground nuts added to a recipe increases the protein content and allows for a better rise. It is a great substitute for non-fat dry milk powder in gluten-free recipes. We like it so much we always make the substitution. Keep refrigerated. Quinoa (keen-wah), a staple food of the Incas, is a complete protein containing all 8 amino acids as well as a fair amount of calcium and iron. High in some B vitamins and folic acid. Soy Flour has a nutty flavor, and is high in protein and fat. Best when used in small quantities in combination with other flours. Soy flour has a short shelf life. Teff is an ancient grain from Ethiopia, now grown in Idaho. It is always manufactured as a whole grain flour, since it is difficult to sift or separate. A good source of protein, calcium, iron, fiber, and B vitamins. Cross-contamination at the factory can cause diet compliance issues for the gluten intolerant. Call or write the manufacturers of your preferred flours to inquire about factory and field practices. Many people may wonder why I use just one recipe for bread. It is really a template that can be changed to suit your own tastes, preferences, or dietary needs. Changeable elements in the recipe: Eggs One of the most challenging substitutions, if you cannot tolerate eggs use Egg Replacer from Ener-G Foods (or try ground flax seeds as an egg replacement see recipe in flax seed section below) and be sure to use the almond flour instead of the non-fat, dry milk powder. The almond flour adds a great deal of flavor which could be helpful when you cant use eggs. If you read the nutritional label for almond flour it might scare you as the grams of fat are high, remember this is good fat and there is fiber-- both of which slow down sugar absorption in your body, which in turn helps control weight gain. The dry milk powder is high in sugar. Oil Vegetable oil is typically soybean oil and some people are sensitive to canola oil so safflower oil is a good alternative. Sugar I want to experiment with different forms of sugar to find a healthier alternative to the white refined sugar I use presently. Try turbinado sugar, a raw sugar that has been steam-cleaned. It has a delicate molasses flavor. Flour Four cups of flour are in the recipe. The proportions of flours used can be changed around until you find what is right for you. We use it in the way shown in the recipe but my goal is to experiment further and reduce the amount of tapioca flour and increase the healthier flours. Dry milk powder As seen above in the eggs section I now prefer to use almond flour instead of dry milk powder. The bread is much more flavorful and has a wonderful texture. Flax seed This seed has many health benefits such as high-quality protein, fiber, B and C vitamins, iron, and zinc, anti-cancer properties, omega-3 fatty acids, and many other benefits. To use as an egg substitute grind 2 tablespoons flaxseed and add 6 tablespoons boiling water, let set for 15 minutes then whisk with a fork-- this mixture will replace 2 eggs in a recipe. A clean coffee grinder works well to grind the small flaxseed. Cookware Its a good idea to have the proper cookware in your kitchen before attempting to make gluten-free bread. You must have a heavy-duty stand mixer like the Kitchenaid mixer. A heavy-duty mixer properly aerates the batter producing a lighter bread with a fine crumb and more height. You should also have a good quality loaf pan. It helps to know if your oven is running at the correct temperature (an inexpensive oven thermometer will tell you what adjustments you will need to make). Bread machines can be tricky with gluten-free bread, you can call the Celiac Hotline at Red Star Yeast for the most current bread machine recommendations 1.800.423.5422. Temperature In addition to knowing your oven temperature, realize that when the temperature of your home is warm, bread will rise quicker. The recipe includes some tricks to help your bread rise faster when your home is cool (as is generally the case in Seattle). Humidity Gluten-free flour absorbs moisture from the air so be sure to keep it sealed in its packaging and tightly cover any mixing bowls rather than allowing them to sit uncovered for any period of time. The moisture the flour absorbs from the air will affect your recipe. Amaranth Bread: Amaranth Bread makes one loaf. Feel free to substitute the amaranth flour with teff, buckwheat, or quinoa flour. Ingredients 3 large eggs (egg-free option see note below)* ¼ cup vegetable oil 1 teaspoon lemon juice 1½ cups amaranth flour 1½ cups tapioca starch flour 1 cup fine brown rice flour 2/3 cup instant non-fat dry milk powder (dairy-free: substitute with finely