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Found 15 results

  1. Celiac.com 07/03/2017 - Refractory celiac disease (RCD) is a serious complication of celiac disease. There are two types, RCD I, and RCD II. Unlike RCD type I, RCD type II often leads to enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL), which is associated with clonally expanding T-cells that are also found in the sequentially developing EATL. Using high-throughput sequencing (HTS), a team of researchers recently set out to establish the small-intestinal T-cell repertoire (TCR) in celiac disease and RCD to unravel the role of distinct T-cell clonotypes in RCD pathogenesis. The research team included J Ritter, K Zimmermann, K Jöhrens, S Mende, A Seegebarth, B Siegmund, S Hennig, K Todorova, A Rosenwald, S Daum, M Hummel, and M Schumann. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Pathology, Charité-University Medicine, Berlin, Germany, the Department of Gastroenterology, Infectious Diseases and Rheumatology, Charité-University Medicine, Berlin, Germany, HS Diagnomics GmbH, Berlin, Germany, the Center for Tumor Medicine, Charité-University Medicine, Berlin, Germany, the Institute of Pathology, University of Würzburg, and Comprehensive Cancer Center Mainfranken (CCCMF), Würzburg, Germany, the Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany, the Berlin-Brandenburg School for Regenerative Therapies, Berlin, Germany. Their team examined DNA extracted from duodenal mucosa specimens of 9 control subjects, 10 active celiacs, 9 celiacs on a gluten-free diet, 8 RCD type I patients, 8 RCD type II patients, and 3 unclassified Marsh I cases collected from 2002 to 2013. To make their examination, they used TCRβ-complementarity-determining regions 3 (CDR3) multiplex PCR, followed by HTS of the amplicons. They generated an average of 106 sequence reads per sample, consisting of up to 900 individual TCRβ rearrangements. In RCD type II, the most frequent clonotypes (sequence reads with identical CDR3) represent about 43% of all TCRβ rearrangements. This was substantially higher than in control subjects (6.8%; p Repeat endoscopies in individual patients showed that the clonotypes remain stable for up to a few years without clinical symptoms of EATL. Individual patients with RCD type II showed unique dominant clonotypes that were un-related among patients. Celiac-associated, gliadin-dependent CDR3 motifs were only detectable at low frequencies. TCRβ-HTS analysis unravels the TCR in celiac disease, and allows for detailed analysis of individual TCRβ changes. Patients with RCD type II have unique, dominant TCRβ sequences that are critically different from known gliadin-specific TCR sequences, which indicates that these clonal T-cells expand on their own, with no influence from gluten stimulation. Source: Gut. 2017 Feb 10. pii: gutjnl-2016-311816. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2016-311816.
  2. Celiac.com 12/22/2016 - The nature of gut intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) lacking antigen receptors remains controversial. A team of researchers recently set out to better understand the mechanisms by which innate intraepithelial lymphocytes develop in the intestine and become cancerous in celiac disease patients. The research team included J Ettersperger, N Montcuquet, G Malamut, N Guegan, S Lopez-Lastra, S Gayraud, C Reimann, E Vidal, N Cagnard, P Villarese, I Andre-Schmutz, R Gomes Domingues, C Godinho-Silva, H Veiga-Fernandes, L Lhermitte, V Asnafi, E Macintyre, C Cellier, K Beldjord, JP Di Santo, N Cerf-Bensussan, and B Meresse. They are variously affiliated with the INSERM UMR1163, Laboratory of Intestinal Immunity, Institut Imagine; Laboratory of Human Lymphohematopoiesis; Institut Necker-Enfants-Malades, INSERM UMR1151 and, Biological Hematology, AP-HP Necker-Enfants-Malades; the Université Paris Descartes-Sorbonne Paris Cité and Institut Imagine in Paris, France; AP-HP, Department of Gastroenterology, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, 75015 Paris, France; Institut Universitaire d'Hématologie, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France; Innate Immunity Unit, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France; INSERM U 668, Paris, France; Paris-Descartes Bioinformatic Platform, 75015 Paris, France; and with the Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa in Lisbon, Portugal. The team was able to show, in humans and in mice, innate intestinal IELs expressing intracellular CD3 (iCD3(+)) differentiate along an Id2 transcription factor (TF)-independent pathway in response to TF NOTCH1, interleukin-15 (IL-15), and Granzyme B signals. In NOTCH1-activated human hematopoietic precursors, IL-15 induced Granzyme B, which cleaved NOTCH1 into a peptide lacking transcriptional activity. As a result, NOTCH1 target genes necessary for T cell differentiation were silenced, and precursors were reprogrammed into innate cells with T cell marks, including intracellular CD3 and T cell rearrangements. In the intraepithelial lymphoma complicating celiac disease, iCD3(+) innate IELs acquired gain-of-function mutations in Janus kinase 1 or Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, which enhanced their response to IL-15. The research team observed and described gut T cell-like innate IELs, decoded their pathway of change, and showed their malignant transformation in celiac disease. This study offers an exciting glimpse into the hard work being done in the far corners of celiac disease and cancer research. Source: Immunity. 2016 Sep 20;45(3):610-25. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2016.07.018. Epub 2016 Sep 6.
