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Found 90 results

  1. Celiac.com 11/15/2010 - Fermentation of wheat flour with sourdough lactobacilli and fungal proteases decreases the concentration of gluten in wheat. Depending on the level of hydrolyzation, gluten levels can be reduced as low as 8 parts per million. A team of researchers recently conducted a small study to assess whether people with celiac disease can eat baked goods made with wheat flour that is hydrolyzed via sourdough lactobacilli and fungal proteases during food processing. The team included L. Greco, M. Gobbetti, R. Auricchio, R. Di Mase, F. Landolfi, F. Paparo, R. Di Cagno, M. De Angelis, C. G. Rizzello, A. Cassone, G. Terrone, L. Timpone, M. D'Aniello, M. Maglio, R. Troncone, S. Auricchio. They are affiliated with the Department of Pediatrics and European Laboratory for the Study of Food Induced Diseases, University of Naples, Federico II in Naples Italy. The team evaluated the safety of daily administration of baked goods made from this hydrolyzed form of wheat flour for patients with celiac disease. Patients who volunteered for the study were assigned at random to consume 200 grams per day of baked goods from one of three groups. The did so every day for 60 days. The first group of six patients ate natural flour baked goods (NFBG), with a gluten content of 80,127 ppm gluten. The second group of 2 patients ate baked goods made from extensively hydrolyzed flour (S1BG), with a residual gluten content of 2,480 ppm. The third group of patients ate baked goods made from fully hydrolyzed flour (S2BG), with just 8 ppm residual gluten. In the first group, two of the six patients consuming baked goods made with natural flour (NFBG) discontinued the challenge because of adverse symptoms. All six patients in this group showed increased levels of anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antibodies and small bowel deterioration. The two patients who ate baked goods made from extensively hydrolyzed flour (S1BG) had no clinical complaints, but biopsy showed intestinal damage in the form of subtotal villous atrophy. The five patients who ate baked goods made with made from fully hydrolyzed flour (S2BG), at just 8 ppm residual gluten had no clinical complaints. Also, they showed no increase in anti-tTG antibodies, and Marsh grades of their small intestinal mucosa showed no adverse change. Evidence with this small 60-day dietary study shows that people with celiac disease can safely consume baked goods made from fully hydrolyzed wheat flour, manufactured with sourdough lactobacilli and fungal proteases. This flour shows no toxicicity to patients with celiac disease. The team notes that a combined analysis of serologic, morphometric, and immunohistochemical parameters is the most accurate method to assess new therapies for this disorder. The results need to be borne out by further study, but, in the future, baked goods made with fully hydrolyzed wheat flour, manufactured with sourdough lactobacilli and fungal proteases may become another option for people with celiac disease. Source: Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Oct 15. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2010.09.025
  2. Sorry for the long post, I've been dealing with this forever and want to figure it out! Hi, I just got tested for celiac (blood test at a family practice (USA)) without knowing that I had to have been eating gluten regularly for it to show anything. I read forums here that said so, so I called the doctor's office before my test to ask if that was true, and they put me on with a nurse that said "I've never heard of that, but let me check the test we have....Oh, yep, it says to eat gluten. So just eat some bread before you come today." Seemed doubtful. I ended up NOT eating any gluten, and I've been actively avoiding wheat for at least 3 years (I noticed a gluten intolerance when I started college, my dad and uncle and 2 cousins can't eat it either). I was accidentally glutened with the tiniest bit of fajita seasoning from a restaurant 3 weeks prior to my blood test, but that's it. I didn't want to make myself sick with bread after reading that the blood test really only works if you've been eating it for weeks/months, so I went and got tested with basically non gluten in my system at all. The test itself said "negative." But I've attached a screenshot of my levels. After talking with the nurses on the phone twice, I'm convinced they know nothing about it. My antibodies were low/normal, probably because I haven't eaten gluten in years. (I sometimes drink beer made with barley instead of wheat because it doesn't give me horrible stomach cramps, but I hadn't had any in probably a month). The one thing that seemed "high" to me for someone who hasn't eaten wheat in years was the tTG IGA (I have no idea what that means). Mine said 7.2 U/mL (again, whatever that means). This family practice test says that a normal level is under 15 U/mL, but all my other levels are less than 1. After some research, I came across what "normal" levels should look like and Mayo Clinic suggested under 4.0 U/mL is negative for celiac (Source) [4.0-10 is a "weak positive"]. Like I said, I'm not very trusting that the practice I went to knows anything about celiac. I know if I want a diagnosis I should go to some specialist. But I really don't want to get put under just to be told "yep, do exactly what you've doing for years, avoiding gluten." So, I decided to sort of "self-diagnose" myself with celiac JUST to make myself be extra careful, you know, just in case my intestines are damaged whenever I get cross-contaminated food. My question is: does anyone else think it's possible I have celiac? Or am I being nuts? Recap & Symptoms: In 2014 I could barely eat anything in my house because I would be sick with horrible stomach cramps and constipation that would make me cry and have to stay home the next day. I lost weight then. Someone suggested going gluten-free, and I knew my dad was doing that because he had a couple passing-out episodes and similar gut pain. My uncle (dad's brother) also has a sever intolerance to gluten, like it gets him hospitalized because of malnutrition and cramping (I'm pretty sure he has celiac, but he's too stubborn to get tested). I tried avoiding gluten for a week and felt way better. Now I've been gluten free for years. Like I said before, though, I am not careful with barley and rye. Malt hurts me a lot, and when I take one bite of, say, a donut thinking it'll be worth it (I miss donuts..) it NEVER is. I'm out for two days after that. If I get glutened, I experience: fatigue, horrible cramps, gas (that won't pass), constipation (for days), foggy head, itchy skin, irritability, and my appetite fluctuates like crazy-- one minute I'm so full I can't think of food, another I'm starving.