ground nuts or almond flour) 2 teaspoons xanthan gum 1 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons ground flax seed (optional) 1½ tablespoons active dry yeast 4 tablespoons sugar 1¼ cups warm water (105F-115F.) Bring all refrigerated ingredients to room temperature. Grease a 5 x 9-inch loaf pan. In the bowl of a stand mixer, combine eggs, oil, and lemon juice. In a separate medium bowl, combine flours, dry milk powder, xanthan gum, salt, flax seed, yeast and sugar. Pour ½ of the warm water into stand mixer and blend with egg mixture. Slowly add dry ingredients a little at a time until completely incorporated. Add remaining water, reserving some water if necessary. See note on humidity below. Mix batter on high speed for 3½ minutes, then pour into prepared pan. Batter will be thicker than a cake batter and nothing like the consistency of regular bread dough. Cover bread with foil and place in a cold oven. Set a pan of hot water on a lower shelf underneath the bread. Leave for 10 minutes with oven door closed. (This will cause the bread to rise quickly.) Remove bread from oven (do not uncover) and place in a warm place in the kitchen. Preheat oven to 400F. Bread will continue to rise as oven preheats. Uncover bread and bake for 10 minutes to brown the top. Cover bread with foil and continue to bake bread for 35-40 minutes. Turn bread out onto a cooling rack. When completely cooled, wrap tightly to maintain freshness for as long as possible. Tips: If humidity is high, reduce the amount of water in the recipe to avoid over rising. Many gluten-free bakers experience the frustrating situation in which a beautiful loaf of bread deflates once removed from the oven. You will need to experiment a little to get just the right amount of water in your bread depending on the humidity in the air. If in question, use less water than the recipe calls for. You may use rapid rise yeast instead of regular yeast. If doing so, eliminate the cold oven rise method with a pan of hot water, follow yeast package directions instead for rise time. Hamburger Buns Pour batter into English muffin rings, follow directions above. Bake for just 15 minutes. Once completely cooled these buns freeze well. Serve buns warmed, otherwise they will be crumbly. *Egg Substitution: grind 3 tablespoons flaxseed and add ½ cup + 1 tablespoon boiling water, let set for 15 minutes then whisk with a fork. Recipes from: Cooking Gluten-Free! A Food Lovers Collection of Chef and Family Recipes Without Gluten or Wheat Karen Robertson (Celiac Publishing, 2002)
  2. Gluten-Free Flours Celiac.com 01/11/2005 - Gluten-free flours are generally used in combination with one another. There is not one stand alone gluten-free flour that you can use successfully in baked goods. Be sure to know the procedures your flour manufacturers use, cross contamination at the factory can cause diet compliance issues for the gluten intolerant. Arrowroot Flour can be used cup for cup in place of cornstarch if you are allergic to corn. Bean Flour is a light flour made from garbanzo and broad beans. To cut the bitter taste of beans, replace white sugar with brown or maple sugar in the recipe(or replace some of the bean flour with sorghum). Brown Rice Flour is milled from unpolished brown rice and has a higher nutrient value than white rice flour. Since this flour contains bran it has a shorter shelf life and should be refrigerated. As with white rice flour, it is best to combine brown rice flour with several other flours to avoid the grainy texture. Ener-G Foods and Bobs Red Mill produce a finer, lighter brown rice flour that works well with dense cakes such as pound cake. Cornstarch is similar in usage to sweet rice flour for thickening sauces. Best when used in combination with other flours. Guar Gum, a binding agent, can be used in place of xanthan gum for corn sensitive individuals. Use half as much guar gum to replace xanthan gum. Guar gum contains fiber and can irritate very sensitive intestines. Nut Flours are high in protein and, used in small portions, enhances the taste of homemade pasta, puddings, pizza crust, bread, and cookies. Finely ground nut meal added to a recipe also increases the protein content and allows for a better rise. Ground almond meal can replace dry milk powder in most recipes as a dairy-free alternative. Potato Flour has a strong potato taste and is rarely used in gluten-free cooking. Potato Starch Flour is used in combination with other flours, rarely used by itself. Sorghum Flour a relatively new flour that cuts the bitterness of bean flour and is excellent in bean flour mixes. Soy Flour is high in protein and fat with a nutty flavor. Best