  3. Celiac.com 10/25/2016 - Some potentially big news for people who suffer from enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL), an intestinal tumor that targets intraepithelial T lymphocytes. EATL may be preceded by refractory celiac disease (RCD), which resists treatment with gluten-free diet. In almost all cases, a range of the tumor cells express CD30. RCD occurs in two types based on the absence (type I) or presence (type II) of abnormal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) showing down-regulation of CD8 and often TCR gamma genes rearrangement. RCD II is now considered as a small cell intraepithelial T-cell lymphoma that could be an intermediate stage between celiac disease and EATL. A team of researchers recently set out to establish the pattern of CD30 expression in EATL, which help to improve therapies with the use of anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody like brentuximab vedotin (BV). The research team included David Sibon, Georgia Malamut, Virginie Verkarre, Coralie Derrieux, Isabelle Radford, Bertrand Meresse, Elizabeth Macintyre, Christophe Cellier, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan, Nicole Brousse, and Olivier Hermine. For their study, the team enrolled consecutive adult patients diagnosed with EATL between 2007 and 2013 in Necker University Hospital and Georges Pompidou European Hospital. The team confirmed celiac diagnosis using histopathologic and immunohistochemical review. For the purpose of the present study, two expert hematopathologists reviewed all EATL and extended the phenotypic analysis to reclassify them according to the 2008 WHO classification. The team used a panel of antibodies directed against CD20, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD56, granzyme B and ALK1. They also performed CD30 staining with Monoclonal Mouse Anti-Human CD30, Clone Ber-H2 (Dako). As a control group, they used consecutive RCDI and RCDII cases with complete phenotype and clonality analyses diagnosed in the same period. They based celiac disease diagnosis on HLA-DQ2/8 typing, detection of celiac specific antibodies, and of villous atrophy with increased counts of IEL on normal diet. They classified patients RCDI or II, depending on their clinical and histological response to a gluten-free diet, and the presence of abnormal IEL. In all 25 cases of EATL, large tumor cells strongly expressed CD30. In RCDI and II, CD30 was negative in most cases (∼90%), and was rarely expressed by dispersed atypical lymphocytes, whether in IEL or in lamina propria. TCR gamma genes were clonally rearranged in 11/14 (79%) EATL, 3/25 (12%) RCDI and 18/20 (90%) RCDII. Based on their findings, the team began a pilot study in 2012. The pilot study combines BV with chemotherapy followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) as frontline treatment for EATL. The team has treated five patients to date. For chemotherapy, the the first two patients received IVE/MTX. After presenting their initial results at ASH 2012 Annual Meeting, the team replaced IVE/MTX with CHP regimen, and treated 3 more patients. Both treatments were well tolerated, and all 5 patients reached clinical remission, and underwent ASCT. EATL type I strongly expresses CD30. Promising results from combining BV with CHP led the team to plan a phase 2 study of BV and CHP, followed by ASCT, as frontline treatment of EATL. Source: Blood 2013 122:4252.
