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Found 6 results

  1. Celiac.com 02/29/2016 - Previous studies have shown that oat proteins trigger an adverse anti-33-mer monoclonal antibody reaction that is proportional to the immune responses in terms of T-cell proliferation. Although there has been some research regarding the impact of these varieties on the adaptive response, researchers still don't know very much about the role of the dendritic cells. A research team recently set out to characterize different oat fractions and to study their effect on dendritic cells from celiac patients. The research team included Isabel Comino, David Bernardo, Emmanuelle Bancel, María de Lourdes Moreno, Borja Sánchez, Francisco Barro, Tanja Šuligoj, Paul J. Ciclitira, Ángel Cebolla, Stella C. Knight, Gérard Branlard and Carolina Sousa. They are variously affiliated with the Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain; the Gastroenterology Unit, Antigen Presentation Research Group, Imperial College London & St Mark′s Hospital, Harrow, United Kingdom; the Hospital Universitario de La Princesa and Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IIS-IP), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), Madrid, Spain; the INRA UMR-1095, Clermont-Ferrand, France; the Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Food Science and Technology Faculty, University of Vigo-Ourense Campus, Ourense, Spain; the Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (CSIC), Córdoba, Spain; the Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, King's College London, Gastroenterology, The Rayne Institute, St Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom; and the Biomedal S.L., Sevilla, Spain. The team first isolated protein fragments from oat grains and then analyzed them using SDS–PAGE. They then characterized several proteins in the prolamin fraction using immunological and proteomic tools, as well as Nano-LC-MS/MS. These proteins were very similar to α- and γ-gliadin, and showed reactive sequences to anti-33-mer antibody, indicating their potential for causing adverse immune reactions. Furthermore, the team found that some of the newly identified oat peptides triggered a range of immune responses on circulating dendritic cells from celiac patients, as compared with healthy controls. This is the first study to show that newly identified oat peptides can trigger a range of stimulatory responses on circulating dendritic cells from celiac patients, which highlights the potential of these oat peptides to trigger adverse immune responses in people with celiac disease. Source: Food & Nutrition Research eISSN 1654-661X
  2. Celiac.com 08/19/2015 - For the first time since it was described and named by 1st century Greek physician Aretaeus of Cappadocia, first linked to wheat in the 1940's, and specifically linked to gluten in 1952, scientists have discovered the cause of celiac disease. Professor Ludvig Sollid, and his team at the Centre for Immune Regulation at University of Oslo, have discovered that people with celiac disease suffer from one of two defective human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), which cause the immune system to see gluten molecules as dangerous, triggering the immune response that causes classic celiac-associated inflammation and other symptoms. To be true, the team was not working in the dark. They were armed with a complete map of the genes, an understanding that two types of HLA (HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8) predispose a person for celiac disease, and the very crucial recent discovery by a team of German colleagues that celiac patients have antibodies for a very precise enzyme: transglutaminase 2. "We also found that the bits of gluten that were presented to the T-cells have some changes caused by an enzyme in the body – transglutaminase 2", says Sollid. HLAs are proteins which act as markers, binding to fragments of other proteins, and telling T-cells how to treat them. So it wasn't much of a stretch for Professor Sollid's team to determine that the defective HLAs bind to fragments of gluten, causing the T-cells to treat them as bacteria or viruses. Basically, two HLA types present gluten remnants to the T-cells, causing the T-cells to regard the gluten as dangerous, and to trigger immune reactions that cause inflammation in the intestines, and this is what causes celiac disease. "We think that this is huge," Sollid said. "We understand the immune cells that are activated and why they are activated." At present, Professor Sollid and his group are investigating how antibodies against transglutaminase are formed. This is a simple, but huge moment in the annals of medicine and in the annals of celiac disease. It's a discovery that will help researchers develop new approaches to treatment, and/or a cure for celiac disease in the future. Source: Med.uio.no
  3. Celiac.com 08/19/2016 - Gwyneth Paltrow, Miley Cyrus and the clean-eating bloggers of Instagram have all helped propel gluten-free foods out of health-food stores and into the aisles of Whole Foods and Wal-Mart. Anyone who has ever tried a gluten-free bread or cake has likely found what sufferers of celiac disease have long known. They often don't taste very good. Gluten-free baked goods are often dry, crumbly and flat tasting. As long as there has been gluten-free bread, there has been mediocre gluten-free bread. This is not the fault of bakers. The problem is structural, chemical. Gluten, the protein found in wheat, rye, and barley, triggers adverse immune reactions in people with celiac disease. But that same gluten also has uniquely elastic properties that make it perfect for mixing with water, kneading into dough, and baking into chewy delicious bread. Gluten is what makes our breads spongy, and chewy, and delicious. Cereals and grains like rice, sorghum, buckwheat, which are often milled into gluten-free flours, lack this important component. Now two inventive Italian food scientists, Virna Cerne and Ombretta Polenghi, are being lauded for their isolation of a protein called zein, that is found in corn. Under the right temperature, humidity, and pH, zein forms an elastic network similar to gluten. These days, says Cerne, "gluten-free products include a lot of fiber but the fiber cannot be really elastic." Added to different gluten-free flours like rice or corn flour, Cerne adds, isolated zein protein "solves the problem of no elasticity." That means that products using zein protein can be used to develop gluten-free products with many of the same chewy, flaky attributes as bread and baked goods made from wheat flour. Currently, products using isolated zein protein are still in the research and development phase, but food scientists hope the abundance of low-priced corn will allow the protein to be made cheaply, and thus give rise to more affordable gluten-free alternatives. Cerne and her co-inventor Polenghi, who both work with Italian-based food company Dr Schär, say that their research remains focused on people with serious medical reasons to avoid gluten. Stay tuned to see how Cerne and Polenghi's work develops and what food breakthroughs might result from their efforts. Read more at Quartz.com.