  3. hi All, I had been getting so gradually sick that I don't know when it started, (but I am now assuming 1994). In 2008, I succumbed to pressure from my insurance rep to get more insurance, and they would even come to my house to test my blood. I was denied insurance and recommended to see my doctor, who told me I had the liver of a severe alcoholic. I very rarely drink. I went for tests and the doctor was baffled. He said I should lose weight. He said it was likely fatty liver disease. That was 2008. For the next few years I got tests, tried to eat healthy, and every so often I would see if it was helping my liver numbers. I got stomach aches when I ate toast or a sandwich, but didnt link it to the toast except later, in hindsight. How could toast give me a stomach ache? Anyway, on the advice of my doctor, I tried very hard to lose weight, so went lo-carb. One day, I had had no breakfast and at church 'goodie-time' was unable to resist all the carbs. Later that afternoon, I felt like someone had literally poisoned me. This was now 2011. I decided to not eat or drink anything but almonds and organic cold pressed apple juice in a glass jar, and ate only those things for the next 3-4 days while I looked for symptoms on the Internet. I narrowed it down to celiac disease and went to the doctor. I refused to eat gluten to get the test. I decided not to eat gluten and I got better. I then started a job in China. I learned how to say things like "no soy sauce" since it's made from wheat. I got so much better. I knew what my reactions were to gluten, especially the one that happened first: I would get a shakiness inside, like my blood system was micro-vibrating. i got the flu and was in bed for three days straight eating only mandarin oranges and water. After a couple of days, I got that shakiness, suddenly, lying in bed. I was astounded, cause I had only water and oranges. Then I remembered that I had taken two Advil, in the gel cap form. I looked on the Internet, and sure enough, the gel caps contained gluten. Wow. Even that small amount in two gel caps set it off. I was very vigilant. Then one day, back in Canada, I was making hot dogs for a four-year-old and I had fresh bakery buns. I couldn't resist. I guess I thought, well, it's been a couple of years gluten free, let's see what happens. I ate one and a half huge bakery hot dog buns on impulse. Big mistake. I got so, so sick. I was sick for 6 weeks with various symptoms. Spleen pain, liver pain, kidney pain, migraine headaches, stomach issues, constipation, dizziness, brain fog, irritability, etc. This was 2013. After one week of still being sick, I thought it's probably too late, but I should get that celiac test to see if there are detectable antibodies. I went to the doctor, who didn't think it was necessary and insisted it was fatty liver disease and not celiac. He humoured me and gave me the requisition anyway. It wasn't too late! One week later. i was shocked to see that my antibody level was 99. ( If you have less than 20 you don't have Celiac. It is called tTg test). If you have 100, they say you don't really need a biopsy and it's pretty much confirmed celiac. The doctor was a little bit embarrassed and said, "looks like you've diagnosed yourself". So finally he shut up about fatty liver disease. I got so much better living in China. I occasionally slipped. I then went back to canada for a year. I developed DH, as I got these lesions starting on my thumb and then on my fingers and palms. Finally after 6 months I cut out dairy. I had heard it was also somehow bad for Celiacs from the Internet but I really didn't want to cut out dairy as it was bad enough without gluten. I finally did and the DH cleared up. Then back to China. I would go back to Canada twice a year for the time off from spring and summer holidays. It was really hard to be around western food temptations and I would get "glutened" even though I tried hard. I began to get a strange pain in my leg and the doctor in canada said it was likely arthritis in my hip. i went for an xray but it didnt show anything. it really killed me to get that pain in my leg and then in my hip. i would cry out and have to sit down. i started riding my bike to work in china cause it was painful to walk very far. I had started to reintroduce dairy while in China and found that I could eat yogurt, which I love. I had heard that people blamed their gluten reactions on Roundup, or glyphosate, because they could eat flour products in other countries but not North America. One day about six months ago I made cookies for my students. I wore gloves and was very careful. Before this, I wouldn't even be in the same room with flour. But nothing happened. Then I tasted a cookie. Nothing happened!! The next day, I ate a whole cookie. Nothing happened!! I began to think there was something to the theory of North America and roundup. I still avoided flour in general cause I didn't want to push it, but I started eating soy sauce and relaxed a bit - started going to restaurants in china, etc. instead of micromanaging food in my kitchen, cause I was evidently not reacting to gluten in China. I then realized that the only episodes of pain I had had were when I was in Canada the previous summer and spring. Very strange. So. I got back to Canada, last spring, had my usual gluten free meal on the airplane, and then visited my mother. I ate only organic yogurt. Nothing else, and a few hours later I was attacked by almost every gluten related pain I had ever had. My hip was suddenly shooting pain and I cried out and limped to the couch. My mother asked, what did you eat? I said, nothing! Only organic yogurt! Of course after any glutening, it takes weeks for these pains to subside, and I endured pain stabs in my spleen for a while. Then back to China, where I was able to eat normally. No pains, nothing. I ate yogurt, made myself with uht milk imported from Germany or Australia, and I was fine. Until the day when I ate one of the chocolate bars I had brought from Canada as prizes for my students. Instant reaction! Spleen pain! I had heard that sugar cane was as bad as flour for being drenched in roundup. Now I was convinced. It was definitely stuff from Canada that was the culprit. Only farm products. Yes, they say the yogurt is organic, but I'm sure they feed the milk cows hay that has been exposed to roundup. Now I know exactly what I can eat and where. I love the food here, and it's safe. There are exceptions. They use pesticides on fruit, cause I get a stomach ache when I eat certain fruits, but it's a different reaction that the gluten reaction, I can eat flour products without a huge reaction, but I still have celiac, because I do get reactions even from Chinese flour, just not as bad as I did before. A mild sick feeling, like something is off, kind of unbalanced, and of course the inevitable shakiness. I react much worse to Canadian chocolate. But there is a huge difference between food here and food there. A very painful difference. Hard to figure out, but I think I have. so here's my theory, roundup actually causes the celiac disease, or whatever disease you might happen to be genetically susceptible to. (My uncle has arthritis in his hip). If you keep ingesting it, you will get gradually sicker and sicker and get some kind of disease. If you stop eating roundup completely, you will heal with a healthy diet. If you already have a disease like celiac or DH you can manage it and stay healthy if you are totally roundup free. My dad died of nonHodgkins lymphoma and he insisted it was the roundup the neighbor had been spraying on his farm, right next to my dads organic hobby farm. Now I believe him. I wish I'd been able to piece this together a bit earlier. Since 1994, many diseases have hugely increased. That's when they started with the roundup and there is a one on one correspondence on the graphs with roundup use and many diseases. sorry for the novel but I just can't keep this all to myself, I'm like the canary in the mine. But roundup is everywhere so I don't know if you can really avoid it in North America, sadly. My advice is to move elsewhere and figure it out like I did. i saw a youtube video by an MIT researcher that they are now figuring out that glyphosate actually takes up the place of the essential amino acid glycine in your body. Because they are molecularly similar, glyphosate gets in there and stops glycine from being able to do it's job in your body. So it causes all sorts of problems in a gradual way and eventually you will have trouble. i hope this helps! Stay away from farm products! I hope it's not true what the conspiracy theorists say (that they are spraying chemicals, chemtrails etc. I don't know if they are spraying roundup) but if it is, that's the end of the world as we know it. I don't really want to go there, I just know what I know and I'm sharing it. this is just the short version but I've tried to include important info. Anyone else have a similar story in any way?
