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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/24/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What is Celiac Disease and the Gluten-Free Diet? What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes

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Found 12 results

  1. Celiac.com 12/26/2016 - Could gluten-degrading enzymes offer a better future for celiac patients? Rothia mucilaginosa is an oral microbial colonizer that can break down proline- and glutamine-rich proteins present in wheat, barley, and rye that contain the immunogenic sequences that drive celiac disease. A team of researchers recently set out to isolate and identify the enzymes and evaluate their potential as novel enzyme therapeutics for celiac disease. The research team included G Wei, N Tian, R Siezen, D Schuppan, and EJ Helmerhorst. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Molecular and Cell Biology at the Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine in Boston, Massachusetts; the Bacterial Genomics Group, Center for Molecular and Biomolecular Informatics at Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; the Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; and with the Institute of Translational Immunology and Research Center for Immunology, University Medical Center, Johannes-Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany. They first extracted and separated membrane-associated R. mucilaginosa proteins using DEAE chromatography. They tracked enzyme activities using paranitroanilide-derivatized and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptide substrates, and by gliadin zymography. They determined epitope elimination in R5 and G12 ELISAs. They identified gliadin-degrading Rothia enzymes by LC-ESI-MS/MS as hypothetical proteins ROTMU0001_0241 (C6R5V9_9MICC), ROTMU0001_0243 (C6R5W1_9MICC), and ROTMU0001_240 (C6R5V8_9MICC). The Rothia subtilisins and two subtilisins from Bacillus licheniformis, subtilisin A and the food-grade Nattokinase, efficiently degraded the immunogenic gliadin-derived 33-mer peptide and the immunodominant epitopes recognized by the R5 and G12 antibodies. This study identified Rothia and food-grade Bacillus subtilisins as promising new candidates for enzyme therapeutics in celiac disease. To do this, the team cleaved succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-paranitroanilide, a substrate for subtilisin with Pro in the P2 position, as in Tyr-Pro-Gln and Leu-Pro-Tyr in gluten, which are also cleaved. Consistently, FRET substrates of gliadin immunogenic epitopes comprising Xaa-Pro-Xaa motives were rapidly hydrolyzed. They found that Rothia subtilisins and two subtilisins from Bacillus licheniformis, subtilisin A and the food-grade Nattokinase, efficiently degraded the immunogenic gliadin-derived 33-mer peptide and the immunodominant epitopes recognized by the R5 and G12 antibodies. Rothia and food-grade Bacillus subtilisins show promise for development as enzyme therapies for celiac disease. Source: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 Sep 1;311(3):G571-80. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00185.2016. Epub 2016 Jul 28
  2. Celiac.com 05/05/2016 - Frustrated by the process of tracking gluten-free expenses in hopes of using the Canadian government's tax credit, which entitles people with celiac disease to claim the incremental costs, accountant Justin Gravelle has released an app called Celitax, designed to help people with celiac disease easily track their everyday gluten-free purchases. In Canada, people who are gluten-intolerant, and can provide the government with proof, such as a medical diagnosis of celiac disease, are entitled to the incremental cost difference between gluten-free and non-gluten free products. However, tracking those expenses over the year can be messy and frustrating. Enter Celitax. The app is currently available for iPhones, with an Android version to follow. The app digitizes receipts and stores them inside the app, allowing users to review or download them at any time and calculate their gluten-free tax credit in one click. A user simply takes a photo of their receipt, which is stored in the app for safe keeping. Next, they input their gluten-free purchases into self-created custom categories based on their purchasing habits. The Canadian government hasn't set average prices for non-gluten-free foods, Gravelle says, so users have to input an estimate themselves so the app can calculate their tax credit. Still, sounds a lot better than digging through a pile of paper receipts at the end of the year to document your gluten-free expenses. Would something like this be useful for you? Source: thestar.com
  3. Celiac.com 11/13/2015 - Celiac disease sufferers, and others in the UK, are unhappy with a government proposal to cut financial support for gluten-free food. UK celiac patients are currently allowed up to 18 lots of gluten-free bread, pasta and flour a month on the NHS. One unit is equal to a 400g loaf of bread, 250g of pasta or 250g flour or bread mix. Under the proposal the NHS budget of 209,000 pounds a year for gluten-free food prescriptions for gluten free food will face substantial cuts. But Alison Smith, of the Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs), says the current system is out of date and unfair. NHS organizations set up by the Health and Social Care Act 2012 to organize the delivery of NHS services. According to Smith, the wide variety of gluten-free foods available in supermarkets and even corner shops these days invites the creation of a new way of alloying gluten-free benefits that will be "fairer for everyone, not just people with celiac disease, so that we can actually share out NHS resources as fairly as possible." The range of foods currently allowed includes bread, rolls and baguettes, bread mixes, flour, pasta, crackers, pizza bases and breakfast cereals. The CCGs are proposing to change the allowance to eight units per month of bread, pasta and/or flour/bread mixes for everyone eligible for prescription gluten-free food. The change is needed, says Smith, because gluten-free food is vital for people with celiac disease and gluten-sensitivity. Source: mix96.co.uk