  4. Celiac.com 08/24/2015 - A new study reveals that U.S. Asians experience higher rates of deadlier cases of Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma EATL. Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma is a rare primary intestinal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) strongly associated with celiac disease. It is an aggressive disease with a median survival of approximately 10 months (Ferreri et al, 2011). Previous studies suggest that EATL may be more common in Europe and among Whites, among whom celiac disease is prevalent (Delabie et al, 2011; Ferreri et al, 2011). However, a second type of EATL (Type II) not associated with celiac disease is increasingly reported in Asia (Lee et al, 2005; Sun et al, 2011; Tan et al, 2013). To date, there have been no comparative epidemiological study in a racially diverse large population. A team of researchers recently set out to conduct such a study. The research team included Pawan K. Karanam, Mohammed Al-Hamadani, and Ronald S. Go. They are variously associated with the Departments of Medical Education and Medical Research at the Gundersen Medical Foundation in La Crosse, USA, and with the Division of Hematology at the Mayo Clinic, and the Mayo Clinic's Robert D, and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Rochester, MN, USA. The team turned to the two largest public cancer databases in the US: the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (http://www.seer.cancer.gov); and the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB; http://www.facs.org/quality-programs/cancer/ncdb). Using these databases, the research team was able to find and compare the cases of EATL by race. They were also able to describe the clinical features and overall survival (OS) for these cases. The team's study included all patients with an EATL diagnosis according to International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O: 9717). The team used SEER-18 registries from 2000 to 2011 to calculate incidence. To describe clinical outcomes, they used the NCDB NHL-PUF with patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2012 for clinical characteristics and those diagnosed between 1998 and 2006 for OS. Because CoC-accredited programs report survival data only once every 5 years, OS analysis was possible only for patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2006. From the data, the team calculated the incidence rate (case/1 000 000), age-adjusted to the 2000 standard US population, according to race (White, Black, Asian/Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska native) using seer*stat software version 8.1.5 (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA) and performed risk ratio comparisons using Poisson regression. They analyzed OS using the Kaplan–Meier method and used log-rank tests to compare survival distributions between race cohorts. The prognostic effect of pertinent clinical variables were studied using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. They found that, for the years 2000–2010, the overall age-adjusted incidence rate of EATL in the US was 0·111 per 1,000,000. Asians/Pacific Islanders had a higher incidence rate (0·236) compared with other races [White (0·101), Black (0·107), American Indian/Alaska native (0·128)]. The risk ratio of Asians/Pacific Islanders compared with non–Asians/Pacific Islanders was 2·32 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·39–3·69; P = 0·002]. The incidences for Asians and Pacific Islanders were combined in seer*stat, therefore we could not provide separate incidences for Asians and Pacific Islanders. All tests of statistical significance were two-sided and P < 0·05 was considered significant. Source: British Journal of Haematology, Vol. 170 Issue 3. DOI: 10.1111/bjh.13555
  5. Celiac.com 06/20/2014 - Celiac disease is a T cell–mediated disease triggered by the protein in wheat gluten. More than 9 out of 10 of people with celiac disease carry human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 locus. A team of researchers recently set out to determine if T-cell receptor recognition of HLA-DQ2–gliadin complexes was connected with celiac disease. The researchers included Jan Petersen, Veronica Montserrat, Jorge R Mujico, Khai Lee Loh, Dennis X Beringer, Menno van Lummel, Allan Thompson, M Luisa Mearin, Joachim Schweizer, Yvonne Kooy-Winkelaar, Jeroen van Bergen, Jan W Drijfhout, Wan-Ting Kan, Nicole L La Gruta, Robert P Anderson, Hugh H Reid, Frits Koning, and Jamie Ross. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the School of Biomedical Sciences, and the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging at Monash University in Clayton, Victoria, Australia, the Department of Pediatrics, and the Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion at Leiden University Medical Center in Leiden, The Netherlands, the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, at the University of Melbourne in Parkville, Victoria, Australia, ImmusanT, Inc., in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and the Institute of Infection and Immunity at Cardiff University School of Medicine in Heath Park, Cardiff, UK. The team first determined T-cell receptor (TCR) usage and fine specificity of patient-derived T-cell clones specific for two epitopes from wheat gliadin, DQ2.5-glia-α1a and DQ2.5-glia-α2. They also determined the ternary structures of four distinct biased TCRs specific for those epitopes. They were able to