when used in small quantities in combination with other flours. Soy flour has a short shelf life. Sweet Rice Flour is made from glutinous rice (it does not contain the gluten fraction that is prohibited to the gluten intolerant). Often used as a thickening agent. Sweet rice flour is becoming more common in gluten-free baking for tender pies and cakes. It has the ability to smooth the gritty taste (that is common in gluten-free baked goods) when combined with other flours, see Multi Blend recipe. Tapicoa Starch Flour is a light, velvety flour from the cassava root. It lightens gluten-free baked goods and gives them a texture more like that of wheat flour baked goods. It is especially good in pizza crusts where it is used in equal parts with either white rice flour or brown rice flour. White Rice Flour is milled from polished white rice, best to combine with several other flours to avoid the grainy texture rice flour alone imparts. Try to buy the finest texture of white rice flour possible. Xanthan Gum is our substitute for gluten, it holds things together. See usage information on Multi Blend recipe page. Xanthan gum is derived from bacteria in corn sugar, the corn sensitive person should use guar gum (using half as much guar gum to replace xanthan gum). Alternative Flours The national patient support groups agree that the following flours are fine for the gluten intolerant providing you can find a pure source (grown in dedicated fields and processed on dedicated equipment). These flours greatly improve the taste of gluten-free baked goods. To incorporate into your favorite recipe, replace up to 50% of the flour in a recipe with an alternative flour and use the Multi Blend mix for the balance. Pizza crust and bread proportions dont follow this rule. Amaranth a whole grain from the time of the Aztecs- it is high in protein and contains more calcium, fiber, magnesium, Vitamin A and Vitamin C than most grains. Amaranth has a flavor similar to graham crackers without the sweetness. Buckwheat is the seed of a plant related to rhubarb, it is high in fiber, protein, magnesium and B vitamins. Dark buckwheat flour turns baked goods purple, I only use light buckwheat flour. Millet a small, round grain that is a major food source in Asia, North Africa and India. I havent used millet and dont know much about the grain. Quinoa (keen-wah) A staple food of the Incas. Quinoa is a complete protein with all 8 amino acids, quinoa contains a fair amount of calcium and iron. Teff an ancient grain from Ethiopia, now grown in Idaho. Teff is always a whole grain flour since it is difficult to sift or separate. High in protein, B vitamins, calcium, and iron.
  3. Celiac.com 01/11/2005 - Pizza crust is an essential item in the gluten-free kitchen, especially for families with celiac children. This class demonstrates how to make an excellent pizza crust with a variation on the recipe for focaccia bread. Alternative flours will be used and their health benefits detailed. This recipe is adapted from Bette Hagmans first book The Gluten-Free Gourmet. Healthy flours and the tricks I have learned over the years are part of this revised recipe. You may use brown rice flour if you cant find the amaranth, buckwheat, or teff flour, although the health benefits of these alternative flours make them well worth the search. This recipe makes two 13-inch pizzas, or four 10-inch pizzas. Ingredients: 1½ cups brown rice flour ½ cup amaranth, buckwheat, or teff flour 2 cups tapioca flour 2/3 cup instant non-fat dry milk powder (dairy-free: 2/3 cup ground almond meal) 3 teaspoons xanthan gum 1 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons active dry yeast 1 tablespoon sugar 1½ cups water (105-115F.) or less 3 tablespoons olive oil 4 egg whites at room temperature (egg-free: see "flaxseed" in tips section) Olive oil for spreading pizza dough Grease two 13-inch pizza pans, using organic shortening. In the bowl of a stand mixer, combine the flours, milk powder, xanthan gum, salt, yeast, and sugar. In a measuring cup, combine the water and 3 tablespoons olive oil. Add olive oil-water mixture to dry ingredients, then egg whites, mixing well after each addition. Beat on high speed for 4 minutes. Divide dough into two (or four) equal portions. Place each portion on a prepared pizza pan. Cover your hand with a clean plastic bag. Drizzle about a tablespoon of olive oil over your hand and one portion of dough. Spread the dough out evenly over the pizza pan, forming a ridge around the edge to contain the pizza toppings. Repeat process for second portion of dough. Let dough rise for about 20 minutes. Preheat oven to 400?F. Bake pizza crusts