  4. Celiac.com 11/12/2012 - For the first time, researchers looking for a link between gluten and the immune system have been able to visualize the connection, according to new research in the scientific journal, Immunity. The discovery may help to pave the way for a treatment for celiac disease that can restore immune tolerance to gluten and allow patients to return to a normal diet including gluten. Such a treatment would certainly be welcome news to many people who suffer from celiac disease. The breakthrough is the result of a collective effort by researchers in Australia, the Netherlands and at Cambridge, Massachusetts-based ImmusanT Inc. The project was led by Professor Jamie Rossjohn and Dr. Hugh Reid at Monash University, Dr. Bob Anderson of ImmusanT and Professor Frits Koning at the University of Leiden. By using x-ray crystallography, the researchers were able visualize the way in which T cells interact with the gluten protein that cause celiac disease in patients with the DQ8 susceptibility gene. This discovery will help researchers better understand how celiac disease is triggered, and how pathology develops at the cellular level. About half the population carries the immune response genes HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8, making them genetically susceptible to celiac disease. At least one in 20 people who have the HLA-DQ2 gene, and about one in 150 who carry HLA-DQ8 will develop celiac disease, but people with other versions of the HLA-DQ genes seem to be protected from it. This fact made researchers wonder how the immune system can sense gluten. That wondering triggered research efforts that led to an answer. An important one. “This is the first time that the intricacies of the interaction between gluten and two proteins that initiate immune responses have been visualized at a sub-molecular level. It is an important breakthrough for celiac disease and autoimmune disease,” stated Professor Jamie Rossjohn, National Health and Medical Research Fellow, Monash University. The researchers used the Australian three GeV Synchrotron to determine how T-cells of the immune system interact with gluten. Unlike an accelerator such as the LHC, the Australian Synchroton is a light source rather than a collider, making it ideal for the new study. The end goal of the project is to produce a treatment which allows celiac sufferers to resume a normal diet. Understanding the gluten peptides responsible for celiac disease offers what Dr. Bob Anderson, ImmusanT's Chief Scientific Officer, calls "unique opportunity to interrogate the molecular events leading to a[n]...immune response.” To address this opportunity, ImmusanT is currently developing a blood test and a therapeutic vaccine, Nexvax2, for celiac disease patients who carry HLA-DQ2. Nexvax2 uses three gluten peptides commonly recognized by gluten-reactive T cells. Nexvax2 is intended to restore immune tolerance to gluten and allow patients to return to a normal diet including gluten. Future studies will investigate whether T cell activation by gluten in patients with HLA-DQ2 follows similar principles. If it were safe and effective, would you consider a treatment that restored your immune tolerance to gluten and allowed you to eat a normal diet including gluten? Comment below to let us know your thoughts. Source: Immunity
  5. Celiac.com 01/13/2011 - It might be rocket science, after all. Well, sort of. It turns out that engineering a good loaf of gluten-free bread is the focus of some of the best scientific minds in the food business. It also turns out that scientists with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in Manhattan, Kansas, have developed a process that produces a high-quality, gluten-free bread. Such bread, if produced on a large scale, might benefit the millions of Americans with celiac disease who are unable to digest gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley and rye. Gluten-free grains include corn, sorghum, and rice, among others. The new bread-making process is the work of chemists Scott Bean and Tilman Schober at the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Grain Quality and Structure Research Unit. They discovered that removing a certain amount of fat from a corn protein called zein, allowed them to craft a gluten-free dough that is more like wheat dough, and free-standing, bakery-type rolls are more like traditional wheat rolls. ARS is the chief intramural scientific research agency of USDA. Bean and Schober had some success crafting gluten-free pan bread using other grains, but they were unable to make free-standing rolls because the rolls expanded too much. According to Bean, the resulting bread was lower quality than comparable wheat bread. Bean and Schober had shown earlier that zein-a readily available byproduct from corn wet milling and fuel-ethanol production-could be used to make dough that was more similar to wheat dough. The dough still didn't meet their standards, though, because the rolls produced