  4. Celiac.com 11/11/2015 - If you ask me, it doesn't seem that far-fetched that some people who do not have celiac disease could still have adverse reactions to gluten. However, actually proving that scientifically continues to be challenging. Take the case of the research team that recently conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, gluten-challenge trial of patients with suspected non-celiac gluten sensitivity. The team wanted to try to get an idea of the number of self-diagnosed patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity. The team enrolled 53 women and 8 men referred to two Italian centers between October 2012 and November 2013 for suspected non-celiac gluten sensitivity. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive 4.375-g gluten or rice starch per day via gastro-soluble capsules for 1 week after a 1-week run-in period, and followed by a 1-week washout period and cross-over to the other group. The team chose rice starch as the placebo because it is "the most readily absorbable of the complex carbohydrates, and thus less fermentable, in the intestinal tract." They used a daily questionnaire to chart any changes in overall symptom scores, and conducted analysis with a per-protocol approach. A total of 59 patients completed the trial, while two withdrew due to "intolerable symptoms." Overall, one week of gluten consumption increased overall symptom severity compared with one week of placebo (P = .034), including abdominal bloating (P = .04), abdominal pain (P = .047), foggy mind (P = .019), depression (P = .02) and aphthous stomatitis (P = .025). Perplexingly, the team found that "most patients showed approximately equal degrees of overall symptoms with either gluten or placebo, although overall symptoms were worsened significantly by gluten in comparison with placebo." Got that? Significant numbers of the subjects reacted to the placebo. The short conclusion is that these results "do not represent crucial evidence in favor of the existence of this new syndrome." However, and it's a big however, the results aren't quite as clear as they might appear. In an accompanying editorial, Benjamin Lebwohl, MD, from the Celiac Disease Center at Columbia University, and Daniel A. Leffler, MD, MS, from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center write: The "overall positive result was driven by a minority of patients, whereas the rest had no (or at most a modest) worsening compared with placebo." They add that: "These findings can be a Rorschach test of sorts, in which the viewer draws interpretations that are based on his or her prior beliefs about NCGS. … It is therefore not surprising that this trial, like its predecessors, seems only to contribute to the uncertainty about NCGS." So, basically, there's no clear word on the existence or non-existence of non-celiac gluten sensitivity, or on the number of people who might suffer from it. Stay tuned for more studies, and more information as researchers attempt to sort it all out. Source: CGHJournal.org
  5. Celiac.com 09/25/2015 - Are anti-GMO campaigners blocking gluten-free wheat that could help people with celiac disease? There's an interesting blog post by Daniel Norero in Biology Fortified. The blog post claims that a type of GM wheat that may improve the quality of life for celiac patients has faced opposition from anti-GMO campaigners who oppose approval and commercialization of the product. Certainly, producing a variety of gluten-free wheat offers one alternative to avoiding gluten. However, it is difficult, if not impossible, to create a baking-quality gluten-free wheat strain using conventional techniques such as selection and hybridization. That reality led a team of Spanish scientists, headed by Dr. Francisco Barro, to use RNA interference (RNAi) to deactivate or delete the genes in wheat that produce the gliadin proteins. By 2011, the team had created four strains of wheat with particularly low amounts of gliadins, which produced in people with celiac disease a reaction up to 95% less toxic than the one produced by standard wheat. Two of those wheat strains, E82 and D793, showed gliadin reductions of about 96% and 97% respectively. For people with celiac disease, this would equate to a safe maximum daily consumption of bread up to 43.6 and 66.9 grams per day. The blog entry goes on to say that, despite the opportunity presented by this GM crop to improve the quality of life of celiac patients, problems have arisen at the approval and commercialization stages, largely due to opposition from Spanish and European anti-GMO activists. Norero then quotes from blog post by Jose Miguel Mulet, a Spanish plant scientist from CSIC: "How can it be that a technology created with Spanish public funds end up in the hands of a private American company? Because of the aberrant anti-GMO European law. No European or Spanish company is interested in commercially developing this wheat due to obstacles in the authorization process…The result: licensing rights have been acquired by the…Dow Agrosciences, given that the authorization process in the United States is much easier." Norero makes an interesting read. It's certainly possible that some type of genetic modification could benefit people with celiac disease. However, it's unclear how a wheat with a 95-97% reduction in gluten toxicity would relate to the current 20ppm total gluten allowed by U.S. law, or exactly what the nature of the alleged benefits for celiacs might be. What do you think? Should genetically modified wheat be permitted if it's helpful to people with celiac disease or gluten intolerance? Or no, should there be no GMO wheat, no matter the claimed benefits?
