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Celiac.com 10/30/2015 - Writing for the Times of India, Pooja Makhija has an interesting little article on the various types of flour commonly used in Indian cooking, including a number of gluten-free flours. The articles features short descriptions of the various commonly used grain flours, and their characteristics. The article includes flours made from wheat, of course, but the gluten free flours include millet, sorghum, amaranth, rice, soy and quinoa. Wheat Flours (Contain Gluten of course!) Most of the wheat or atta used in Indian cooking is culled from the semi-hard wheat varieties or durum, including, atta, cracked wheat/lapsi fada and semolina/sooji. Millet Flours Millet is a small-seeded grass that is also gluten-free. Millet flours are a great option for people with any kind of gluten sensitivity. Sorghum Flours Jowar is the Indian name for sorghum, which is also called white millet. This grain, and its close relative, bajra, both belong to the millet family, and are gluten-free. Jowar has been linked to lowering the risk of heart diseases as well as cholesterol. It also has cancer-fighting properties because of the presence of antioxidants, and brims with protein, calcium and iron. Bajra is a high energy food that is said to aid digestion, promote good heart-health, and to increase insulin sensitivity, making it a great option for diabetics. Amaranth Flour Rajgira is the Indian name for amaranth. Amaranth is a highly nutritious relative of quinoa, and also similarly described as a superfood. This tasty gluten-free grain is high in iron, calcium, protein and antioxidants. Rice Flour Used a great deal in Indian cooking, including dishes like neer dosa, rice flour is gluten-free, and makes a great substitute for wheat. Soy Flour Soy flour is made from ground soy beans, and is rich in vitamins and minerals, and vegetarian Omega-3 fatty acids. Soy protein is great for women in menopause, and also for elderly women. Quinoa Flour Quinoa is a 100% vegetarian reference protein, which means that the body absorbs 100% of quinoa's protein content. Read more at the Times of India.
This recipe may be prepared using a mixer and oven or in a bread machine. This loaf is light and airy, yet substantial enough to use as sandwich bread (however, if you want a denser loaf, simply add 1/4 cup dry milk powder to the dry ingredients). The recipe boasts the addition of flax seed meal and flax seeds which contribute a large amount of dietary fiber and other beneficial nutritional properties like high omega 3. The simple addition of two tablespoons of flax seed meal to this bread also adds four grams of dietary fiber and three grams of protein. As an alternative, you can simply use 2 eggs in place of the flax seed and water mixture, and you will add the dry yeast to the dough at the final mixing step. When using a bread machine, always be sure to add all liquid ingredients to the pan first, followed by the dry ingredients. I recommend sifting all dry ingredients (except yeast) together in a bowl first, then pouring it into the bread machine pan. If the dough seems too thick, gradually add more yogurt, one quarter cup at a time, until the dough is still thick, but able to be smoothed with a spatula. Be sure to check the bread with a spatula throughout the mixing process to ensure that all the dry ingredients have been incorporated. Smooth the top with a rubber spatula and when done mixing, sprinkle any desired toppings on top of the loaf. Select either the gluten-free bread setting on your machine, or the quickest bake setting like a light crust 1 ½ pound loaf. Remove the pan from the machine when finished baking (internal temperature should be between 205-210F). When making with a mixer and oven, follow the specific directions outlined below. Ingredients: 2 Tablespoons ground flax seeds or flax seed meal ½ cup very hot water 1 tsp. granulated cane sugar 1 Tablespoon rapid rise or bread machine yeast ¼ cup Earth Balance Shortening, cut into small pieces (or canola oil, if using a bread machine) 3 ¼ cups Jules Gluten FreeTM All Purpose Flour * ½ teaspoon baking soda 2 teaspoons gluten-free baking powder Pinch of salt 2 Tablespoons honey 1 teaspoon apple cider vinegar 1 ½ cup vanilla yogurt (dairy or soy) 1 Tablespoon flax seeds Toppings of choice (coarse sea salt, sesame seeds, flax seeds, etc.) (* I cannot predict how this recipe will work with any other flour mixture but my own. The mix recipe may be found in media links on my website and in my book, Nearly Normal Cooking for Gluten-Free Eating, or pre-mixed from my website.)Directions: In a small bowl, add the hot water and flax seed meal and stir. Let sit for 5 minutes. Add the yeast and one teaspoon of sugar to this mixture and stir. Set aside for 5 more minutes for it to begin to bubble and grow; if the mixture does not bubble or grow, throw it out and re-mix with fresh yeast. Sift remaining dry ingredients together in a large bowl. Cut in the pieces of shortening using a pastry cutter or the dough paddle on your mixer. Add the remaining liquid ingredients next, mixing well. Finally, mix in the yeast/flax seed meal mixture and stir well using the dough paddle. If the dough seems too thick to form a loaf, gradually mix in more yogurt, one quarter cup at a time, until the dough is still thick, but able to be smoothed with a spatula. Scoop the dough into a greased bread pan (use a dark metal pan if you like a darker crust on your bread; lighter, shiny metal or glass if you like a light crust). Smooth the top, sprinkle with any toppings, then cover with a sheet of wax paper sprayed with cooking oil. Sit the covered dough for 30 minutes in a warm place like an oven warming drawer or even in your oven with the light on. Remove the raised dough to a preheated convection oven set to 275 F or a preheated static oven set to 300 F. Cook for approximately 60 minutes, or until the crust is browning nicely and a cake tester or skewer inserted into the center of the loaf comes out clean (internal temperature should be 205-210F). Remove to a cooling rack and rotate gently from side to side every 5 minutes or so if it looks like your loaf wants to sink at all in the middle. When cooled for 15 minutes or more, remove from the loaf pan to finish cooling before slicing.