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Found 10 results

  1. Celiac.com 09/24/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to investigate the degradation of gluten in rye sourdough products by means of a proline-specific peptidase. The research team included Theresa Walter, Herbert Wieser, and Peter Koehler, with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Lebensmittelchemie, Leibniz Institut in Freising, Germany. Their team monitored gluten content of rye sourdough during fermentation using competitive ELISA based on the R5 antibody. The team noted a decrease in gluten over time, but found that even prolonged fermentation did not bring gluten levels below 20 ppm requirement for gluten-free foods. Interestingly, they did find that Aspergillus niger prolyl endopeptidase (AN-PEP) extensively degraded gluten concentrations of up to 80,000 mg/kg in rye flour, rye sourdough, and sourdough starter under specific temperatures and pH values. Nor did the enzyme inactivate the microorganisms in the sourdough starter. Gluten-free rye flour alone or in combination with sourdough starter was used to produce gluten-free bread, which the team then assessed for its sensory characteristics. Whereas gluten-free sourdough bread lacked any of the favorable qualities of conventional rye bread, the replacement of sourdough by egg proteins yielded gluten-free bread comparable to the conventional rye, and with better qualities than bread made with naturally gluten-free ingredients. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using ANPEP treatment to produce high-quality gluten-free sourdough bread from originally gluten-containing cereals, such as rye. Rye products rendered gluten-free in this manner have the potential to increase the choice of high-quality foods for celiac patients. Source: European Food Research and TechnologyMarch 2015, Volume 240, Issue 3, pp 517–524
  2. Celiac.com 05/15/2018 - There is a good amount of anecdotal evidence that people with non-celiac gluten sensitivity can tolerate sourdough bread, but there is no good science to support such claims. To determine if sourdough bread help conquer wheat sensitivity, the Alberta Wheat Commission (AWC) is funding a team of researchers to see if the sourdough fermentation process can reduce or eliminate wheat components that trigger wheat sensitivity. The project will study the way the sourdough bread fermentation process breaks down proteins and carbohydrates in wheat flour. Chair of the AWC Research Committee, Terry Young, said new research suggests that wheat protein may not be the cause of gluten sensitivity in people without celiac disease. Longer fermentation, aka sourdough fermentation, is more common in Europe. Young says that reports indicate that “incidents of non-celiac sensitivity…are actually lower in Europe." He adds the current research will focus on the fermentation, but the future may include the development of wheat varieties for gluten sensitive individuals. The research will be led by food microbiologist at the University of Alberta, Dr. Michael Gänzle, who said the use of sourdough bread in industrial baking reduces ingredient costs and can improve the quality of bread as well. Dr. Gänzle wants to assess anecdotal claims that people with non-celiac wheat or gluten intolerance can tolerate sourdough bread. His team wants to “determine whether fermentation reduces or eliminates individual wheat components that are known or suspected to cause adverse effects.” The team readily admits that their project will not create products that are safe for people with celiac disease. They may, however, create products that are useful for people without celiac disease, but who are gluten sensitivity. The AWC is collaboratively funding the project with the Saskatchewan Wheat Development Commission, and the Minnesota Wheat Research Promotion Council, which will contribute $57,250, and $20,000, respectively. The research team will issue a report of its findings after the project is completed in 2021. Studies like this are important to shed light on the differences between celiac and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Stay tuned for more developments in this exciting area of research. Source: highriveronline.com
  3. Celiac.com 12/28/2012 - Sourdough bread is made by a long fermentation of dough using naturally occurring yeasts and lactobacilli. Compared with regular breads, sourdough usually has a sour taste due to the lactic acid produced by the lactobacilli. Sourdough fermentation helps improve bread quality by prolonging shelf life, increasing loaf volume, delaying staling, as well as by improving bread flavor and nutritional properties. However, sourdough isn't just good for making better bread. Recent studies show that sourdough fermentation can also speed gut healing in people with celiac disease at the start of a gluten-free diet. Over the past few years researchers have been experimenting with sourdough fermentation as a means for making traditional wheat bread safe for people with celiac disease. Recently, yet another study examined the safety of this process with great results. "While the study was small, it did show that individuals with celiac disease who ate specially prepared sourdough wheat bread over the course of 60 days experienced no ill effects." Obviously, larger and more detailed studies need to be carried out, but the early results are intriguing. In the meantime, sourdough bread made with gluten-free flours might be the best way for people with celiac disease and gluten-sensitivity to get the benefits of sourdough cultures, and to enjoy fresh, minimally processed bread. Of course, not everyone can bake their own sourdough bread. That's why I was happy to learn that more artisanal bread bakers are turning to baking