  6. Celiac.com 12/08/2014 - Many people with celiac disease report suffering from impaired cognition or "brain fog," but no good study had been done until a research team took an in-depth look at the issue. Of particular interest was the degree to which improved mental clarity in gluten-free celiac patients correlates with histological and serological measures of disease severity. The research team included I. T. Lichtwark, E. D. Newnham, S. R. Robinson, S. J. Shepherd, P. Hosking, P. R. Gibson, and G. W. Yelland, who are variously affiliated with the School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Australia, the Eastern Health Clinical School at Monash University, Box Hill Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, the School of Health Sciences at RMIT University in Bundoora, Australia, and the Central Clinical School at Monash University, Alfred Health, Melbourne, Australia. The team’s longitudinal pilot study investigated relationships between cognitive function and mucosal healing in people with newly diagnosed celiac disease beginning a gluten-free diet. The team evaluated eleven clinically diagnosed celiac patients (8 females, 3 males), ranging from 22–39 years of age. The test subjects submitted to a battery of cognitive tests at weeks 0, 12 and 52. The tests measured information processing efficacy, memory, visuospatial ability, motor function and attention. Subjects received small bowel biopsies via routine gastroscopy at weeks 12 and 52 and results were compared to baseline Marsh scores. The researchers then compared cognitive performance against serum concentrations of tissue transglutaminase antibodies, biopsy outcomes and other biological markers. All patients had excellent gluten-free dietary adherence. They also showed substantially improved Marsh scores (P = 0.001, Friedman's test), while tissue transglutaminase antibody concentrations dropped from an average of 58.4 at baseline to 16.8 U/mL at week 52 (P = 0.025). Results for four of the cognitive tests assessing verbal fluency, attention and motor function showed significant improvement over the 12 months, and these improvements strongly correlated with the Marsh scores and tissue transglutaminase antibody levels (r = 0.377–0.735; all P < 0.05). However, the data did not show any significant connections with nutritional or biochemical markers, or markers of intestinal permeability. Inpatients with newly diagnosed celiac disease, cognitive performance improves with a strict gluten-free diet in tandem with gut healing. People with untreated celiac disease may suffer suboptimal cognition that can impair the performance of everyday tasks. Source: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 40, Issue 2, pages 160–170, July 2014 - DOI: 10.1111/apt.12809
  7. Celiac.com 07/31/2013 - People with celiac disease react to specific proteins in wheat, and a team of scientists from Washington State University are attempting to develop new varieties of wheat that suppress those proteins and are safe for those with celiac disease. Currently, they can silence nearly 90 percent of the protein that causes a gluten reaction. They hope their research efforts will lead them to a strain that suppress 100% of the proteins that trigger gluten reactions. Since people with celiac disease react to specific proteins in wheat, the simple solution is to eliminate those proteins to develop an allergy-free wheat. According to the U.S. National Institutes of Health, wheat is made up of three groups of proteins : gliadins, low molecular weight glutenin subunits and high molecular weight glutenin subunits. The majority of people with celiac disease can tolerate the high molecular weight glutenin proteins, so the Washington State scientists attempted to silence the genetic expression of the other proteins in wheat. The high molecular weight glutenins are necessary for baking, so the wheat should produce flour suitable for a variety of breads and dough. The researchers are using a genetic technique called RNA interference, that has enabled them to silence the expression of more than 80 percent of the wheat genes associated with autoimmune reactions. “With our molecular genetic technologies we have wheat plants that silence 85.6 percent of the immunogenic genes,” said Diter von Wettstein, a plant science professor at Washington State. “The chances of getting plants with more than 90 percent silencing is good.” Such wheat hybrids might not work for all people with celiac disease, but could they provide benefits for the majority of people with celiac disease? What do you think? Would you try it? Share your thoughts below. Read More at Producer.com.