establish a basis for the biased TCR usage through mutagenesis and affinity measurements, together with the fact that all three TCRs specific for DQ2.5-glia-α2 docked centrally above HLA-DQ2. They found that a non–germline–encoded arginine residue within the CDR3β loop served as key of this common docking footprint. Although the TCRs specific for DQ2.5-glia-α1a and DQ2.5-glia-α2 docked similarly, their interactions with the respective gliadin determinants differed markedly, thereby providing a basis for epitope specificity. This is the first time a research team has determined that T-cell receptor recognition of HLA-DQ2–gliadin complexes was connected with celiac disease. Further study is needed to better understand the nature of their relationship. Source: NATURE STRUCTURAL & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
  6. Celiac.com 04/24/2013 - Doctors classify refractory celiac disease (RCD) depending on the presence or absence of monoclonal expansions of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) with an aberrant immunophenotype. A team of researchers recently set out to determine whether IEL parameters have any connection with mortality and morbidity in cases of refractory celiac disease. The research team included C. Arguelles-Grande, P. Brar, P. H. Green, and G. Bhagat. They are variously affiliated with the Celiac Disease Center, and the Departments of Medicine, Pathology and Cell Biology, at Columbia University Medical Center in New York, NY. The team used immunohistochemistry to assess IEL phenotype and polymerase chain reaction to determine T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement in 67 patients with RCD type I, and six patients with RCD type II. They considered a monoclonal TCR gene rearrangement and presence of greater than 50% CD3 CD8 IELs to be abnormal. They used Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard analyses to determine the time to worsening of clinical symptoms and the predictors of worsening. The team found 30 patients with less than 50% CD3 CD8 IELs, and eight with monoclonal TCR rearrangements. Three patients died and 40 suffered clinical worsening despite treatment. Estimated 5-year survival rates were 100% in patients with greater than 50% CD3 CD8 IELs and polyclonal TCR, but just 88% in patients with less than 50% CD3 CD8 IELs and 50% in patients with monoclonal TCR. All patients with monoclonal TCR gene rearrangement with less than 50% CD3 CD8 IELs showed shorter average time to clinical worsening of symptoms (11 mo), when compared to patients with less than 50% CD3 CD8 IELs alone (21 mo), polyclonal TCR (38 mo), or greater than 50% CD3 CD8 IELs alone (66 mo). After the team adjusted for age and gender, they found that the presence of less than 50% CD3 CD8 IELs was the only factor associated with increased risk for clinical worsening, despite negative celiac blood screens (hazard ratio=4.879; 95% confidence interval, 1.785-13.336; P=0.002). This means that RCD patients with <50% CD3 CD8 IELs are at risk for clinical worsening, and that RCD patients who also show monoclonal TCR gene rearrangement have higher mortality rates. Overall, the assessment of IEL phenotype and TCR gene rearrangement can provide important information regarding morbidity and risk of death in cases of RCD. Source: J Clin Gastroenterol. 2013 Mar 6.
  7. Celiac.com 04/15/2013 - Enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma (EATL) is a gut cancer that often ends in death. Currently, doctors have very little idea what factors might help patients survive. The manner in which clinical presentation, pathological features and therapies influence EATL outcome was the subject of a recent study by a team of researchers. The research team included: G. Malamut; O. Chandesris; V. Verkarre; B.Meresse, C. Callens, E. Macintyre, Y. Bouhnik, J.M. Gornet; M. Allez; R. Jian; A. Berger; G. Châtellier; N. Brousse, O. Hermine, N. Cerf-Bensussan, and C. Cellier. They are variously affiliated with the Université Paris Descartes, the Gastroenterology Department of Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, APHP, and Inserm U989 in Paris, France. For their study, the team evaluated the medical files of 37 well-documented patients with celiac disease and T-cell lymphoma. They then analyzed lymphoma and intestinal mucosa by histopathology, multiplex PCR and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes phenotyping. Using Kaplan-Meier curves with Logrank test and Cox Model they then analyzed patient survival and prognostic factors. They found 15 patients with lymphoma-complicated non-clonal enteropathy, celiac disease, two patients with type I refractory celiac disease, and 20 patients with clonal type II refractory celiac disease. Twenty-five patients underwent surgery with resection of the main tumor mass in 22 cases. Univariate analysis showed that non-clonal celiac disease, serum albumin levels under 21.6g/L at diagnosis, chemotherapy and surgical resection predicted good survival (p=0.0007, p Multivariate analysis showed that serum albumin level>21.6g/L, chemotherapy and reductive surgery were all significantly associated with increased survival rates (p The results reinforce the value of assessing celiac disease type in patients with T-cell lymphoma, and suggest that a combination of nutritional, chemotherapy and reductive surgery may improve survival rates in cases of EATL. Source: Dig Liver Dis. 2013 Jan 9. pii: S1590-8658(12)00438-0. doi: 10.1016/j.dld.2012.12.001.