their own delicious gluten-free sourdough to share with others. One of these small, artisanal bread makers is a local San Francisco baker named Sadie Scheffer, who runs a company called BreadSRSLY. Sadie bakes delicious long-fermented sourdough bread and other products, using gluten-free grains. She delivers most of her products by bicycle. Having sampled Sadie's bread, and I can say that it is some of the best sourdough bread I've tasted, gluten-free or not. It isdelicious, dense, and chewy sourdough bread that is perfect for toasting. The loaves are fermented for twelve hours before baking. Folks in San Francisco can find Sadie's delicious gluten-free sourdough bread at BiRite, Gluten Free Grocery and Other Avenues, and at breadsrsly.com. Until science establishes the safety of wheat-based sourdough for people with celiac disease, I think that long-fermented sourdough bread, made with gluten-free flour, represents the future of gluten-free bread for people with celiac disease and gluten-sensitivity. Here's a recipe for gluten-free sourdough starter. Other helpful links: Celiacs Can Say Yes To Sourdough Bread Study Finds Wheat-based Sourdough Bread Started with Selected Lactobacilli is Tolerated by Celiac Disease Patients Can Sourdough Fermentation Speed Intestinal Recovery in Celiac Patients at Start of Gluten-free Diet? Sourdough Bread Made from Wheat and Nontoxic Flours and Started with Selected Lactobacilli Is Tolerated in Celiac Sprue Patients The Art of Gluten-Free Sourdough Baking
  4. Celiac.com 12/27/2012 - Making sourdough 'starter' is the first step in the traditional fermentation process for sourdough bread. You begin the process by “growing” strains of lactobacillus bacteria and yeast together in what bakers call the 'starter.' When the 'starter' is added to flour, the organisms produce enzymes that break down the gluten protein in the flour in a process called 'hydrolysis.' Hydrolysis is the breakdown of larger particles into smaller ones, specifically amino acids. Some studies show that these amino acids are no longer toxic to individuals who are sensitive to gluten. Basically, these cultures partially digest the wheat or other grains; doing part of the stomach's job in advance part of the digestive process. When you add the gut healing benefits of lactobacillus, the result is bread that acts like medicine; delicious medicine, at that. Using sourdough starter to bake breads using gluten-free grains is an excellent way for people with celiac disease and gluten-intolerance to get the benefits of sourdough cultures and to enjoy delicious fresh bread. Here's a recipe for gluten-free sourdough starter that you can use to bake countless loaves of delicious gluten-free bread: Gluten-free Sourdough Starter Ingredients: 1 cup water, 110 to 115 deg F 2 1/4 teaspoons active dry yeast 1 1/2 cups rice flour Directions: Combine all ingredients in a 1-quart container. It will be thick. Cover loosely with plastic wrap or foil and let stand for one to three days in a warm place, stirring 2 or 3 times daily. The starter will rise and fall during the fermentation process.When it is ready to use, it will be bubbly and may have a layer of hooch, or liquid, on top of the starter, which can be stirred back in. Use the starter right away, or put it in refrigerator. You can easily replenish your starter by keeping at least one cup of finished aside. Add 1 cup water and 1 1/2 cup white rice flour. Cover loosely and let stand in a warm place for 12 hours, stirring once or twice. Use what you need, and refrigerate the rest. Replenish as needed.
  5. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004 Feb;70(2):1088-1096 Celiac.com 02/26/2004 - Please note that the sourdough bread used in this study is not your garden-variety sourdough bread, and as far as I know it is not commercially available. Even though this study had very promising results, it was conducted on a relatively small number of people, and larger studies need to be carried out before reaching any conclusions about the long-term safety of celiacs consuming this type of sourdough bread. -Scott Adams Researchers in Europe conducted a novel study which utilized a highly specialized sourdough lactobacilli containing peptidases that have the ability to hydrolyze Pro-rich peptides, including the 33-mer peptide, which is the main culprit in the immune response associated with celiac disease. The sourdough bread in the study was made from a dough mixture that contained 30% wheat flour and other nontoxic flours including oat, millet, and buckwheat, which was then started with the specialized lactobacilli. After 24 hours of fermentation all 33-mer peptides and low-molecular-mass, alcohol-soluble polypeptides were almost totally hydrolyzed. For the next step in the study the researchers extracted proteins fro the sourdough and used them to produce a "peptic-tryptic digest" for in vitro agglutination tests on human K 562 subclone cell. The agglutinating activity of the sourdough proteins was found to be 250 times higher that that of normal bakers-yeast or lactobacilli started breads. A double blind test was then conducted in which 17 celiac disease patients were given 2 grams of gluten-containing bread started with bakers yeast or lactobacilli. Thirteen of them showed distinct, negative changes in their intestinal permeability after eating the bread, and 4 of them did not show any negative effects. The specially prepared sourdough bread was then given to all 17 patients and none of them had intestinal permeability reactions that differed from their normal baseline values. The researchers conclude: "These results showed that a bread biotechnology that uses selected lactobacilli, nontoxic flours, and a long fermentation time is a novel tool for decreasing the level of gluten intolerance in humans."
