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    Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages


    Scott Adams
    Image Caption: Photo: CC--fklv (Obsolete hipster)

    Celiac.com 02/20/2015 - Here is Celiac.com's most up-to-date list of gluten-free beers and alcoholic beverages.


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    The gluten status of the products listed below is accurate at the present time. However, as product formulations can change without notice, it is best to verify gluten-free product status by checking the ingredients yourself, or by contacting the manufacturer.

    Unless gluten is added after distillation, all distilled alcohols are gluten-free. However, US labeling laws prohibit beverages that use cereal grains at any point in the manufacturing process from advertising themselves as 'gluten-free.'

    Many people with celiac disease choose to avoid distilled beverages that use cereal grains in the manufacturing process, while many others drink them with no adverse effects.

    So, when you do see a 'gluten-free' label on a distilled beverage, it means that no gluten ingredients have been used at any point in the production process.

    A List of Naturally Gluten-free Beers

    • Anheuser-Busch Redbridge
    • Bard's Gold
    • Bard's Tale Beer
    • Brasserie Dupont Forêt Libre
    • Brasseurs Sans Gluten Glutenberg Blanche
    • Brunehaut Bio Ambrée
    • Brunehaut Blonde Bio
    • Brunehaut Blanche
    • Burning Brothers Brewing
    • Coors Peak
    • Dogfish Head Craft Brewed Ales: Tweason'ale
    • Drummond Gluten Free
    • Epic Brewing Company: Glutenator
    • Ghostfish Brewery
    • Glutenberg American Pale Ale
    • Glutenberg Blonde
    • Glutenberg Belgian Double
    • Glutenberg India Pale Ale
    • Glutenberg Rousse
    • Green's Discovery Amber Ale
    • Green's Endeavour
    • Green's Enterprise Dry-Hopped Lager
    • Green's India Pale Ale
    • Green's Quest Tripel Blonde Ale
    • Ground Breaker Corsa Rose Gold Ale
    • Ground Breaker IPA No. 5
    • Ground Breaker Dark Ale
    • Ipswich Ale Brewery: Celia Saison
    • Joseph James Brewing Fox Tail
    • Lakefront New Grist Ginger Style Ale
    • Lakefront New Grist Pilsner Style
    • Minhas Lazy Mutt Gluten Free
    • Mongozo Premium Pilsener
    • New Planet Belgian Style Ale
    • New Planet Blonde Ale
    • New Planet Pale Ale
    • New Planet Raspberry Ale
    • New Planet Seclusion IPA
    • New Planet Tread Lightly Session Ale
    • Nickel Brook Gluten Free
    • Nouvelle France La Messagère
    • Nouvelle-France Messagère Aux Fruits
    • Nouvelle-France Messagère Red Ale
    • Schnitzer Bräu Hirse Lemon
    • Schnitzer Bräu Hirse Premium
    • Sprecher Brewing Company's Shakparo Ale
    • Steadfast Beer gluten-free Blonde and Pale Ales
    • Steadfast Beer Company's Oatmeal Cream Stout
    • To Øl Reparationsbajer Gluten Free
    • Whistler Forager

    A List of Gluten-Removed Beers

    • Alley Kat Scona Gold Kölsch
    • Brunehaut Bio Tripel
    • Estrella Damm Daura
    • Estrella Damm Daura Marzen
    • Lammsbräu Glutenfrei Lager Beer
    • Mikkeller American Dream Gluten Free
    • Mikkeller Green Gold Gluten Free
    • Mikkeller I Wish Gluten Free IPA
    • Mikkeller Peter, Pale And Mary Gluten Free
    • New Belgium Glutiny brand Golden and Pale Ales
    • Short's Brewing Space Rock
    • Stone Delicious IPA
    • Sufferfest Brewing Company Pale Ale and Lager
    • Widmer Omission Lager
    • Widmer Omission IPA
    • Widmer Omission Pale Ale
    • Wold Top Against The Grain
    • Wold Top Marmalade Porter
    • Wold Top Scarborough Fair IPA

    Gluten-Free Hard Cider

    Most ciders are fermented from apples or other fruits. Most are safe, however, some add barley for enzymes and flavor. Read labels!