  4. TL;DR Mom is a celiac. Father, Brother are lactose intolerant. Sister has IBS problems as well. I believe I have gluten allergy, even though every doctor test is negative. But I do have geno-type for celiac. Marijuana has become my only solution to stop the pain and get hours of relief. No other medicine works. but pot lets me go to work, without crapping my pants and getting paid to s$#&. Anyone else in my particular situation or does everyone else feel it differently? Hello, My name is Ryan and I am a twenty-four male, 300lbs, 6ft 4in. Ive been haunted by stomach/head aches for almost my whole life. Gaining depression in middle school, which downward spiraled by the time I was 20-21. Ive been diagnosed with Chronic Lyme Disease which is, I guess, controversial among physicians on whether or not it is actually a real thing. My Dr. gave me that diagnosis at 16, after going to him with Lyme for the 8th time. My mom figured out she was a celiac when I was 20 years old, so I then started on a gluten-free diet and felt good, but didnt realize that it was actually helping me. I went back on gluten to have the testing done, but it came back negative. So I said okay, I'm not allergic to gluten it must be my imagination or something else and went on my way. Had two more doctors tell me I probably wasnt Gluten intolerant. I then started to get serious urinary issues, and started to go to urologists. They couldnt find anything wrong, so I went to a GI and they told me nothing was wrong, after doing all the testing over the years, they said I wasnt allergic to Lactose or Gluten, however my most recent GI said I have a Geno-type for it. MFer*** I know its already here. It doesnt take but an hour and I am in gut wrenching pain and cant get off the toilet for sometimes hrs, with breaks in between (4 times on) and the pain and discomfort lasts for hrs. The doctor has put me on every kind of medicine and nothing works. He said well you dont have anything we test for, so I'm just going to say you have IBS. Which still makes sense, because there is times, I know I havent touched gluten ( I dont think, I'm not a very good label checker) or cheese and I'm still in the BR. I am currently on 50MG Amytriptaline (spelling) for the depression, urinary issue and intestinal inflammation(whether its there or not, the gastro put me on it, and it keeps the other two things at bay, so I cant go off it. However, it doesnt do too much for the stomach problem. The only solution I have found is Marijuana, which I have only recently started (1yr), but man does it make a difference. Now I can have a full time job, but I have to smoke to go to work. Which isnt my most favorite thing to do , but Ive gotten used to it and it helps me tremendously. So its become my catch all illness defeater. However, it only puts my intestines on hold(how long depending on how much pot, but usually a small amount keeps my stomach at bay for about 6-8 hrs. I can suffer the last hr at work, but at least I'm not in the bathroom for my whole shift. Which is great, its an amazing feeling to be at work without something plaguing you. I still dabble in gluten, like 1 slice of pizza, here and there (bc im supposed to be not gluten intolerant) but the devil strikes every time. Im sure Ive missed some stuff, but would like some feedback on the route I should take, get some insight, my wife said I should go to a holistic doctor, which has amazing reviews near us, but its 500 dollars cash to get the evalution and its not covered by insurance. She thinks I'm allergic to soy, which I guess is in both lactose and gluten?? But ive never been tested for that. I want some light to follow. Thanks Is it typical to feel an attack so fast? It happens between 15 minutes to 2 hrs, giving the span, but usually an hour. Does everyone react the same way to gluten? - I dont get diarrhea or constipation, I get a little of both, its loosely packed and hard to pass with excruciating pain. Other times ( I think this is the IBS part), it'll just come out of no where, but its not super painful, but I cannot hold it at all. Could all of my problems be Gluten/Lactose...or just part of it/none of it? Has anyone else gotten a negative test, but still said hell with it, Gluten Free? Are there any good, well organized mega threads for stuff to not touch if you're allergic to gluten, especially lesser known things (to avoid oops moments)
  5. Celiac.com 02/10/2018 - People with celiac disease must avoid all forms of gluten from wheat, rye, or barley. So, what about Kamut? Is Kamut safe for people with celiac disease or gluten-sensitivity? Like Spelt, Kamut is simply another form of wheat that is sometimes wrongly thought to be gluten-free. Kamut is simply a trademark for a specific kind of wheat, Khorasan wheat, grown under specific conditions. Khorasan wheat is triticum turanicum. It is wheat, and it contains gluten, which people with celiac disease should not eat. So, in short, Kamut is NOT safe for people with celiac disease or any sensitivity to gluten. Because Kamut is still a type of wheat that contains gluten it is not safe for people with celiac diseases and appears on Celiac.com's UNSAFE food list of non-gluten-free foods.
  6. Hi, Im a bit confused about my symptoms so hoping for some insight. I have been suffering from a range of symptoms, which all started just after I had my second child (who is nearly 3 now). I have constipation on and off, mucoua in stool, undigested food in stool, insomnia which sometimes is very severe...I cannot sleep for days, migraines, sinus pain, vertigo, burning feeling in ears, sore joints, pain in knees and lower back pain. I also suffer from wind when I am constipated. I dont really feel bloated and my stomach doesnt swell or anything. I didnt connect it to anything I was eating until recently. I assumed it was stress related. However I have noticed that when I eat grains, they come out undigested and I almost alseays have constipation about 2 or 3 days later. I ate the grain feekah a few days ago...and now am constipated again...with fully recognisable grains. Sorry for tmi! I am wondering if the fact the grains are undigested...is this a reliable way of determining that it is the culprit food and that is causing problems? Is it possible just to have an intolerence to grains but be ok with other wheat sources such as bread etc? I am also wondering if wheat allergy and/or gluten intolerence or celiac disease, can just develop out of the blue? I havent had any problems before until the past 2-3 years. Also, can it be triggered by stress/ pregnancy/giving birth? My doctors arent the best tbh...so I havent really gone back as I get fobbed off. Im going to try eliminating foods from diet to try to see what helps. Any advise etc greatly appreciated. Karolina
  7. Celiac.com 10/30/2006 - Triticum monococcum wheat is also known as Einkorn wheat and small spelt, but do not confuse it with common spelt which is not the same thing. Einkorn is the oldest and most primitive cultivated wheat, and recent studies have shown that it appears to lack gliadin toxicity and may be a safe wheat alternative for those with celiac disease. In the most recent study the researchers conclude that data show a lack of toxicity of triticum monococcum gliadin in an in vitro organ culture system, suggesting new dietary opportunities for celiac patients. If this is the case it appears that this grain is non-toxic to those with celiac disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2006 Nov;41(11):1305-11. Lack of intestinal mucosal toxicity of Triticum monococcum in celiac disease patients. Pizzuti D, Buda A, DOdorico A, DInca R, Chiarelli S, Curioni A, Martines D. Abstract: Objective. The treatment of celiac disease is based on lifelong withdrawal of foods containing gluten. Unfortunately, compliance with a gluten-free diet has proved poor in many patients (mainly due to its low palatability), emphasizing the need for cereal varieties that are not toxic for celiac patients. In evolutionary terms, Triticum monococcum is the oldest and most primitive cultivated wheat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of T. monococcum on small intestinal mucosa, using an in vitro organ culture system. Material and methods. Distal duodenum biopsies of 12 treated celiac patients and 17 control subjects were cultured for 24?h with T. aestivum (bread) gliadin (1?mg/ml) or with T. monococcum gliadin (1?mg/ml). Biopsies cultured with medium alone served as controls. Each biopsy was used for conventional histological examination and for immunohistochemical detection of CD3?+?intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and HLA-DR. Secreted cytokine protein interferon-? (IFN–?) was measured in the culture supernatant using an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay. Results. Significant morphological changes, HLA-DR overexpression in the crypt epithelium and an increased number of CD3?+?IELs, found after bread gliadin exposure, were not observed in celiac biopsies cultured with T. monococcum gliadin. In contrast, with bread gliadin, there was no significant IFN-? response after culture with monococcum gliadin. Similarly, biopsies from normal controls did not respond to bread or monococcum gliadin stimulation. Conclusions. These data show a lack of toxicity of T. monococcum gliadin in an in vitro organ culture system, suggesting new dietary opportunities for celiac patients. Note: Celiac.com strongly advises against celiacs including these grains in their diet until more testing and research is done to verify their safety. Einkorn Breadmaking Sites: Cereal Chem. 73 (2):208-214 Breadmaking Quality of Einkorn Wheat (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum). http://www.aaccnet.org/cerealchemistry/backissues/1996/73_208.pdf Cereal Chem. 76 (5): Pub. no. C-1999-0804-01R Einkorn Characterization for Bread and Cookie Production in Relation to Protein Subunit Composition. http://www.aaccnet.org/cerealchemistry/abstracts/1999/0804-01r.asp