  8. Celiac.com 08/01/2008 - One of the particularly aggressive and deadly types of cancer associated with celiac disease in adults is known as Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL), which is a T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma that develops in the small bowel. So, if you haven’t heard of EATLs, you should know that while current estimates indicate that even though EATLs are rare overall, they are one of the most common causes of death in people with celiac disease. One problem with studying EATLs is that the best statistical information regarding its prevalence is still based on estimates. Until recently, there had been no study made to determine the rate at which EATLs occur in the general population. A team of doctors based in the Netherlands recently set out to conduct such an assessment using the Dutch national network and patient registry of cyto- and histopathology reports (PALGA). The research team included Wieke H. M. Verbeek, Jolanda M. W. Van de Water, Abdulbaqi al-Toma, Joost J. Oudejans, Chris J. J. Mulder & Veerle M. H. Coupé. The team looked at all T-cell lymphomas found from January 2000 to December 2006 that originated in the small bowel, and they computed some basic average rates of EATL occurrence for the Netherlands and worldwide, along with occurrence rates by gender and age. The team also factored in the location of the lymphoma, Marsh categorization for celiac disease, and the means by which the patients’ lymphomas were detected. In people with celiac disease, eating wheat causes the wheat protein to trigger an adverse immune reaction that leads to inflammation of the intestinal lining, which can eventually cause the cells in the inflamed region to become cancerous. Even though celiac disease occurs twice as often in women as in men, men are far more likely to develop EATLs. Out of every 10 people who develop EATLs, only 2 to 5 of them have any obvious symptoms. Also, these statistics apply to untreated celiacs, and those diagnosed as adults, while people diagnosed as children and following a gluten-free diet have about the same rates of EATL as the general population. Adults with untreated celiac disease are nearly 70 times more likely to die from lymphoma than people without celiac disease. Again, since more and more people are being diagnosed with celiac disease as adults, it’s important to get the clearest possible picture of the associated risks, especially when they are as serious as EATLs. The team also noted that most EATLs seemed to be centered in theproximal small intestine, and that diagnosis was generally madesurgically. The team looked at 116 incidents of EATL and found a rate in the general Dutch population of .10/100,000. This is about double the estimated western rate of about .05/100,000. For those over 50 years of age, the Dutch rate of EATL increased by a factor of 10 to 2.08/100,000, while over 60, the Dutch rate was 2.92/100,000. Still, in addition to afflicting almost only those with celiac disease, EATL seems to afflict mostly men. For those over 50, EATL rates were .09/100,000 for women, but nearly 3 times that, 2.95/100,000 for men. One interesting part of the study was the acknowledgment by the doctors that increased cancer rates in celiacs have not been judged “sufficiently large” to warrant screening the general population that way some countries do. Instead, the doctors have adopted a strategy of checking patients with EATL for celiac disease. By their own admission, most patients with EATL have already been diagnosed with celiac disease. In any case, if you have a particularly deadly type of cancer it would seem a little late to test you for celiac disease. We at Celiac.com propose that a better strategy would be to test those with celiac disease for EATLs (and screen the general population for gluten intolerance). This study drives home the importance of diagnosing and treating celiac disease as early as possible, and also reinforces the importance of faithfully following a gluten-free diet and getting regular follow-up biopsies and screening that would reveal an EATL. Article citation: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology Published on July 11, 2008 DOI: 10.1080/00365520802240222
  9. Celiac.com 11/08/2012 - T-cell lymphoma is a deadly type of cancer that is more common in people with celiac disease than in the general population. Currently, there is no cure for T-cell lymphoma, and no promising treatment exists for people who suffer from this condition. However, that may be set to change, as the results of a new study suggest that new treatments for T-cell lymphoma my be on the horizon. The study appears in the journal Clinical Lymphoma Myeloma and Leukemia. The study team included J.R. Bertino, M. Lubin, N. Johnson-Farley, W.C. Chan, L. Goodell, and S. Bhagavathi. They are affiliated with the Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology, and Pathology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ. The team was attempting to address the fact that doctors treating T-cell lymphomas, especially types of T-cell lymphoma known as peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) have limited treatment options and cannot cure the condition. Their study noted that a high percentage of PTCL, AITL, and ALCL, along with T-cell leukemia and T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia lack the enzyme methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP). Their published results also note that MTAP-deficient cells cannot cleave endogenous methylthioadenosine to adenine and 5-methylthioribose-1-phosphate, a precursor of methionine, and as a result have enhanced sensitivity to inhibitors of de novo purine biosynthesis. A recently introduced antifolate, pralatrexate, which has been shown to inhibit de novo purine biosynthesis, has been approved for treatment of PTCL and may have an increasing role in therapy. An alternative strategy involving coadministration of methylthioadenosine and high-dose 6-thioguanine has been proposed and may prove to be selectively toxic to MTAP-deficient uncommon lymphomas. As a result of these MTAP results, the team suggests that new therapies and treatments for T-cell lymphoma may be possible going forward. Source: Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2012 Oct;12(5):306-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clml.2012.07.001.