  8. Celiac.com 03/11/2013 - People with celiac disease must follow a gluten-free diet if they want to remain healthy, but a 200-patient study conducted by Alvine Pharmaceuticals show that 90 percent of celiac patients who followed a gluten-free diet still reported symptoms of the disease. That reality is helping to drive an effort by Alvine to develop a drug that would help those people to avoid symptoms and damage that come with accidental exposure to gluten. According to a recent press release, Alvine had already raised at least $42 million for its celiac disease drug, and now has $6 million more as it works through a second phase 2 trial. The company's top drug prospect is ALV003, a mix of two recombinant gluten-specific proteases that’s designed to be used along with a gluten-free diet to prevent immune reactions associated with celiac disease. As disclosed in a recently filed U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission document, the company has raised at least $6 million in debt and other non-equity securities, and could raise up to $500K more. ALV003 is designed to be taken orally by people with celiac disease at the time of a meal. It mixes with and breaks down the gluten in food before it can reach the small intestine, where it would cause inflammatory responses. The drug is designed to prevent accidental gluten contamination, not to allow celiac sufferers to freely and safely consume large amounts of gluten. In a phase 2a study, ALV003 met its goals and reduced gluten-induced intestinal injury in celiac patients who were already following a gluten-free diet. According to clinicaltrial.gov, ALV003 is presently in a study phase with a March 2013 completion date. In the fall of 2012, Alvine received permission from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to fast-track ALV003, which means the company can work more closely with the FDA during clinical trials, and may get a faster review if they file a New Drug Application. Alvine is a San Carlos, California-based biopharmaceutical company founded in 2006 on technology from Stanford University. Its investors include Abbott Biotech Ventures, Panorama Capital, InterWest Partners, Prospect Venture Partners, Sofinnova Ventures, Black River Asset Management and Flagship Ventures. Read more here.
  9. Celiac.com 05/18/2009 - People with clinical irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) suffer from biopsy-proven celiac disease at rates that are more than four times higher than in non-IBS control subjects, according to the results of a recent systematic review and meta-analysis conducted by Alexander C. Ford, MBChB, MD, MRCP, from Health Sciences Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, and colleagues. Prior studies have indicated that people with IBS had higher rates of celiac disease, but evidence has not been clear, and medical guidelines do not always call for celiac screening in these individuals. To determine rates of celiac disease in random adults meeting clinical criteria for IBS, the research team reviewed MEDLINE from 1950 to May 31, 2008, and EMBASE from 1980 to May 31, 2008. They isolated case series and case-control studies that contained data for celiac disease blood screens. They found 14 such studies. From each study, they isolated and aggregated positive serologic test results for celiac disease and biopsy-proved celiac disease. They then compared the data to that for patients with IBS and control individuals, using an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The team isolated 4204 suitable cases from the identified studies. Of those, 2278 met clinical criteria for IBS (54%). The overall rate of positive immunoglobulin A (IgA)–class antigliadin antibodies (AGA) was 4.0% (95% CI, 1.7% – 7.2%), the rate of positive endomysial antibodies (EMA) was 1.63% (95% CI, 0.7% – 3.0%), and the rate of tissue transglutaminase (tTGA) was 4.1% (95% CI, 1.9% – 7.0%). For biopsy-proven celiac disease, the overall rate was 4.1% (95% CI, 1.9% – 7.0%). In patients who met the clinical criteria for IBS compared with non-IBS control subjects, aggregate OR for positive IgA-class antigliadin antibodies was 3.40 (95% CI, 1.62 – 7.13), aggregate OR for either positive EMA or tTGA was 2.94 (95% CI, 1.36 – 6.35), and aggregate OR for biopsy-proved celiac disease was 4.34 (95% CI, 1.78 – 10.6). The study did have some weaknesses, including issues with the methodology governing study selection, possible spectrum bias in case-control studies, possible selection bias in studies based in secondary care, and, in some cases, results too limited to allow meaningful aggregation of data. Still the research team concludes that rates of biopsy-proven celiac disease are more than four times higher for IBS patients than for non-IBS controls. The team recommends that, if screening is undertaken, EMA or tTGA testing be used in lieu of IgA-AGA testing due to their higher positive predictive value, though they admitted that results will depend on celiac rates in the population being screened. The study was supported by the American College of Gastroenterology. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:651–658.