  6. Celiac.com 05/07/2014 - Current treatment for celiac disease is to eat only foods which are gluten-free. But, what about foods processed to remove gluten? Is it safe for people with celiac disease to eat foods that have been processed to remove gluten? Processing may render gluten-containing foods technically safe celiac patients, but so far live safety testing can only be performed on actual patients, not in laboratory computer models. A team of researchers recently set out to test the safety of germinated rye sourdough in a celiac disease model based on the adoptive transfer of prolamin-primed memory T cells into lymphopenic mice. The research team included T.L. Freitag, J. Loponen, M. Messing, V. Zevallos, L.C. Andersson, T. Sontag-Strohm, P. Saavalainen, D. Schuppan, H. Salovaara, S. Meri. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Bacteriology and Immunology at the Haartman Institute of the University of Helsinki in Helsinki, Finland. For their study, they modified a celiac disease mouse model to test antigenicity and inflammatory effects of germinated rye sourdough, a food product characterized by extensive prolamin hydrolysis. The team then injected Lymphopenic Rag1(-/-) or nude mice with splenic CD4(+)CD62L(-)CD44 high-memory T cells from gliadin- or secalin-immunized wild-type donor mice. The team found that: Rag1(-/-) recipients challenged with wheat or rye gluten lost more body weight and developed more severe histological duodenitis than mice on gluten-free diet. This correlated with increased secretion of IFNγ, IL-2, and IL-17 by secalin-restimulated splenocytes. In vitro gluten testing using competitive R5 ELISA showed widespread degradation of the gluten R5 epitope in germinated rye sourdough. However, in nude mice challenged with germinated rye sourdough (vs. native rye sourdough), serum anti-secalin IgG/CD4(+) T helper 1-associated IgG2c titers were only reduced, but not eliminated. In addition, they found no reductions in body weight loss, histological duodenitis, or T cell cytokine secretion in Rag1(-/-) recipients challenged accordingly. From the results, they concluded that Prolamin-primed CD4(+)CD62L(-)CD44 high-memory T cells do induce gluten-sensitive enteropathy in Rag1(-/-) mice. Moreover, germination of rye sourdough does not completely hydrolyze the secalin peptides, which retain B and T cell stimulatory capacity and remain harmful to the intestinal mucosa in this celiac disease model. Current antibody-based prolamin detection methods may fail to detect antigenic gluten fragments in processed cereal food products. Source: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2014 Mar;306(6):G526-34. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00136.2013. Epub 2014 Jan 23.