from it were crumbly and flat. Removing more of the fat from the zein protein's surface, Bean and Schober found, allowed the proteins to stick to each other much like wheat proteins do, giving the zein-based dough elastic properties similar to wheat dough. Bean and Schober's findings may also apply to sorghum, which, says Bean, may prove to be a better grain to use since it is a gluten-free grain. The team used corn as an intermediate step toward to achieve the ideal standard for gluten-free breads: a wheat-flour-like dough made with non-wheat proteins, resulting in products with a fluffy, light texture. This research may prove useful in creating commercial, gluten-free bread for the 2 to 3 million Americans who have celiac disease. For many of those folks, tasty, gluten-free breads and rolls from corn, rice and sorghum would be a welcome addition to their diet. Source: Journal of Cereal Science
  6. Celiac.com 07/23/2010 - In a breakthrough that may pave the way for the development of the first drug treatments for celiac disease, researchers claim to have identified the molecular triggers for the chronic, painful gut disorder. Since people with celiac disease must remain gluten-free for life, and since many foods are contaminated with gluten, many people with celiac disease are at risk of developing intestinal damage and other associated problems over time, says Robert Anderson, senior author of the study, and head of the celiac disease research laboratory at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research in Parkville, Australia. In Anderson's view, developing a drug that would control the immune response to gluten "would be a much more efficient way of dealing with celiac disease." However, he adds, a lack of understanding about how gluten triggers the immune system response in celiacs has prevented researchers from pursuing such therapies. Gluten is actually made-up of numerous different protein strands, and, until now, no one has teased out just which protein strands are inducing the immune response seen in celiac disease. To design drugs that will effectively treat celiac disease, scientists must first understand exactly which of the gluten molecules are triggering the immune response. For their study, Anderson and his associates analyzed immune responses in blood samples from more than 200 celiac disease patients who had eaten meals containing gluten. The team then performed thousands of gluten challenges on the samples using isolated fragments of gluten protein. Interestingly, of the thousands of gluten fragments they tested, only three of them triggered an immune reaction. That only three of the thousands of protein fragments in gluten provokes an immune response suggests that "a very precise trigger is driving the immune response" in celiac disease, Anderson said. "The problem is not so much gluten, it's really these three peptides." The authors also noted that most of the immune response to gluten appears tied to a single type of immune system cell, called the T cell. Their results appear in the July 21 issue of Science Translational Medicine. According to Dr. Alessio Fasano of the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore, even with strong evidence against the three peptides in question, there may be more to the story. It's possible that the study missed other offending protein fragments, and that there are more players in the adverse immune response in people with celiac disease. Interestingly, sequences from ω-gliadin (wheat) and C-hordein (barley), rather than α-gliadin, proved to be the immunodominant trigger, regardless of the grain consumed. But before folks with celiac disease get too worked up about a possible cure, they need to remember that, because the study looked at patients with a particular genetic susceptibility to the disease, the findings do not apply to all people with celiac disease. Although most people with celiac disease share this genetic background, others do not. That means the findings won't apply to everyone with the disease. Anderson and his colleagues are currently working to identify which gluten proteins induce the immune response in the other celiac patients. The limited diversity of pathogenic T cells in celiac disease indicates that researchers should be able to develop peptide-based treatments for both celiac disease and likely for other HLA-restricted immune diseases. Phase I clinical trials of a drug based on the three isolated fragments of gluten protein are currently underway in Australia. Researchers hope the drug will successfully desensitize celiac patients by introducing small amounts of the offending proteins under controlled conditions. They expect results within the next couple of months. The current study received funding from Nexpep, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, Coeliac UK, the Coeliac Research Fund, and others. Source: Sci Transl Med 21 July 2010: Vol. 2, Issue 41, p. 41ra51
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