  10. Celiac.com 05/18/2010 - A research team recently concluded a clinicopathologic and array comparative genomic hybridization study on enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma. The team included Young Hyeh Ko MD, PhD; Sivasundaram Karnan; Kyeong Mee Kim MD, PhD; Cheol Keun Park MD, PhD; Eun Suk Kang MD, PhD; Young Ho Kim MD, PhD; Won Ki Kang MD, PhD; Seok Jin Kim MD, PhD; Won Seog Kim MD, PhD; Woo Yong Lee MD, PhD; Ho Kyung Chune; Masao Seto MD, PhD. The are associated variously with the Department of Pathology, the Department of Laboratory Medicine, the Division of Gastroenterology, Hemato-oncology of Internal Medicine, the Department of General Surgery of Samsung Medical Center at Sungkyunkwan University in Seoul, Korea and the Division of Molecular Medicine of the Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute in Nagoya, Japan. The latest World Health Organization classification system recognizes 2 types of enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma. The first, EATL type 1, is strongly associated with celiac disease, and makes up most EATL cases in Western countries. The second, EATL type 2 has no associations with celiac disease. To properly classify enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma types in Korea, the team conducted clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic analyses of 8 Koreans with enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma, and investigated genomic profile via array comparative genomic hybridization. Five patients presented tumors in the small intestine, while three presented tumors in the colorectum. Two patients carried an HLA DQB1âŽ0302 allele that corresponds to HLA DQ8. None of the patients suffered gluten-sensitive malabsorption syndrome. The team found intraepithelial lymphocytosis in all patients. In seven patients showed small, or small-to-medium, tumor cells. One patient presented with a medium-to-large tumor. Tumor cell immunophenotypes were CD4−CD8+CD56+ in 4 cases, CD4−CD8+CD56− in 1 case, CD4−CD8−CD56+ in 2 cases, and CD4−CD8−CD56− in 1 case. Using array comparative genomic hybridization analysis to spot recurring genomic alterations, the team found chromosome 9q33-q34.1 gain in four of five patients, chromosome 6p21.1-21.31 gain in three of five (60%), chromosome 6p21.1-21.31 gain in three of five (60%), and chromosome 3p12.1-p12.2 and 3q26.31 loss in two out of five (40%). These results show type 2 enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma to be the most prevalent type in this geographic region, and that associated genetic changes are similar to those in Western countries. Source: Human Pathology (2010) doi:10.1016/j.humpath.2009.11.020
  11. Celiac.com 04/13/2010 - A team of clinicians recently described a case of immune modulation by non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a patient with two primary intestinal T-Cell lymphomas and long-standing celiac disease. F. Mühr-Wilkenshoff, M. Friedrich, H. D. Foss, M. Hummel, M. Zeitz, and S. Daum made up the research team. They are variously affiliated with the Medical Clinic I, Gastroenterology, Rheumatology and Infectious Diseases, and with the Department of Pathology, Charité of the Campus Benjamin Franklin of University Medicine Berlin, Germany. About 20–30% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are gastrointestinal in nature. Of these gastrointestinal lymphomas, about 20–30% occur in small intestine The clinical team recently reported the case of a 72-year-old patient who had been diagnosed with celiac disease when he was 52-years old. The man had not followed a gluten-free diet, yet showed no evidence of enteropathy or celiac-associated antibodies, but still developed a jejunal T-cell lymphoma. Doctors resected the lymphoma due to perforation and treated the patient with four courses of IMVP-16. The patient began and maintained a strict gluten-free diet. Two years later, the patient appeared with weight loss and a clonally divergent refractory sprue type II with loss of antigen (CD8; T-cell receptor-) expression in intraepithelial lymphocytes. At this time, he showed high titers of celiac-associated antibodies, although he was on a strict GFD. The research team notes that the missing enteropathy under a gluten-containing diet supports the idea of immune suppression in malignant diseases, especially non-Hodgkin lymphoma. They also note that the fact that, even while maintaining a strict gluten-free diet, the patient developed refractory sprue type II, an early form of another independent T-cell lymphoma, along with celiac-associated antibodies, suggests that clonal intraepithelial lymphocytes might be stimulating antibody production. Thus, they conclude that isolated detection of celiac-associated antibodies in patients with celiac disease does not prove that patients have deviated from their gluten-free diets. Source: Digestion 2010;81:231–234 DOI: 10.1159/000269810