  8. Celiac.com 10/24/2017 - Global wheat prices are plummeting in the wake of massive overstocks and anemic consumption. The problem is serious enough that Canada, the world's top producer of durum wheat, has cut its production nearly in half, to a six-year low. Even those drastic measures have had failed to raise prices, which are down about 30 percent from 2016. Worse still, experts are projecting a continuing decline in demand over the next year. Italy, Canada's second largest buyer of durum wheat in 2016, is planning to introduce rules in early 2018 that could further reduce imports. This comes at a time when consumers are buying less wheat products, as more and more people are adopting gluten-free, and low-carbohydrate diets. Italy is not the only problem for wheat growers, and durum is not the only variety to be hit by the reduction in demand. Weak demand overall will drive total global wheat stockpiles up to a record 263.4 million metric tons in 2017, according analysts surveyed by Bloomberg. Those predictions exceed estimates made by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the agency has already taken steps to revise its earlier estimate. According to Neil Townsend, a senior analyst at FarmLink in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Italy's plan is “just another nail in the coffin” to industry efforts to incrementally grow demand. After slowly bouncing back from the Atkins diet craze, the wheat industry is now “kind of getting gnawed away by the gluten thing. There's just no growth,” said Townsend. Source: bloomberg.com
  9. Celiac.com 10/25/2017 - For people with celiac disease, eating gluten proteins from wheat, barley, and rye triggers an auto-immune response, and the accompanying physical symptoms. A team of researchers recently set out to engineer low-gluten wheat strains that also have low-reactivity for people with celiac disease. To meet their goals, the team designed two sgRNAs to target a conserved region adjacent to the coding sequence for the 33-mer in the -gliadin genes. They then sought to evaluate the results. The research team included Susana Sánchez-León, Javier Gil-Humanes, Carmen V. Ozuna, María J. Giménez, Carolina Sousa, Daniel F. Voytas, and Francisco Barro. They are variously affiliated with the Departamento de Mejora Genética Vegetal, Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (IAS-CSIC), Córdoba, Spain; the Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Development, Center for Genome Engineering at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, MN, USA; and with the Facultad de Farmacia, Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain. The gliadin gene family of wheat includes four highly reactive peptides, with the 33-mer peptide being the main culprit in celiac patients. In all, the team generated twenty-one mutant lines, all of which showed strong reduction gliadin proteins. Of the 45 different genes identified in wild type gliadin, the team mutated up to 35 different genes in one of the lines to achieve an 85% reduction in immunoreactivity. They then identified the transgene-free lines, and found no off-target mutations in any of the potential targets. So, what does this all mean in English? Well, basically the low-gluten, transgene-free wheat lines that the team describes here could be used to produce low-gluten foods, as well as serving as source material to introduce the low-gluten, low-reactivity traits into selected wheat varieties. Basically, the technology could be used to create low-gluten wheat varieties with low immunoreactivity. Now, most folks with celiac disease, especially those with higher gluten sensitivity, would likely need more than and 85% reduction in immunoreactivity to see any real benefit. However, this study provides an interesting glimpse at how science might help researchers to create wheat strains that are safe for people with celiac disease. Source: Plant Biotechnology Journal. DOI: 10.1111/pbi.12837
  10. Celiac.com 10/16/2017 - In Europe many commercially available, nominally gluten-free foods use purified wheat starch as a base, but what's the best way to way to measure the gluten content of gluten-free foods, particularly those based on purified wheat starch? Currently, the only test for gluten quantitation certified by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is based on the R5 monoclonal antibody (MAB) that recognizes gliadin, but not glutenin. A team of researchers recently set out to determine the best way to measure the gluten content of nominally gluten-free foods, particularly those based on purified wheat starch. The research team included HJ Ellis, U Selvarajah and PJ Ciclitira. They are affiliated with the Department of Gastroenterology, Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences at Kings College London, St Thomas Hospital in London. Celiac disease is treated with a strict Gluten-Free Diet (GFD). Gluten is comprised of gliadin, Low (LMWG) and High (HMWG). To estimate gluten content of gluten-free foods, the R5 works by multiplying the R5 gliadin value by two to yield a gluten value. The research team raised a panel of monoclonal antibodies to celiac disease toxic motifs. They then assessed the gluten content of three wheat starches A, B, & C that are supplied as standards for the Transia gluten quantitation kit, which is based on a MAB to omega-gliadin. They used separate ELISAs to measure gliadin, Low (LMWG) and High Molecular Weight (HMWG) glutenins. They found that the gliadin levels in all three starches were always higher, as measured by one of the antibodies, than the levels measured with the other, and that the ratio between measurements made by the 2 MABs varied from 3.1 to 7.0 fold. The team noted significant differences in glutenin to gliadin ratios for different wheat starches. Based on their results, the team suggests that the best way to measure the gluten content of nominally gluten-free foods, especially those containing purified wheat starch, is to first measure gliadin and glutenin, and to then add the values together. This is because measurement of gliadin alone, followed by multiplication by two to yield a gluten content, appears to be inadequate for measuring total gluten in processed foods. Source: Int J Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2017;3(1): 046-049.
  11. This product is being recalled due to wheat ingredients which are not disclosed on the label. https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/recalls-and-public-health-alerts/recall-case-archive/archive/2017/recall-105-2017-release/!ut/p/a1/jZFRT4MwFIV_iw88lt6Oicw3QoIOHWRZnKwvpmCBxo6SUjHz11tmsmSGxfW-tDffybmnF1OcY9qyQdTMCNUyOb6p_wZr8MkigiSLwxiWqRdvg_SBQOZbYHcGLMgIbNfZUxRBkHpX6i-cEP7TJ1cYzPQqWtWYdsw0SLSVwrnmJZMSlazniOmyEQPH-ekyA3J3YgjcorGBNJfc8vgV03NTILas6Wb-mKQeZPO_wMSv_AKXY9tctVTFcQW7sC28wAbQvOKaa_dT23ZjTHfvgANStB-9W6vhnUs7vj64pdo7MCVsVG9wPinA3f4l_34Oq80S0eLwdfMDv3cy2A!!/#label