  10. Celiac.com 06/15/2008 - Many people with celiac disease have stories to tell about the about how difficult it can be to get a getting a proper diagnosis. Celiac disease can mimic so many other conditions. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is one of those conditions. The symptoms for Irritable Bowel Syndrome and for celiac disease are often similar as a result the diagnosis of celiac disease can be delayed or missed and misdiagnosed as irritable bowel syndrome. In an effort to reduce the misdiagnosis of celiac disease as Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Britain’s National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence has drawn up new guidelines covering the diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. The guidelines call for all diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome to be preceded by a screen for celiac disease. Keeping this in mind, anyone suffering from Irritable Bowel Syndrome, and who has not been tested for celiac disease, might want to take the initiative and check with their doctor to see if further testing might be in order. Studies show that a minimum of 1 out of every 100 people in Britain suffers from celiac disease, but that only 1 out of 8 is properly diagnosed. More worrisome still is the fact that new research shows that it takes an incredible 13 years on average before the diagnosis are made. That means 13 years of unnecessary pain and discomfort, to say nothing of potential systemic damage for those awaiting a proper diagnosis of celiac disease, including osteoporosis, bowel cancer and increased risk of other autoimmune diseases. Since similar numbers likely prevail in America, it's good to keep an eye on clinical changes like the one recently made in Britain. Again, for people diagnosed with IBS, but who have not been evaluated for celiac disease, it might be good to consider getting checked for celiac disease, even if these changes are not officially implemented in America anytime soon. Changes in diagnostic and treatment practices that benefit people with celiac disease are long overdue and highly welcomed by the celiac community. As our abilities to evaluate diagnostic and treatment practices continue to expand, look for important changes in the clinical approach to celiac disease, greater awareness among the general population, and improvements in the quality of life among celiacs. References: 1. The Economic Burden of Coeliac Disease in the UK research paper 2. Recent advances in Coeliac Disease by D.A. van Heel and J. West, published in Gut 2006 55, pp 1037-1046 3. Coeliac Society of the UK
  11. Celiac.com 07/01/2006 - Scientists have discovered what may be a successful non-dietary therapy for celiac sprue, an inherited inflammatory disorder of the small intestine that impacts an estimated 1 in 200 people around the world. Two research studies, published in the June issue of Chemistry and Biology, pave the way for clinical testing with an oral enzyme therapy that may prevent the many symptoms and complications of this widespread disease. People with celiac sprue, also called celiac disease, cannot tolerate the protein gluten in their diet. Gluten is present in grains like wheat, barley, and rye. When gluten is ingested by a celiac patient, it sets off an inflammatory reaction that damages the small intestine, leading to malabsorption, an autoimmune-like response, and many other complications. The only effective therapy for celiac disease is complete dietary exclusion of gluten. However, the ubiquitous nature of gluten poses a constant threat to celiacs, and a majority of celiac patients who adopt a restrictive diet still exhibit structural and functional gut abnormalities. "Non-dietary therapies that allow celiac patients to safely incorporate low-to-moderate levels of gluten into their daily diet would be of considerable benefit," explains study leader Dr. Chaitan Khosla, from Stanford University and Celiac Sprue Research Foundation. "Having demonstrated earlier that certain types of enzymes can detoxify gluten, our laboratory set out to devise an optimal oral enzyme therapy for celiac sprue by borrowing from nature. In germinating barley seed, gluten serves as a nutritious storage protein that is efficiently digested by enzymes. One enzyme, EP-B2, plays a crucial role in this process by breaking gluten proteins after glutamine residues, which comprise one-third of all amino acid residues in gluten." Dr. Khoslas group used recombinant bacteria to produce a form of EP-B2 that only activates under acidic conditions similar to the conditions found in the human stomach. The researchers demonstrated that EP-B2 efficiently digested gluten protein under gastric conditions and, importantly, EP-B2 was most specific for those parts of gluten that are known to trigger celiac pathogenesis. In a second study, the researchers went on to devise an even more potent double enzyme therapy for detoxifying gluten. EP-B2 