  12. Celiac.com 03/16/2010 - Enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) is a rare type of peripheral T-cell lymphoma that is commonly associated with celiac disease. A group at The Newcastle Lymphoma Group in the United Kingdom, evaluated data from newly diagnosed patients in Northern England and Scotland between 1994 and 1998, in search of increased overall survival (OS) rates and progression free survival (PFS) rates for EATL patients. Celiac disease (celiac disease) is the most common food intolerance disorder affecting Western civilization today. While most celiacs show an improvement in their health after initiating a gluten free diet, 2-5% of patients do not improve, and are thus considered to have refractory celiac disease (RCD). RCD is further classified into two categories, Type 1 with intraepithelial lymphocytes of normal phenotype, or as type 2 with clonal expansion of intraepithelial lymphocytes with an aberrant phenotype. Type 2 patients are expected to have a five year overall survival rate (OS) of 50%-58%, and most Type 2 RCD patients die from EATL. EATL generally affects older patients in their 60's or 70's, with a history of celiac disease or RCD, and is most frequently presented in the form of malabsorption along with abdominal pain. However, EATL is not exclusive to patients with celiac disease or RCD and has also been found in patients without a history of either. Standard treatments until now have included surgical resection, with or without anthracycline-based chemotherapy, or high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). Results of these treatments have been dismal, with the patient typically dying from disease related complications. Using a population-based setting, 26 EATL patients that qualified for intensive treatment were given the new aggressive treatment of, ifosfamide, vincristine, etoposide / methotrexate (IVE/MTX) & ASCT, and their results were compared to that of the historical group. Statistically there was no difference between the groups; all groups had similar age, sex and features at initial evaluation. For all patients treated with the historical cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) therapy, the average PFS rate was approximately three months, and the average OS rate was about seven months. However, the IVE/MTX - ASCT group showed a significantly higher five year PFS and OS compared to patients treated with the historical CHOP therapy. Additionally, patients treated with IVE/MTX - ASCT showed improvement in their remission rates, and had profound reduction of death rates compared to the group treated with the historical CHOP chemotherapy. Of the patients that were solely treated with surgery, none survived. While EATL has a somber outcome for most patients treated with conventional CHOP treatments, data collected from these tests reveal that the regime IVE/MTX – ASCT shows exceptional promise as a new treatment. It is recommended that EATL patients enter themselves into national studies like this one, to expand research data and to help explore potentially effective EATL treatment options. Source: DOI 10.1182/blood-2009-07-231324.
  13. Celiac.com 08/17/2008 - One of the important ways doctors distinguish between the two types of refractory celiac disease is by looking at differences in intra-epithelial T lymphocytes (IELs) in intestinal biopsies. People with refractory celiac disease who show normal IELs are said to have refractory celiac disease I, while those with abnormal IELs are said to have refractory celiac disease II. A team of doctors based in the Netherlands recently set out to assess the effectiveness of computed tomography (CT) in diagnosing refractory celiac disease, and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL). EATL is a generally rare, but particularly aggressive form of bowel cancer that is the leading cause of death in adults with celiac disease. The study team was made up of doctors Maarten Mallant, Muhammed Hadithi, Abdul-Baqi Al-Toma, Matthijs Kater, Maarten Jacobs, Radu Manoliu, Chris Mulder, and Jan Hein van Waesberghe. The team looked at 46 patients with clinically proven celiac disease, refractory celiac disease I, refractory celiac disease II, or EATL including 18 males and twenty-eight females. The first group contained 14 patients with uncomplicated celiac disease and 10 with type I refractory celiac disease. The second group contained 15 patients with type II refractory celiac disease and 7 patients with EATL. 5 patients from group II showed lymphandenopathy, compared to none in the first group. 