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Jefferson Adams posted an article in Celiac Disease & Gluten Intolerance ResearchCeliac.com 07/01/2009 - Immunity to food allergens such as gliadin, or the proteins in cow's milk is central to prevention of certain diseases via an appropriate restriction diet. Detecting heightened levels immune reactions to antigen(s) in food is important because scientists have credible reports of certain health disturbances, such as celiac disease, and some pre-malignant conditions, such as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), disappearing under a regimen of appropriate food restriction diets. Only a small number of genetically predisposed individuals show a toxic small bowel mucosa reaction to gliadin. Since levels of immunogenic gliadin may vary between different wheat species, a team of researchers first set out to assess immunogenic gliadin levels in ten bread wheat types and in three strains of commercially grown durum wheat. The team was made up of Aleksandra Konic-Ristic, Dejan Dodig, Radmilo Krstic, Svetislav Jelic, Ivan Stankovic, Aleksandra Ninkovic, Jelena Radic, Irina Besu, Branka Bonaci-Nikolic, Njegica Jojic, Milica Djordjevic, Dragan Popovic, and Zorica Juranic. They were spurred by previous studies that showed sera of some of multiple myeloma (MM) patients with elevated levels of anti-gliadin IgA, without enhanced levels of anti-gliadin IgG antibodies, as determined by commercial ELISA test. They designed their own specifically to uncover any hidden anti-gliadin IgG immunoreactivity in patient blood samples. For this reason, researchers tested blood of both MM patients and celiac disease patient for immunoreaction with native gliadin isolated from regional wheat species used for bread and pasta making. The team isolated gliadin from wheat flour by two step 60% ehanolic extraction. They determined gliadin levels by commercial R5 Mendez Elisa using PWG gliadin as the standard. Results showed immunogenic gliadin content varies between 50.4 and 65.4 mg/g in bread wheat samples and between 20 and 25.6 mg/g in durum wheat samples. Anti-gliadin IgA and IgG immunoreactivity of patients'sera in (IU/ml) was first measured by commercial diagnostic Binding Site ELISA test, and then additionally by non-commercial ELISA tests, using standardized ethanol wheat extracts -gliadin as the antigen. In both patient groups, IgA immunoreactivity to gliadin from different samples was almost homogenous and in correlation with results from commercial test, except for one IgA(lambda) myeloma patient. However, results for IgG immunoreactivity were less homogeneous. Results showed different immunogenic gliadin epitope levels in various species of wheat. They also point to a need for developing a new standard antigen, a representative mixture of gliadin isolated from local wheat species used for bread production in corresponding geographic region for ELISA diagnostic tests. Source: BMC Immunology 2009, 10:32
Jefferson Adams posted an article in Oats and Celiac Disease: Are They Gluten-Free?Celiac.com 01/08/2008 - Our recent article on oats brought a number of comments calling our attention to another recent study in which certain types of oats were found to be more beneficial, while others were more likely to be problematical. There still isn’t any official definitive evidence one-way or the other as to just how safe oats are for folks on a gluten-free diet, though there are more studies of this nature being undertaken, and data collection and genetic mapping and testing help us to build a better picture. A team of Italian and Australian doctors conduced in vitro tests on three different kinds of oats. They wanted to see if certain kinds of oats showed any kind of toxicity in people with celiac disease. These tests showed that the Avenins of the Italian variety Astra and the Australian variety Mortlook showed a much higher activity than those of the Australian Lampton variety, while Rice of the Roma variety showed no activity. Gliadin which is found in wheat and rye showed the expectedly high levels of activity. Of the oat types tested in this study, the Lampton variety seems to be safer than either the Astra or the Mortlock. However, even oats that are “safer” must still be processed in a dedicated facility that is free of contamination and routinely tested to make sure they meet the minimum levels to be gluten-free. For oat products to be considered gluten-free, they must show less than 20ppm of gliadin. A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine by Trisha Thompson, M.S., R.D.,* showed that no commercial brand of oats were reliably gluten-free. In fact, nine of the twelve samples from three major brands of oats showed gluten levels ranging from 1,807 to 23 ppm. There are several companies who now sell "certified gluten-free oats," which are oats that are farmed, harvested, processed and packed using special methods to avoid cross-contamination with gluten during every step of the way. Gluten-free oats currently sell for around $4 to $5 a pound. These type of oats are typically tested for gliadin to less than 3ppm, and are thus considered safe for celiacs who are not sensitive to Avenins. As far as certain types of oats being better than others, it’s worth some checking, but I’m unsure of the availability of, say, the Lampton strain in America. Also, given the results of commercially available oat brands, the question of the conditions under which the oats were processed becomes very important. Previous studies have shown children with celiac produce significantly greater numbers on antibodies to oat protein than non-celiac children (Scand J Gastroenterol. 2003 Jul; 38(7):742-6). Many folks with celiac disease are looking to avoid contamination, as no one wants to suffer the unpleasant symptoms of a gluten reaction. Basically, people just want to know what’s safe and to be able to enjoy those items without worrying about getting sick. Since cross-contamination is such a problem of particular importance to celiacs, and since oats grown and processed commercially are likely not gluten-free, it would seem wise to start with gluten-free oats just to be on the safe side. But anyone looking for a definitive answer will just have to wait. And remember, as with so much with the gluten-free diet, you are the best judge of your own body. *Thompson T. Gluten Contamination of Commercial Oat Products in the United States. N Engl J Med 2004; 351:2021-2022 Main article: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 22 (4), 528–531, 2007. Marco Silano, Mariarita Dessì, Massimo De Vincenzi, Hugh Cornell (2007).