  12. Celiac.com 08/23/2017 - A team of researchers recently set out to assess how many patients with a diagnosis of non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) still experienced symptoms of wheat sensitivity after an average follow-up time of 99 months. The research team included Antonio Carroccio, Alberto D’Alcamo, Giuseppe Iacono, Maurizio Soresi, Rosario Iacobucci, Andrea Arini, Girolamo Geraci, Francesca Fayer, Francesca Cavataio, Francesco La Blasca, Ada M. Florena, and Pasquale Mansueto. Using data collected from 200 participants from a previous study of non-celiac wheat sensitivity, performed between July and December 2016 in Italy, the team found that 148 of these individuals still followed a strict wheat-free diet. In total, 175 patients (88%) said that they had fewer symptoms after a diagnosis of non-celiac wheat sensitivity and general improvement. Of the 148 patients who adhered strictly to a gluten-free diet, 145 (98%) had reduced symptoms, compared with 30 of 52 patients who did not adhere to a gluten-free diet (58%) (P < .0001). Of the 22 patients who repeated the double-blind, placebo-controlled challenge, 20 reacted to wheat. The numbers and percentages of the 148 non-celiac wheat sensitivity patients on a strict wheat-free diet who reported that the following symptoms recurred after occasional and accidental wheat consumption: Lack of well-being 135 (91%); Tiredness 102 (69%); Foggy mind 68 (46%); Menstrual alterations 54 (36%); Anemia 46 (31%); Weight increase 45 (30%); Joint/muscle pain 35 (24%); Headache 31 (21%); Weight loss 30 (20%); Anxiety 18 (12%); Skin rash 16 (11%); Recurrent cystitis 12 (8%); Depression 10 (7%). From these numbers, the team concludes that non-celiac wheat sensitivity is a persistent condition. Clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT02823522. Source: Gastroenterology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2017.03.034
  13. Hi everyone, I'm new to this forum (and diet) & have been having a lot of trouble trying to find foods I can eat based on the results I recently received after a food intolerance blood test. Google isn't helping me answer all my questions, and my naturopath is on vacation for the next 2 weeks, so I was hoping some of you informed folk could help? My main intolerances include: Dairy (cow, sheep, goat, casein) Barley & wheat - (I am OK to eat gluten, durum, wheat bran, buckwheat, millet, rye, oats...) Pea Corn Potato Rice Cashew nut & pistachio Yeast (brewer's) - baker's is fine Bean (Red Kidney & White Haricot) Egg white - (egg yolk is OK, and baked eggs are fine) Orange Cabbage (Savoy/White) Mustard Seed The odd thing is, I am okay to eat gluten (gliadin) itself, but eliminating wheat from my diet puts me on a gluten-free diet. Does anyone know what kinds of flours are appropriate substitutions given my intolerances? (ie, sorghum, quinoa, semolina, spelt, etc.). Most places use rice, potato or corn as substitutions, all of which I think are safe to say I cannot have. My list of questions of what I CAN eat, if anyone can help answer their groupings or categories: Baking powder corn syrup, rice vinegar, sweet potatoes/squash lima, black, pinto, mung beans & chickpeas quinoa & farro It's been difficult trying to create a diet and figure out places I can safely dine out without having to worry. Thanks so much for your help. Cheers! A
  14. Celiac.com 06/01/2017 - With low prices and slim margins, life is tough for people who trade in wheat, corn and soybeans these days. So much so that some traders are turning to obscure commodities like desert-grown tomatoes and chickpeas to turn a profit. Over the last several years, as farmers have produced far more of these crops than the marker can handle, margins for handling major grain crops have sunk. That has led some trading firms to seek higher margins in niche markets, such as tomatoes and organic grains, while other firms are looking to organic grains, and markets for costlier processed food ingredients or gluten-free products. One such company is Germany's BayWa AG. According to Jean-Francois Lambert, the founder and managing partner of consultant Lambert Commodities, "The general trading environment for agricultural commodities is rather difficult," and the challenge looks to continue, at least through next year. This fall in prices is a far cry from the price surge seen for much of the previous decade, when growing populations and burgeoning economies drove rising demand. Now, really huge firms are unlikely to see much benefit from investing in these smaller markets, no matter the margins. That's because the markets are still too small to have any major impact on their bottom line, and any gains would represent only tiny fractions of their overall portfolios. However, small and mid-sized traders can potentially do much better with investments in lesser-known commodities like quinoa or organic crops. For these traders, higher margins and growing demand can yield returns that improve their bottom line. One small company, Grain Services Srl, a brokerage based in Reggio Emilia, Italy, currently receives about 30 percent of its total revenue from gluten-free, organic or niche products, including quinoa, rice, amaranth and lentils, even though these make up just 7% of the firms overall business, says managing director Andrea Cagnolati. With prices for gluten-free grains and flours expected to surge over the next ten years, look for more investors to make big bets on that market, or to use it as a hedge against major market doldrums. Source: ESMMagazine.com
  15. Celiac.com 05/20/2017 - Anyone eager to try Whurple, the purple strain of gluten-free wheat reported by the State Collegian, will have to wait quite a while. It seems that the Collegian's report of the development by a Kansas State agriculture student was, in fact, merely a thinly disguised April Fool's Day joke. The Collegian had reported that such a product had been developed by one "Hayden Field, senior in agronomy," as part of his "four-year undergraduate research project in wheat development." Aside from the note at the bottom of the article indicating the joke, a major clue can be found in the article itself, which states that the wheat strain, which Field named "Whurple," was "genetically modified to have the "Willie gene," which means the wheat will be resistant to the colors crimson and blue. And when cooked at a temperature of 1,868 F, the wheat will turn purple." Obviously, far from changing color, any grain that is cooked at nearly 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit will almost certainly turn to ash. So, if you've been eagerly anticipating the glorious arrival of purple gluten-free wheat from Kansas, well, April Fools. Read the original article in the KStateCollegian.com.
  16. Just bought some nail polish remover and realised that it contains hydrolysed wheat protein. Is this safe to use considering I'm obviously not going to consume it? Will my nails absorb the wheat protein?
  17. Celiac.com 03/22/2017 - A new study published in the journal Food Chemistry shows that even the ancient varieties of wheat that have not been subject to hybridization, contain toxic epitopes that trigger adverse autoimmune response in celiac patients. What makes gluten toxic to people with celiac disease? Also, what is the relationship between various kinds of wheat and their celiac toxicity? To answer those questions, a team of researchers analyzed various kinds of wheat from several countries, all produced in the same agronomic year (2013-2014) at the Experimental Station at the Agronomic, Food and Biosystems School of Madrid. Their study focused on a specific set of proteins in gluten, called gliadins. Marta Rodríguez-Quijano, a researcher at the Technical University of Madrid and one of the writers behind the study, says that "gliadins have the greatest clinical effect against the innate and adaptive immune responses that lead to coeliac disease." However, the specific type of gliadins differ among the many varieties of wheat. The scientists assessed the presence of T-lymphocytes (immune cells that are related to celiac disease) in the various kinds of wheat) by using an antibody capable of recognizing toxic epitopes or antigenic determinants. Their data shows that the different varieties of wheat produce considerably different immune responses depending on the T-cells analyzed. Certain wheat varieties, such as the French "Pernel' T. aestivum ssp. vulgare L., have low toxic epitope content," explains Rodríguez-Quijano, which means that they are less likely to trigger a strong immune reaction in people with celiac disease. This study provides the scientific basis for using such epitopes to design and breed wheat products that are safe for people with celiac disease. A successful effort in this arena will help to "combat the poor nutritional and technological characteristics of gluten-free products and thereby contribute to improving patients' quality of life," says Rodríguez-Quijano. This researchers are not alone in their efforts to create wheat strains that are safe for people with celiac disease. A similar project is under way in Kansas, with researchers working with the University and industry support to evaluate wheat strains that may be suitable for people with celiac disease. Will the future mean safe wheat for people with celiac disease? Stay tuned for developments on this and related stories.