20 patients from group I showed a higher number of small mesenteric vessels compared to just 11 from group II. This is significant because increased numbers of small mesenteric vessels are associated with an absence of refractory celiac disease II and EATL, while reduced numbers of small mesenteric vessels are associated with a higher rate of refractory celiac disease II and EATL. The team evaluated the two groups within eleven categories: abnormal intestinal fold patterns; bowel wall thickness, excess fluid; intestinal insussuction; ascites; lymphadenopathy; increases in lymph node numbers; mesenteric vascular changes; and spleen size. One other area the doctors found important was in differences in the average thickness of the bowel wall. Group I showed thinner bowel walls compared to group II. In group I, average bowel thickness ranged from 4mm to 11mm, with an average thickness of 7.0mm. In group II, average bowel thickness ranged from 5mm to 15mm, with an average thickness of 10.0mm. So, group II showed about 30% thicker bowel walls than group I. The doctors’ conclusions reaffirmed the need for a biopsy before confirming a diagnosis of celiac disease. Regarding the use of CT, the team found CT unnecessary for cases of uncomplicated celiac disease, but found CT very useful in cases of complicated and pre-cancerous celiac disease. The study team also found that pattern reversal and/or loss of jejunal folds is specific to celiac disease, though they had an admittedly small sample of just 24 of their 46 patients, so their measures are far from definitive. All of this drives home the importance of encouraging early and accurate screening for celiac disease. Ideally, we will get to the point where, like many European countries, we will begin to catch celiac disease before it ever becomes refractory, and before it ever develops into EATL. Until then, stay informed and take an active role in maintaining your own health. World J Gastroenterol 2007; 13(11): 1696-1700
  14. Celiac.com 10/12/2007 - The presence of gluten serves to activate HLA-DQ2/DQ8-restricted intestinal specific T-cells. Currently, the only treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. A team of Italian researchers recently conducted a study to determine whether a new enzyme strategy might offer promise in abolishing adverse gluten-associated activity. The team used mass spectrometry to analyze enzyme modifications of immuno-dominant a-gliadin peptide P56-58 and modeling studies to determine the extent of peptide binding to HLA-DQ2.The team treated wheat flour with microbial transglutaminase and lysine methylesther. They then extracted, digested and deaminated the gliadin. They used biopsy specimens from 12 adults with known celiac disease to generate gliadin-specific intestinal T-cell lines (iTCLs), which they then challenged in vitro with various antigen solutions. The results showed that tissue TG-mediated transamidation with lysine methylesther of P56-58, or gliadin in alkaline conditions inhibited the interferon expression in iTCLs. Gastroenterology, Volume 133, Issue 3, September 2007; p780-789
  15. Gastroenterology. 2003 Aug;125(2):337-344. Celiac.com 08/07/2003 - This studys aim was to determine the feasibility of altering gluten proteins to make them harmless to those with celiac disease. Unfortunately the altered protein still produced a toxic T-cell reaction in almost half of the patients studied. Here is the abstract: Intestinal T-cell responses to high-molecular-weight glutenins in celiac disease. Molberg O, Solheim Flaete N, Jensen T, Lundin KE, Arentz-Hansen H, Anderson OD, Kjersti Uhlen A, Sollid LM. BACKGROUND & AIMS: The chronic, small intestinal inflammation that defines celiac disease is initiated by a HLA-DQ2 restricted T-cell response to ingested gluten peptides after their in vivo examination by tissue transglutaminase (TG2). To date, celiac disease can only be treated by a lifelong abstinence from foods that contain wheat, rye, or barley; better therapeutic options are hence needed. An attractive target would be to identify nontoxic wheat cultivars or components thereof with intact baking qualities. Because these qualities are mainly determined by the high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin proteins of gluten, it is critical to know if these proteins are toxic or, more specifically, if they will trigger the activation of T cells in the celiac lesion. METHODS: Different, highly purified HMW glutenins were isolated from wheat cultivars or expressed as recombinant proteins. The proteins were first tested for recognition by a large panel of gluten-specific T-cell lines established from celiac lesions and then applied during ex vivo challenges of celiac biopsies to allow for a direct identification of HMW specific T cells. RESULTS: Intestinal T-cell responses to TG2-deamidated HMW glutenins but not the corresponding native proteins were detectable in 9 of the 22 adult and childhood celiac disease patients tested. CONCLUSIONS: T cells within celiac lesions frequently recognize deamidated HMW glutenin proteins. This finding questions the possibility of implementing these proteins in novel food items destined to be nontoxic for celiac disease patients.
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