  7. Celiac.com 04/19/2012 - A team of researchers examined the effect of corn, rice and amaranth gluten-free sourdoughs on the release of nitric oxide (NO) and synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines by duodenal mucosa biopsies of eight celiac disease patients. The research team included Maria Calasso, Olimpia Vincentini, Francesco Valitutti, Cristina Felli, Marco Gobbetti and Raffaella Di Cagno. The team used select lactic acid bacteria as starters for making corn, rice and amaranth sourdoughs. From these gluten-free sourdough matrices, they made chemically acidified doughs, without bacterial starters, and doughs started with baker’s yeast alone. They produced pepsin-trypsin (PT) digests from all sourdoughs and doughs, and used the results to the measure the recovery of biopsy specimens from eight celiac disease patients at diagnosis. They also measured the release of NO and the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ). They found that lactic acid bacteria acidified and grew well (ca. log 9.0 CFU/g) during fermentation, showing strong proteolysis on all gluten-free samples. They also found that duodenal biopsy specimens still released NO and IFN-γ when subjected to treatments with basal medium (control), PT-digest from chemically acidified doughs and PT-digest from doughs fermented with baker’s yeast alone. In fact, in every case, biopsy specimens treated with PT-digests from all gluten-free matrices with sourdough fermentation substantially reduced NO release and IFN-γ synthesis. From their results, the team concludes that sourdough fermentation might offer an easy and effective way to speed recovery from intestinal inflammation of celiac patients beginning a gluten-free diet. Source: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION. DOI: 10.1007/s00394-012-0303-y
  8. It's easy to make a sourdough starter with brown rice flour and warm water in a glass jar or plastic container, allowing naturally occurring yeast to grow over a few days. You can follow any basic directions for making and keeping a sourdough starter (a web search will get you there); just use rice flour instead of wheat. It will bubble and rise, so leave plenty of head room. Replenish your starter after each use by adding 1/2 cup brown rice flour per cup of water. I usually leave the starter at room temperature to allow it to regrow, then refrigerate until the next use. If you love these waffles as much as we do (my husband looks forward to this Saturday breakfast all week), your starter will stay happily active. I use it for breads, too. I like to grind my own brown rice for extra flavor. 2 cups multiblend gluten-free flour mix 1 tablespoon baking powder ½ teaspoon salt 1 rounded tablespoon sugar 4 tablespoons buttermilk powder 3 eggs, separated 3 tablespoons melted unsalted butter 1 cup brown rice sourdough starter Additional water Measure and whisk together dry ingredients. Beat egg whites to soft peaks and set aside. Mix together egg yolks, sourdough, melted butter and enough water to make about 3 ½ cups liquid. Make a well in the center of the dry ingredients and add the wet ingredients. Stir until just thoroughly moistened. Fold in the beaten egg whites, which guarantee nice light waffles. Cook in preheated waffle iron. If you like, you may add almond or hazelnut extract to the wet ingredients, or add cinnamon or ground cardamom to the dry ingredients. Waffles are fabulous topped with toasted walnuts or pecans and maple syrup, or Nutella, or jam and fruit. Use your imagination. You may also substitute ¼ cup of buckwheat flour for an equivalent amount of the multiblend mix.
  9. This recipe comes to us from Ingvald Söderholm. Ingredients: ¾ cup + 1 tablespoon water 1 teaspoon caraway seeds 3/5 teaspoon ground whole coriander ½ teaspoon fennel seeds 2 teaspoons linseeds ¼ cup + 3 tablespoons liquid sourdough 2 ¾ cups freshly ground buckwheat flour (in a blender) 1 teaspoon salt 2 teaspoons fruit sugar ¾ ounce compressed yeast 1 ½ tablespoons olive oil or rapeseed oil 1 tablespoon + 2 teaspoons tapioca flour 3 ½ tablespoons waterLiquid Sourdough Ingredients: 2 cups water ¾ cup buckwheat flour 8 teaspoons lactic acid fermented carrots OR white cabbage (sauerkraut) Directions: In a blender, process ingredients for the liquid sourdough, strain and pour into a glass jar and put the cap loosely on top. Set aside at room temperature for 3 days. Once a day, tighten cap and shake the jar. After fermentation put in refrigerator with tightened cap. In a blender, process liquid sourdough, spices and water. Pour the liquid dough into a large dough-mixing bowl. Add buckwheat flour and linseeds, and with a sturdy dough-scraper stir and knead until well combined. Set the bowl aside, covered with a baking towel, at room temperature for 14-15 hours. When fermentation of the dough is done, dissolve yeast, fruit sugar and salt in 1 tablespoon of lukewarm water. Pour the tapioca flour into a sauce-pan with 3 ½ tablespoons of cold water. Whisk until mixed, then heat up until it thickens and gets sticky and then let cool. Pour the yeast mixture and olive oil into the dough, then put the tapioca into, and, with the dough-scraper, knead until well combined. Put baking paper on a baking plate. Place 9 pats of dough on the plate, sift buckwheat flour onto them, press together each of them (with an un-perforated turner) forming rounds. You can use baking forms or not. Cover with a baking towel. Heat the oven, set to 125 F, for 2 minutes and then turn it off. Place the plate, still with the baking towel over it, on a lower shelf in the oven and let rise about 4 times its size. Heat the oven to 425 F, put in the plate, turn off the heat and bake for 5 minutes. Then turn on the oven again and bake until browning approximately 12 minutes. Tap off excess flour from the buns after baking. It is preferable to use spring water and organic ingredients if possible. Store in the freezer to retain freshness.
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