was tested in combination with another well-characterized enzyme called PEP that breaks gluten protein after proline residues. Like glutamine, proline is also abundant in inflammatory gluten peptides. At very high gluten loads, where neither PEP nor EP-B2 alone could detoxify gluten quickly enough to prevent inflammation, a PEP and EP-B2 combination completely abolished gluten immunotoxicity within ten minutes under simulated gastric and duodenal conditions. In this tag-team therapy, EP-B2 first cleaved gluten into small pieces under gastric conditions that were then easier for PEP to fully detoxify under duodenal conditions. "Our results suggest that recombinant EP-B2 should be effective as supportive therapy to help celiacs cope with the hidden gluten in everyday life, and that a two-enzyme cocktail containing PEP and EP-B2 may even allow celiacs to resume a more normal diet in the future," offers Dr. Khosla. References: Seigel et al. The researchers include Matthew Siegel, Michael T. Bethune, Jiang Xia, Alexandre Johannsen, Tor B. Stuge, and Peter P. Lee of Stanford University in Stanford, CA; Jonathan Gass, Jennifer Ehren, Gary M. Gray, and Chaitan Khosla of Stanford University in Stanford, CA and Celiac Sprue Research Foundation in Palo Alto, CA. This research was supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health (R01 DK63158 to C.K. and Mary Hewitt Loveless, MD Pilot-Project Grant to P.P.L.). Siegel et al.: "Rational Design of Combination Enzyme Therapy for Celiac Sprue." Publishing in Chemistry & Biology 13, 649–658, June 2006 DOI 10.1016/j.chembiol.2006.04.009 www.chembiol.com Bethune et al. The researchers include Michael T. Bethune, Yinyan Tang, and Chaitan Khosla of Stanford University in Stanford, CA; Pavel Strop of Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Stanford University in Stanford, CA; Ludvig M. Sollid of University of Oslo and Rikshospitalet University Hospital in Oslo, Norway. This research was supported by R01 DK063158 to C.K. M.T.B. is a recipient of a National Institutes of Health Cellular and Molecular Biology Training Grant through Stanford University. Bethune et al.: "Heterologous Expression, Purification, Refolding, and Structural-Functional Characterization of EP-B2, a Self-Activating Barley Cysteine Endoprotease." Publishing in Chemistry & Biology 13, 637–647, June 2006 DOI 10.1016/j.chembiol.2006.04.008 www.chembiol.com. Contact: Heidi Hardman Tel: (617) 397-2879
  12. This approach has great promise for improving the quality of future gluten-free products--here is a related article. Celiac.com 10/11/2005 - Arcadia Biosciences, an agricultural biotechnology company focused on products that benefit the environment and human health, today announced that it has received a Small Business Technology Transfer Program (STTR) grant from the National Institutes of Health in partnership with Washington State University (WSU) to research novel lines of wheat with reduced celiac disease-causing proteins. The grant will be split equally between Arcadia and its academic collaborator at WSU, Dr. Diter von Wettstein, the R.A. Nilan Distinguished Professor in the Department of Crop and Soil Science. Nearly 1 percent of American people and 4 percent of European people are estimated to suffer from celiac disease, or gluten intolerance. This genetic disorder can create symptoms that range from chronic diarrhea to malnutrition. Studies also indicate that celiac disease sufferers who continue to eat gluten are between 40 and 100 times more likely to develop gastrointestinal cancer than non-celiac disease sufferers. The only known treatment for celiac disease is adherence to a gluten-free diet, which includes complete abstinence from wheat, rye, barley, and their derivatives. "New diagnostic tests continue to identify people who suffer from celiac disease and who need to make extreme dietary adjustments," said Eric Rey, president of Arcadia Biosciences. "This grant is the first step in our effort to identify and develop wheat varieties that can significantly expand the dietary options for people on gluten-free diets. Our goal is to help enable people who suffer from celiac disease to enjoy wheat-based products, like bread and cookies, and not experience an adverse reaction." Working with Dr. von Wettstein and his colleagues at WSU, Arcadia will use its proprietary TILLING&REG; technology to identify wheat plants in which harmful gluten proteins are minimized. Arcadias current product pipeline includes six technologies that either protect the environment or improve human health. The company expects to launch its first product, GLA-enriched safflower oil, to the nutritional supplement market in 2008. Other technologies include higher-yielding plants that use less nitrogen fertilizer, salt-tolerant plants, and fresh produce with high levels of antioxidants such as lycopene. These products are being developed using both genetic engineering and advanced breeding technologies.