for 7 minutes (until lightly golden) and remove from oven. At this point you can either cool the crusts, wrapping and freezing them for future use, or you can spread tomato sauce on the crust and top with your favorite toppings. Focaccia Bread While infinite versions exist, my preference for focaccia bread is a flat, round, chewy, bread brushed with olive oil, rubbed with garlic and sprinkled with rosemary. Follow the same instructions as above though you may want to allow the dough to rise another 15 minutes or so before baking the bread. You may want to bake the bread longer for a more golden crust. Another topping variation is olive oil, sliced shallots, and chopped green or black olives. Plain focaccia bread is also good served with a tapenade or dip. Reprinted with permission from: Cooking Gluten-Free! A Food Lovers Collection of Chef and Family Recipes Without Gluten or Wheat by Karen Robertson
  4. makes 1½ pounds dough You will probably find many uses for this good, user-friendly dough. Recipe from Wendy Warks Living Healthy with Celiac Disease (AnAffect, 1998). Wendy uses this for pretzels, breadsticks, cinnamon rolls, and pizza crust. Use it as a substitution for wheat flour dough in your favorite recipes. 2 teaspoons unflavored dry gelatin 2¼ teaspoons active dry yeast 2/3 cup warm water (105F-115F) 2 tablespoons sugar 2½ cups Wendy Wark's Gluten-Free Flour Mix 2½ teaspoons xanthan gum ¼ cup instant non-fat dry milk powder ½ teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons vegetable oil 2 eggs Combine gelatin, yeast, water, and sugar together in a 2-cup glass measure. Let stand for 5 minutes, or until foamy. In the bowl of a stand mixer, add flour mix, xanthan gum, milk powder, and salt. Mix briefly, then add oil and eggs, followed by yeast mixture. Beat on high speed for 2 minutes, using the paddle attachment until a soft dough forms. Use dough in your favorite recipe. Karen Robertson
  5. Cinnamon rolls are an occasional indulgence that we all deserve. In our home we dont make them often so they are very special. It is challenging to recreate the exact texture of a cinnamon roll but these come close. Substitutions: I like to substitute ½ the flour in the recipe with light buckwheat flour for an even better texture. The first time you make cinnamon rolls follow the recipe exactly and then begin to make your own substitutions. This way you will know what the dough is supposed to feel like before you begin to customize. Though I havent tried it, I believe that a dairy-free version would include substituting the dry milk powder with ground almonds in the Workable Wonder Dough recipe. Water could substitute for the milk in the Cinnamon Roll recipe (butter could be substituted with a non-dairy margarine). Tips: Whenever you make gluten-free bread or dough, take humidity into consideration. Always hold back a little of the water until you can see how wet the dough will be. Gluten-free flour absorbs moisture from the air and too much water can ruin a recipe. The dough needs to be firm enough to roll out with a rolling pin without sticking. It is important to tightly pack the cinnamon rolls into the pan, otherwise, they may become too firm. A warm towel placed over the pan during the rise phase is important. A good way to warm a towel is to place a wet, cotton dishtowel into the microwave for 40 seconds. Place the towel over the pan of cinnamon rolls and then cover with another towel or a piece of foil. This will allow for a nice rise. Good luck. Karen Robertson Cinnamon Rolls Makes nine 2-inch rollsEvery now and then you must treat yourself to a cinnamon roll! Packing them tightly into a baking dish helps to keep them moist throughout. Adapted from Wendy Warks Living Healthy with Celiac Disease (An Affect, 1998). 1 recipe Workable Wonder Dough 3 tablespoons butter, melted 2/3 cup brown sugar 3 tablespoons ground cinnamon ½ cup raisins 1 1/3 cups confectioners sugar 3-4 tablespoons milk Butter an 8-inch round cake pan. Roll out dough to a 9 x 18-inch rectangle, approximately ½-inch in thickness. Brush dough with 3 tablespoons melted butter. Sprinkle sugar, cinnamon, and raisins evenly over the dough. Beginning at one of the 9-inch sides, roll dough into a log shape. Using a sharp, clean knife, cut log into 9 equal pieces. Arrange rolls in prepared pan, packing tightly together and keeping the swirl side up. Cover with a warm, wet towel and let rise one hour. Bake at 400F. for 15-20 minutes. While cinnamon rolls are baking, whisk together confectioners sugar and milk in a small bowl. Drizzle mixture over hot, baked cinnamon rolls.
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