  18. Celiac.com 02/20/2017 - Nickel is the most common cause of contact allergy, and nickel exposure can result in systemic nickel allergy syndrome, which mimics irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Nickel is also found in wheat, which invites questions about possible nickel exposure from wheat in some cases of contact dermatitis. However, nickel hasn't really been studied in relation to glutenâ€related diseases. A research team recently set out to evaluate the frequency of contact dermatitis due to nickel allergy in NCWS patients diagnosed by a doubleâ€blind placeboâ€controlled(DBPC) challenge, and to identify the characteristics of NCWS patients with nickel allergy. The research team included Alberto D'Alcamo, Pasquale Mansueto, Maurizio Soresi, Rosario Iacobucci, Francesco La Blasca, Girolamo Geraci, Francesca Cavataio, Francesca Fayer, Andrea Arini, Laura Di Stefano, Giuseppe Iacono, Liana Bosco, and Antonio Carroccio. The are variously affiliated with the Dipartimento di Biologia e Medicina Interna e Specialistica (DiBiMIS), Internal Medicine Unit, University Hospital, Palermo, Italy; the Surgery Department, University Hospital, Palermo, Italy; Pediatric Unit, "Giovanni Paolo II" Hospital, Sciacca (ASP Agrigento), Italy; DiBiMIS, Gastroenterology Unit, University Hospital, Palermo, Italy; Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit, "ARNAS Di Cristina" Hospital, Palermo, Italy; Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche Chimiche e Farmaceutiche (Ste.Bi.CeF), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy. Their team conducted a prospective study of 54 women and 6 men, with an average age of 34.1 year, and diagnosed with NCWS from December 2014 to November 2016. They also included a control group of 80 age†and sexâ€matched subjects with functional gastrointestinal symptoms. Patients reporting contact dermatitis related to nickelâ€containing objects were given a nickel patch sensitivity test. The tests showed that six out of sixty patients (10%) with NCWS suffered from contact dermatitis and nickel allergy, and this frequency was statistically higher than observed in the 5 percent seen in the control group. Compared to NCWS patients who did not suffer from nickel allergy, NCWS patients with nickel allergy commonly showed a higher rates of skin symptoms after wheat consumption. Contact dermatitis and nickel allergy are more frequent in NCWS patients than in subjects with functional gastrointestinal disorders. Moreover, large numbers of these patients showed cutaneous manifestations after wheat ingestion. Nickel allergy should be evaluated in NCWS patients who have cutaneous manifestations after wheat ingestion. More study is needed to determine the relationship between nickel sensitivity and NCWS. Source: Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 103; doi:10.3390/nu9020103
  19. Celiac.com 02/24/2017 - Have wheat and gluten changed over time? Is the wheat we consume today substantially different to the wheat we ate fifty or one-hundred years ago? These are interesting questions that have invited a good deal of speculation, but so far, at least, no good answers. Dr. Chris Miller, a former faculty member at Kansas State University in Grain Science and Industry, now the director of wheat quality research at Heartland Plant Innovations, is working on a project that could allow people with celiac disease to safely consume wheat. As part of that project, Dr. Miller is studying different wheat varieties from the Kansas State University breeding program. So far, he has examined 50 Hard Red Winter wheat lines, which include current commercial varieties, older varieties once common, but rarely planted today, and wild relatives of wheat. "With these different varieties we can get a broad understanding of how genetics change over time, or if they have changed through our breeding selection," Miller says. Miller and his colleagues started by characterizing the varieties' traits from the field all the way through their protein characterization, their genetic makeup (which involves the plants' genotypes), end-product testing (which examines the plants' milling and baking qualities), and health and nutrition attributes. Eventually, they hope to have good data on all of the wheat varieties in the study. This is exploratory research, says Aaron Harries, Vice President of Research and Operations at Kansas Wheat, "We're not sure what we are going to find." They hope their preliminary research data will help them toward their main goal of helping people with celiac disease be able to consume wheat products without any digestion problems. "This is a study that's focused for the good of all human health. We're doing research here that they aren't doing anywhere else," Jordan Hildebrand, program assistant at Kansas Wheat, said. "The fact that Kansas wheat farmers took the initiative to fund the research showed their foresight and their desire to deliver a wholesome product for everyone who wants to have their bread and eat it too." Stay tuned for developments on this and related stories. Source: Midwestproducer.com
  20. Celiac.com 02/17/2017 - In recent tests, researchers found that microwave treatment (MWT) of wet wheat kernels caused a striking reduction in R5-antibody-based ELISA gluten readings, reducing the readings to under 20 ppm, so that wheat could theoretically be labeled as gluten-free. However, the actual gluten content of the wheat remained unchanged. Just the test reading changed. The research team included C Gianfrani, G Mamone, B la Gatta, A Camarca, L Di Stasio, F Maurano, S Picascia, V Capozzi, G Perna, G Picariello, A Di Luccia. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Protein Biochemistry, CNR, Naples, Italy, the Institute of Food Sciences, CNR Avellino, Italy, the Department of the Sciences of Agriculture, Food and Environment at the University of Foggia, Italy, the Institute of Food Sciences, CNR Avellino, Italy; Department of Agriculture, University of Naples, Portici (Na), Italy, the Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy) and National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Section of Bari, Italy, and the Department of the Sciences of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Foggia, Italy. The failure of R5 Elisa to register gluten in MWT stands in stark contrast to analysis of gluten peptides by G12 antibody-based ELISA, mass spectrometry-based proteomics, and in vitro assay with T cells of celiac subjects, all three of which gave consistent results both before and after MWT. As to what caused the R5 Elisa to misread the MWT samples, an SDS-PAGE analysis and Raman spectroscopy showed that MWT reduced the alcohol solubility of gliadins, and altered the access of R5-antibody to the gluten epitopes. Thus, MWT neither destroys gluten nor modifies chemically the toxic epitopes, this contradicts claims that MWT of wheat kernels detoxifies gluten. This study provides evidence that R5-antibody ELISA alone is not effective to determine gluten levels in thermally treated wheat products. Gluten epitopes in processed wheat should be monitored using strategies based on combined immunoassays with T cells from celiacs, G12-antibody ELISA after proteolysis and proper molecular characterization. Source: Food Chem Toxicol. 2017 Jan 12;101:105-113. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2017.01.010.
  21. Celiac.com 01/02/2017 - New research shows that a group of proteins in wheat, called ATIs, may be responsible for activating inflammation in such disorders as celiac disease, multiple sclerosis, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis. Scientists also believe that the proteins may promote the development of non-celiac gluten sensitivity. The findings were presented at UEG Week 2016 in Vienna in Vienna, Austria, a meeting organized by United European Gastroenterology for specialists to communicate the latest research in digestive and liver diseases. One group of proteins found in wheat - amylase-trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) - has been shown to trigger an immune response in the gut that can spread to other tissues in the body. ATIs are plant-derived proteins that inhibit enzymes of common parasites - such as mealworms and mealybugs - in wheat. Interestingly, ATIs also have an important role in metabolic processes that occur during seed development. The finding that ATIs may promote inflammation in the and beyond the gut, is a major step forward in understanding the mechanics of celiac disease and/or gluten-intolerance. Stay tuned for more news on this and other breaking stories in celiac disease research. Read more at MedicalNewsToday.com.
  22. White vinegar or just plain vinegar are typically distilled, and, if so, are gluten-free. Distilled vinegar can be distilled from wheat, corn, potatoes, beets, wood, apples and many other things. Most in the USA are not made from wheat, but are instead made from corn, potatoes or wood, which are all safe (Heinz white vinegar is distilled from corn). Distilled vinegars that are made from wheat are probably gluten-free because of the distillation process described in Frederik Willem Janssens article on this site. Distilled vinegar made from wood are gluten-free. Wood-based vinegar is often the vinegar used in processed foods. Flavored vinegars are made with white, distilled vinegar, and flavorings are then added. Some of these may also not be gluten-free (the cheapest vinegars are used since the flavors are masked by the herbs and flavoring). Malted vinegars are usually not gluten-free. Red and white wine and balsamic vinegars are gluten-free.