    Gluten-free hard cider brands include:

    • Ace Pear Cider
    • Angry Orchard
    • Blue Mountain Cider Company
    • Blackthorn Cider
    • Bulmer's Hard Cider
    • Crispin Cider (including Fox Barrel products)
    • Gaymer Cider Company
    • Harpoon Craft Cider
    • J.K. Scrumpy's Organic Hard Cider
    • Lazy Jack's Cider
    • Magner's Cider
    • Newton's Folly Hard Cider
    • Original Sin Hard Cider
    • Spire Mountain Draft Cider
    • Strongbow Cider
    • Stella Artois Apple and Pear Hard Cidre
    • Woodchuck
    • Woodpecker Cider

    Gluten-Free Wine

    All wines, including brandy, champagne, cognac, port wine, sherry, and vermouth are safe for celiacs.

    Gluten-Free Wine Coolers

    The majority of wine coolers are made from barley products. 

    Gluten-free versions include: 

    • Bartle & Jaymes - all EXCEPT malt beverages
    • Boones - all EXCEPT their malt beverages

    Other Gluten-Free Alcoholic Brews, Wines and Spirits Include

    • Brandy
    • Campari
    • Champagne
    • Cognac—made from grapes
    • Cointreau
    • Grappa
    • Midori
    • Prosecco
    • Khalua Coffee Liquer
    • Kirschwasser (cherry liqueur)
    • Old Deadly Cider
    • Sambuca
    • Vermouth

    Gluten-Free Distilled Alcohols

    Unless gluten is added after distillation, all distilled alcohols are free of gluten. However, US labeling laws prohibit beverages that use cereal grains at any point in the manufacturing process from advertising themselves as 'gluten-free.'

    So, when you do see a 'gluten-free' label on a distilled beverage, it means that no gluten ingredients have been used at any point in the production process.

    Gluten-Free Gin

    Most gins are made with gluten-containing cereal grains. The final distilled product does not contain gluten, but cannot be advertised or labeled as gluten-free. Many people with celiac disease choose to avoid these beverages, while many others drink them with no adverse effects.

    Gluten-free gin brands include:

    • Cold River Gin—distilled from potatoes

    Brands of standard gin include:

    • Aviation American Gin
    • Beefeater
    • Bombay
    • Bombay Sapphire
    • Boodles British Gin
    • Booth's Gin 
    • Gordon's
    • Leopolds Gin
    • New Amsterdam Gin
    • Seagram's
    • Tanqueray

    Gluten-Free Rum

    Distilled from sugar cane, most rums are gluten-free and safe for celiacs. Beware of pre-made drink mixes, such as those intended for piña coladas — many of these contain gluten ingredients as flavoring.

    Gluten-free rum brands include:

    • Appleton Estate Jamaica Rum
    • Bacardi—only Gold, Superior, 151, and flavored
    • Bayou Rum
    • Bundaberg Rum
    • Captain Morgan Rum
    • Cruzan Rum
    • Malibu Rum
    • Mount Gay Rum
    • Meyer's Rum

    Gluten-Free Sake

    Fermented with rice and Koji enzymes. The Koji enzymes are grown on Miso, which is usually made with barley. The two-product separation from barley, and the manufacturing process should make it safe for celiacs.

    Gluten-Free Tequila

    Made from the agave cactus, all tequilas are gluten-free and safe for celiacs.

    Gluten-free tequila brands include:

    • 1519 Tequila
    • 1800 Tequila
    • Cabo Wabo
    • Cazadores
    • Chimayo
    • Don Julio
    • El Jimador
    • Herradura
    • Hornitos
    • Jose Cuervo
    • Patron
    • Sauza

    Gluten-Free Vodka

    Vodkas distilled from potatoes, gluten-free grains or other gluten-free ingredients contain no gluten ingredients and can be labeled as gluten-free.

    Gluten-free vodka brands include:

    • Corn Vodka—Deep Eddy, Nikolai, Rain, Tito's, UV
    • Grape Vodka—Bombora, Cooranbong
    • Potato Vodka—Boyd & Blair, Cirrus, Chase, Chopin, Cold River Vodka, Cracovia, Grand Teton, Karlsson's, Luksusowa, Monopolowa, Schramm Organic, Zodiac
    • Rice Vodka—Kissui
    • Sugar Cane—Downunder, DOT AU

    Vodkas distilled from cereal grains include:
    Many vodkas made with gluten-containing cereal grains. The final product does not contain gluten, but cannot be advertised or labeled as gluten-free. Many people with celiac disease choose to avoid these beverages, while many others drink them with no adverse effects.