  23. Scand J Gastroenterol 1999 Feb;34(2):163-9 Kaukinen K, Collin P, Holm K, Rantala I, Vuolteenaho N, Reunala T, Maki M Dept. of Medicine, Tampere University Hospital, Finland. BACKGROUND: We investigated whether wheat starch-based gluten-free products are safe in the treatment of gluten intolerance. METHODS: The study involved 41 children and adults with coeliac disease and 11 adults with dermatitis herpetiformis adhering to a gluten-free diet for 8 years on average. Thirty-five newly diagnosed coeliac patients at diagnosis and 6 to 24 months after the start of a gluten-free diet and 27 non-coeliac patients with dyspepsia were investigated for comparison. Daily dietary gluten and wheat starch intake were calculated. Small bowel mucosal villous architecture, CD3+, alphabeta+, and gammadelta+ intraepithelial lymphocytes, mucosal HLA-DR expression, and serum endomysial, reticulin, and gliadin antibodies were investigated. RESULTS: Forty of 52 long-term-treated patients adhered to a strict wheat starch-based diet and 6 to a strict naturally gluten-free diet; 6 patients had dietary lapses. In the 46 patients on a strict diet the villous architecture, enterocyte height, and density of alphabeta+ intraepithelial lymphocytes were similar to those in non-coeliac subjects and better than in short-term-treated coeliac patients. The density of gammadelta(+)cells was higher, but they seemed to decrease over time with the gluten-free diet. Wheat starch-based gluten-free flour products did not cause aberrant up-regulation of mucosal HLA-DR. The mucosal integrity was not dependent on the daily intake of wheat starch in all patients on a strict diet, whereas two of the six patients with dietary lapses had villous atrophy and positive serology. CONCLUSION: Wheat starch-based gluten-free flour products were not harmful in the treatment of coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis.
  24. Celiac.com 11/21/2016 - This article is the result of an email exchange between Scott Adams and Dr. Sachin Rustgi, which took place between January and March, 2014. Scott Adams: For many years researchers have known that a non-genetically modified, celiac safe wheat does, in fact, exist. Please see: Is Triticum Monococcum (Einkorn) a Safe Wheat for those with Celiac Disease? Baking Quality Wheat Ancestors May be Safe for Those with Celiac Disease I believe that what you are actually doing, which is supported by an approximately $900K corporate grant (if I recall correctly), is to create a GMO version that you can patent in order to make money selling the seeds. This may not be necessary, as what you seek already exists naturally, and I did explain this to your cooperator years ago. Sachin Rustgi: We are aware of these publications mentioned in your post. It is unfortunate that some of these research papers make broad claims not fully supported by the data presented in these reports. This practice is damaging to society in these two ways: i) These publications mislead the public, which gives rise to misconceptions or myths, making it difficult for the general public to accept other innovative ideas. ii) It could even negatively impact public health if the results were blindly accepted and changes were made in routine eating practices without having careful scientific scrutiny of the findings. The popular press and media is partly responsible, because without assessing the credibility of results, they pick broad claims from these publications and serve them to the public in language laden with emotional impact, which the public receives and bases their opinion on. This is also true for the general claims made in the publications cited earlier. Different celiac patients are sensitive to different ‘gluten' proteins (prolamins). If one feeds peripheral blood cells sampled from a patient or a small group of patients (from a specific geographical location) with gluten proteins derived from a wheat genotype, it is expected either to see a reaction (monitored by the production of interferon gamma) or no apparent effect. But in the latter case it does not mean that the wheat genotype is non-toxic to all celiac patients. Because the sample is not a good representative of the genetic variability for disease susceptibility available in the global population, and is likely representing the prevalent disease predisposition allele present in a population inhabiting a particular geographical area or a common disease predisposition allele existing in a larger population (like the one that interacts with the immunogenic 33-mer peptide derived from alpha 2 gliadin). Thus, these T-cell based assays using cell-lines restricted to specific gliadin epitopes are not sufficient to claim general low-toxicity of wheat lines for all celiac patients. I also recommend that readers consult the following publications: Kasarda DD (2007) Letter to the editor: Triticum moncoccum and celiac disease. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 42(9):1141-1142; Vaccino P, et al. (2009) A catalogue of Triticum monococcum genes encoding toxic and immunogenic peptides for celiac disease patients. Mol Genet Genomics 281(3):289–300. The results of screening hexaploid wheat material under the Celiac Disease Consortium (CDC) funded projects in the Netherlands resulted in a number of publications (Molberg et al. 2005; van Herpen et al. 2006; van den Broeck et al. 2009; van den Broeck et al. 2010). But the authors of these publications never claimed that the material can be used generally. Rather, they suggested these lines to have ‘low-toxicity', as they are devoid of specific epitopes or gluten proteins. Thus, they are good for consumption by a group of celiac patients who share a specific susceptibility allele. We have summarized this material and associated limitations in our publication under two headings, "Wheat Genotypes Naturally Deficient in Immunogenic Gluten Peptides" and "Discussion" [consult Wen et al. 2012 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(50):20543-20548 for details]. In addition, there is a misconception that with breeding for improved yield, protein content and quality has enhanced the toxicity of the wheat lines, which has resulted in higher incidence of disease over the last couple of decades. Although careful analysis of the facts suggests that nothing has changed over time other than eating habits, procedures of disease diagnosis (became more sophisticated) and public awareness grew, which might have resulted in this increase in the estimated number of celiac patients [also consult Kasarda (2013) J Agric Food Chem 61:1155-1159; Brouns et al. (2013) J Cereal Sci 58:209-215]. However, it is possible to identify low toxicity wheat lines showing reduced accumulation of certain prolamins or immunogenic epitopes, but these lines are not good for general use by celiac patients making labeling of these lines a nightmare, because with the present technology it almost impossible to make recommendations to the patients that they are sensitive only to a specific gluten protein and thus can consume a particular wheat variety. Thus, this trait is an obvious candidate for genetic engineering. Two major achievements in this direction are: i) Gil-Humanes J, Pistón F, Tollefsen S, Sollid LM, Barro F (2010) Effective shutdown in the expression of celiac disease-related wheat gliadin T-cell epitopes by RNA interference. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(39):17023–17028. ii) Wen et al. (2012) Structural genes of wheat and barley 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases and their potential applications for human health. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(50):20543-20548. Collectively, as different celiac patients have sensitivities for different gliadins and glutenins, it is almost impossible to breed wheat lines safe for all celiac patients using conventional breeding approaches. A second issue is the identification of a product's suitability for a group of celiac patients and its labeling, which would be a great logistic challenge. After careful scrutiny of the literature and that the Codex Alimentarius Commission declared that all wheat, barley and rye species including spelt (Triticum spelta L.), khorasan or kamut (T. polonicum L.), durum, einkorn (T. monococcum), triticale, tritordium and their hybrids are immunogenic, and should be avoided by celiac patients (also consult http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/topics/celiac.html) add to that challenge. Moreover, some individuals are now known to be sensitive to oat gluten proteins (however, all oat varieties are not toxic, e.g., PrOatina™), and in rare cases, some are even sensitive to maize gluten proteins. According to the latest (August 2, 2013) FDA recommendations any product having Another issue that I want to raise is genetic modification. Why can't we look at transgenics more objectively without having negative feelings toward the technology before we start? Of course, researchers should first look for a solution in nature, and that's what we did, but there is no perfect solution available in nature. Although, the approaches we undertook are inspired by nature, the only way to deliver them is through biotechnology. This approach is where we are silencing the transcriptional regulator of all immunogenic prolamins. It was inspired by a mutation in a regulatory gene in barley. But, this mutation is ‘leaky'. That means it is not completely devoid of immunogenic prolamins. Similarly, the approach to express gluten-detoxifying enzymes in wheat grains was inspired by a barley enzyme that expresses during grain germination and degrades gluten proteins, along with a similar enzyme (but with complementary function) from the black mold Aspergillus, which naturally grows on bread