    • Barley Vodka—Finlandia
    • Grain Vodka—Absolwent, Blavod, Bowman's, Fleischmann's, Orloff, Polonaise, SKYY, Smirnoff, Stolichnaya, 
    • Wheat Vodka—Absolut, Bong Spirit, Danzka, Grey Goose, Hangar One, Ketel One, P.i.n.k Vodka
    • Rye Vodka—Belvedere, BiaÅ‚a Dama, Platinka, Sobieski, Starka, Wisent, Wyborowa, Xellent Swiss, Å»ubrówka

    Gluten-Free Whiskey

    Nearly all whiskeys are made with gluten-containing cereal grains. The final product does not contain gluten, but cannot be advertised or labeled as gluten-free. Many people with celiac disease choose to avoid whiskey, while many others drink it with no adverse effects.

    Gluten-free whiskey brands include:

    • Queen Jennie Whiskey, by Old Sugar Distillery is made entirely from sorghum

    Whiskeys distilled from cereal grains include:

    • Bourbon—Benjamin Prichard's, Booker's, Buffalo Trace, Jim Beam, Early Times, Ezra Brooks, Jefferson's Bourbon, Knob Creek, Makers Mark, Old Crow, Old Forester, Old Grand-Dad
    • Canadian Whiskey—Alberta Premium, Black Velvet, Canadian Club, Crown Royal,
    • Tenesse Whiskey—Jack Daniels, George Dickel.
    • Irish Whiskey—Bushmills, Jameson, Kilbeggan, Redbreast, Tullamore Dew
    • Japanese Blended Whiskey—Hibiki, Kakubin, Nikka, 
    • Japanese Single Malt Whiskey—Hakushu, Yamazaki, Yoichi
    • Rye Whiskey—Alberta Premium, Bulleitt
    • Scotch Whiskey Blends—Ballentine's, Bell's, Black Grouse, Chivas Regal, Cutty Sark, Dewar's, Famous Grouse, Johnnie Walker, Teacher's, Whitehorse
    • Scotch Whiskey Single Malts—Bowmore, Glenfiddich, Glen Grant, The Glenlivet, Glenmorangie, Highland Park, Knockando, Lagavulin, Laphroaig, Macallan, Monkey Shoulder, Singleton, Talisker 
    • Taiwanese Whiskey—Kavalan Classic

    Gluten-Free Drink Mixes

    • Club Extra Dry Martini (corn & grape)
    • Club Vodka Martini (corn & grape)
    • Coco Casa and Coco Lopez Brands: Cream of Coconut
    • Jose Cuervo Brand: Margarita Mix and All Jose Cuervo Blenders
    • Master of Mixes Brand: Tom Collins, Whiskey Sour, Strawberry Daiquiri, Sweet & Sour Mixer, and Margarita Mix
    • Mr. & Mrs. T—Except Bloody Mary Mix
    • TGI Friday's Brand: On The Rocks, Long Island Ice Tea, Margarita, Mudslide, Pina Colada, and Strawberry Daiquiri.
    • TGI Friday's Club Cocktails including: Gin Martini, Manhattan, Screwdriver, Vodka Martini, and Whiskey Sour mix.

    Other Gluten-free Beverages Mixes & Cooking Alcohol

    • Club Tom Collins—made with corn
    • Diamond Jims Bloody Mary Mystery
    • Holland House - all EXCEPT Teriyaki Marinade and Smooth & Spicy Bloody Mary Mixes
    • Mead—made from honey
    • Mistico: Jose Cuervo Mistico—agave and cane
    • Ouzo - made from grapes and anise
    • Spice Islands - Cooking Wines - Burgundy, Sherry and White
    • Also Godiva products contain gluten as do Smirnoff FMB's, Twisted V, and Smirnoff Ice.

    Edited by admin


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    Guest Courtney

    Posted

    LOVE IT!! Thanks I needed this information for my upcoming wedding.....

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    Guest chelsea

    Posted

    Q: Even though most vodkas are in fact distilled from grain rather than the much thought potato, are they still all gluten-free?

     

    A: (Scott Adams): Yes, distillation removes all prolamines so distilled spirits are considered safe.

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    You agree with the American Dietetic Association which put us in sync with Canada and the EU.

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    I'm finding this very hard to swallow.

    From personal experience, I know that not all grain alcohol based spirits cannot possibly be completely gluten-free. I became deathly ill after consuming a gin martini (zero vermouth) after being completely gluten-free for 3 months. The first thing my co-worker asked me as she was babysitting me in the restaurant's bathroom where I threw up for a solid hour, was if I was on a gluten-free diet. I asked her how she was aware and she said she observed the same thing happen many times before in Hong Kong where our factories were located. Since then, I have avoided gin, any vodka not made from potatoes or grapes, tequila that is not 100% agave, blended scotches and bourbons (I'm sure corn mash bourbon is safe, ie. Maker's Mark, but I have yet to experiment) and pretty much anything that I don't know all the ingredients and how it is made. If it's source is anything but grapes (or other fermented fruits), potatoes, rice, corn, agave, sugar cane..... I wouldn't take the chance personally.

    Same goes for beer: unless it's made from rice or labeled gluten-free, no way Jose. Not worth it.

     

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    Very helpful. Due to celiac I avoided all spirits except tequila. It is good to be informed.

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    Guest Natasha

    Posted

    Thank you, this was very helpful. I'm going to my first party since being diagnosed.

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    Guest Barbara Coots

    Posted

    I agree with #4 since I get sick on any vodka that is not potato. I will remain cautious.

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    I agree with 4 and 7. I stick with my wine and potato vodka with no problems at all. Not even a hint of a hangover. Like anything else when new to the diet grain derived alcohols distilled or not should be consumed with caution until one know how they react.

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    Only drink tequila that is 100% Agave, anything less has other unknown ingredients added. It's more expensive but the good news is you most likely won't have a hangover. As far as Vodka goes, Smirnoff Red Label isn't expensive and is gluten-free. It is made from corn rather than wheat. Ketel One Vodka is 100% wheat but claims to be gluten-free. Go figure. I've tried many of the other brand name Vodkas and I also ended up in the bathroom. The list above is a great place to start but do your own homework.

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    I also agree with #4. I stick with wine and potato vodka. I have had problems when I have used other vodkas.

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    For #4, 7, and 8. It seems many vodkas are only single distilled and poorly at that (thus the burning sensation and smell). If you get a higher end or at least a triple distilled vodka, you should be fine. I would think the same would apply for gin.

     

    I know Smirnoff Triple Distilled is fine. Although, after having Chopin (potato) I have no care to consider any other vodka.

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    Guest bronwhn

    Posted

    I have had problems with grain vodkas. I do not think they are gluten free. Perhaps Scott is correct that the gluten is removed in distillation but perhaps there is grain present at the distillery and that contaminates the final product. Whatever the reason, I have trouble with it.

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    I've just been diagnosed with coeliac disease pending my biopsy scheduled for midday today. I am also going to a birthday party with BIG drinkers this Saturday night. Think I'll be drinking Smirnoff Vodka. The comments above were great. Nice to know I'm not alone.

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    This list is awesome. The other day I though that this is the season for Kahlua and coffee and I was really wondering if it would be safe. Thank you very much!!!

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    This is an excellent resource. I love Chicken Marsala. Is Marsala Wine in the gluten free list?

    I found a recipe and said (gluten free Marsala wine)

    So, is there a Gluten free one?

    Thanks

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    We're also new to celiac disease, my husband has had 2 doctors tell him that's probably what he has, his biopsy is next Wednesday. So we're starting to look into what his diet will likely be. Unfortunately I'm finding a lot of discrepancies from resource to resource. e.g. No ketchup, HEINZ ketchup, ok. Gin bad, gin okay. Grain based vodkas and whiskeys okay as long as they're distilled, only potato vodkas okay, no whiskeys but bourbon and scotch. It's all very confusing. And 'unfortunately' he had no symptoms but anemia, so he can't even go by how he feels from eating or drinking something 'bad' like some of you who get deathly ill from drinking cheap vodka!! What to do, what to do.....

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    Wow! Thank God for you people who forged ahead and 'experimented' for people like us who are still clueless as to what to drink this holiday season. Here I was thinking I shouldn't even socialize in fear of drinking the wrong stuff, but you all saved me and now I don't have to be so bah humbug! I know I can still have wine and anything potato vodka or triple distilled stuff or Kahlua. Let's hope I don't screw up by adding the wrong thing to the alcohol. I guess just juice to keep it safe! Thank you all so much and happy holidays! Here is to a healthier 2008 for all of us!

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    Awesome I have lost a lot of weight and got very sick before they figured I had celiac. I have searched high and low for info and people to talk to. This site is great.