slices. Another example is enzymes secreted by Lactobacillus species, a cocktail of acidifying and proteolytic lactic acid bacteria traditionally used for long-time fermentation by sourdough. These natural enzymes are capable of detoxifying gluten but express at a wrong time or a wrong location or are industrially inapplicable. We have no intention to patent the technology or the product. We will license the varieties to the Washington Grain Commission, which is a general trend at Washington State University. Scott Adams: From my perspective, your endeavor faces two big problems: What you end up with will be a genetically modified form of wheat, which is not allowed in Europe and other places (the list seems to be growing here); What you end up with will still be called wheat, and according to current laws in the USA, cannot be labeled "gluten-free." This is a huge issue that would also be true for einkorn. It would likely be a much easier process to further test einkorn's safety in celiac patients than to create a new genetic variant (that would really be similar to einkorn...right?), then have to go through the same process of testing. Sachin Rustgi: I agree with you on the first point, but as I mentioned previously, this debate about the so-called ‘GMOs' will settle down with time, which has happened in the past with several other technologies. For instance, people initially learned to make genetic crossbreeds in the 18th century, but the general acceptance of this technology as a breeding tool had to wait until the rediscovery of the Mendel's laws in 1900. Embracing this technology resulted in the production of hybrid maize that significantly boosted its yield. The second example is the reluctance to use induced mutagenesis in plant breeding, which is now well accepted and used as a standard procedure to increase genetic variability. The major advantage of shifting to this technology was the production of semi-dwarf rice and wheat cultivars that resulted in the ‘green revolution'. Similarly, the general public will accept the transgenic approach, as there is no other way to meet the growing demand for quality food. I foresee the outcome as an ‘evergreen revolution'. Moreover, if you look in depth at the outcome of using any of the above mentioned procedures, it is always a genetically modified organism, but it is up to us where we would like to draw a line. We are not in favor of releasing ‘reduced or low-toxicity' wheat lines because, as I mentioned earlier, sensitive to, at present. there is no way of telling patients which gluten protein(s) they are sensitive to. In addition, the wheat varieties are not marketed on the basis of their protein composition (however, it is possible to determine the protein profile of a wheat variety). Thus, our ultimate goal is to develop ‘celiac-safe' wheat genotypes completely devoid of immunogenic prolamins or expressing large quantities of gluten detoxifying enzymes. In the former case, the gluten-level of the wheat line is expected to be lower than or equal to the FAO recommended limit of 20 ppm, allowing its labeling as a ‘gluten-free' commodity. In the latter case, the genotype will contain the dietary enzyme supplement within its grains, and hence, will be labeled differently, and will serve as a natural dietary therapy for celiac patients. (These grains or derived flours can be blended into normal flour to bake different products). Two research groups, one in the US and the other in The Netherlands, are producing large quantities of these therapeutic enzymes in bacteria, and their utility as a dietary therapy for celiac patients is currently under advanced clinical trials. In this situation it will be the consumer's decision whether to get enzymes derived from a bacterium to be use as a food supplement or from wheat bread. These enzymes will not only be advantageous for celiac patients but will also prove beneficial to healthy individuals as these enzymes dramatically improve gluten digestibility and bioavailability. Healthy individuals, like celiac patients, cannot fully digest gluten proteins, but unlike celiacs, their intestines are impermeable to the undigested/partially digested gluten proteins, thus they are capable of flushing it out of their systems before it can induce an immune response. (Healthy individuals also do not carry disease predisposition alleles.) This indicates that even in healthy individuals the bioavailability of gluten proteins is low, which can be improved by feeding on these enzyme-fortified grains. It will also reduce how much must be eaten to get a similar amount of nutrition. As I mentioned previously, Triticum monococcum (popularly known as einkorn), is good for consumption by one group of patients, but the major difficulty is determining who can have it without causing damage to their intestines. Thus, we are continuously working toward obtaining wheat genotypes that will be safe for all celiac patients, not just for a sub-group of celiac patients. This will avoid problems with labeling and diagnosis. Scott Adams: If possible, I also just want to clarify my point #2, and get your reply to it. I believe that you said anything testing below 20ppm can be labeled "gluten-free" in the USA, but the new regulations are a bit more complicated (http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm363069.htm): An ingredient that is any type of wheat, rye, barley, or crossbreeds of these grains; An ingredient derived from these grains and that has not been processed to remove gluten; An ingredient derived from these grains and that has been processed to remove gluten, if it results in the food containing 20 or more parts per million (ppm) gluten. I guess you could argue that the genetic modification process has removed the gluten, but this would be a legal argument that certainly isn't obvious in the new laws. For example, it is my understanding that beers which contain barley and have used an enzyme to render them gluten-free cannot, at present, be labeled "gluten-free" under the new law, even though they test below 20 ppm. Sachin Rustgi: I agree with you on the issue of labeling under the new regulations, but as you said it could be argued that these new wheat strains (devoid of immunogenic prolamins) should not be counted with the immunogenic wheat varieties, and should be classified as a new market class of wheat. The additional support for this argument comes from the preliminary feeding trials performed on transgenic gluten sensitive mice, and advanced trials performed under the NIH guidelines on existing gluten sensitive monkeys, and on interested celiac patients. Hopefully, the argument, supported by strong evidence, will foster reconsideration of the present labeling regulations. Scott Adams: What are the chances that cross-pollination of your celiac-safe variety of wheat by normal unsafe wheat will occur, and cause a percentage of the celiac-safe crop to become unsafe? Sachin Rustgi: Wheat is a strictly self-pollinated plant with a natural out-crossing rate of less than 4% in cultivated varieties (in exceptional cases up to 6.05% of out-crossing was reported). Out-crossing occurs mainly in the late emerging wheat spikes, which contribute very little to the total seed count of a plant. Moreover, wheat pollens are relatively heavier in comparison with the other grass pollens, thus could travel to a maximum of 1 m distance from the pollen source, and under optimal field conditions (20C and 60% relative humidity) can survive up to one half hour after release from anthers. Thus, if the APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) recommendations about isolation distances are followed a contamination of ‘celiac-safe' wheat with the ‘immunogenic' wheat can easily be avoided. In addition, a positive correlation between the rate of out-crossing in wheat and the length of flowering period was documented. Thus, the celiac-safe wheat genotypes can be selected for early and synchronously flowering phenotype to further reduce the rate of out-crossing.
  25. Celiac.com 10/18/2016 - Whole grains, including gluten-free grains, have never been more popular, but as their fortunes grow as a whole, that of wheat is diminishing. The whole grains category includes both gluten-free grains, such as quinoa and other ancient grains, and gluten grains, such as barley, rye and triticale, but wheat products have never been less popular, and continue their downward sales slide. This year, 1,282 new products have registered for the Whole Grain Stamp so far, a pace set to meet or beat last year's record of 2,122 new products; up from 1,666 in 2014 and 1,622 in 2013, according to Cynthia Harriman, director of food and nutrition strategies at the Whole Grains Council. More than half of new products with the Whole Grain Stamp had a gluten-free first ingredient last year, an increase over 33% in 2007 to 2009, according to Harriman. However, even as scientists question the claimed benefits of gluten-free foods, such as weight loss, for people without celiac disease, many consumers are eating gluten-free foods "just for the variety," Harriman said. Either way, the market for gluten-free foods is set to approach $5 billion by 2021, up from $2.84 billion in 2014. Going forward, more of that market will go to gluten-free grains, lees to wheat. Flour used to be the main way consumers bought whole grains, but now consumers and manufacturers are embracing complete, minimally processed whole grains, which can improve product textures, flavors and health benefits. Sprouted grains are also receiving more attention and are expected to generate product sales of $250 million by 2018. Overall, 27% of consumers say they are eating more whole grains than they did six months ago, according to a recent survey. Read more at Fooddive.com.