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    Guest Thjomas

    Posted

    I have known that I've had Celiac Disease pretty much all of my life. I have stayed away from all whiskey drinks, malted beverages, and non-gluten free beers and have never been sick (besides drinking too much). To date, I have NOT had a problem with any varieties of vodka, rum, tequila, wine, or gin. I have even consumed a couple of shots worth of Ketel One Vodka one night and still didn't feel sick afterwards. However, Ketel One Vodka sucks and don't waste your time, money, or taste buds.

     

    Usually, if you want to play it safe, stick to rum or gluten-free beer. Here are some examples of gluten-free beer: Bard's Tale Beer, New Grist, and Woodchuck Draft Cider.

     

    For verification, I do get intestinally sick from eating any sort of gluten (wheat, barley, oat, or rye) products, and therefore maintain a strict, gluten free diet. I still feel bitter sometimes about the foods that I cannot eat, but my special diet forces me to eat healthy, and in response, it makes me a healthy person. Celiac Disease in no way means the end of a happy life. I hope that this information helps people.

     

    DISCLAIMER: Everybody has a different reaction to gluten products. Some people's reactions might be more sensitive than other people's response. What I have posted is only my experiences with different kinds of alcohol. Know your own body and how it reacts.

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    Guest Julie Higgins

    Posted

    Very informative.....expanded information on liquors would be helpful.

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    Guest Kathryn

    Posted

    I am not a celiac but I think this web site is fantastic. What a way to help people.

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    This site is very helpful. My doctor discovered that I had Celiac Disease about 3 months ago. So I'm still getting use to it. Thanks

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    Guest Lauren svorc

    Posted

    I am 18 and had it most of my life and about ten others in my family also have it so I am pretty good at knowing what I can and can't have--until my friend said that I may not be able to drink scotch whiskey so I thought I would check out a web site--thanks mate!

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    I'm sure the paid-for version of the list has more details on distillation and etc. Folks need to realize that the reaction they are having after eating or drinking something may not be to that specific food. Reactions can 'brew' inside us for a long time, and something can set off the reaction that was already brewing. I have had celiac disease for 20 years and most my family are celiacs.

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    Guest adrienne  weber

    Posted

    Very confusing info, I thought Ketel One was Potato vodka, I found a vodka called Iceberg Vodka. Their website claims to be gluten free.

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    Hexanedioic Acid
    High Fructose Corn Syrup
    Hominy
    Honey
    Hops
    Horseradish (Pure)
    HPP
    HVP
    Hyacinth Bean
    Hydrogen Peroxide
    Hydrolyzed Caseinate
    Hydrolyzed Meat Protein
    Hydrolyzed Plant Protein
    Hydrolyzed Protein
    Hydrolyzed Soy Protein
    Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein
    Hydroxypropyl Cellulose
    Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose
    Hypromellose
    Illepe
    Iodine
    Inulin
    Invert Sugar
    Iron Ammonium Citrate
    Isinglass
    Isolated Soy Protein
    Isomalt
    Job's Tears
    Jowar (Sorghum)
    Karaya Gum
    Kasha (roasted buckwheat)
    Keratin
    K-Carmine Color
    K-Gelatin
    Koshihikari (rice)
    Kudzu
    Kudzu Root Starch
    Lactalbumin Phosphate
    Lactase
    Lactic Acid
    Lactitol
    Lactose
    Lactulose
    Lanolin
    Lard
    L-cysteine
    Lecithin
    Lemon Grass
    Lentils
    Licorice
    Licorice Extract
    Lipase
    L-leucine
    L-lysine
    L-methionine
    Locust Bean Gum
    L-tryptophan
    Magnesium Carbonate
    Magnesium Hydroxide
    Magnesium Oxide
    Maize
    Maize Waxy
    Malic Acid
    Maltitol
    Maltodextrin (except in pharmaceuticals)
    Maltol
    Maltose
    Manganese Sulfate
    Manioc
    Masa
    Masa Flour
    Masa Harina
    Meat (fresh)
    Medium Chain Triglycerides
    Menhaden Oil
    Methyl Cellulose2
    Microcrystalline Cellulose
    Micro-particulated Egg White Protein
    Milk
    Milk Protein Isolate
    Millet
    Milo (Sorghum)
    Mineral Oil
    Mineral Salts
    Mixed Tocopherols
    Modified Food Starch
    Modified Starch
    Modified food Starch
    Molybdenum Amino Acid Chelate
    Monocalcium Phosphate
    Monoglycerides
    Mono and Diglycerides
    Monopotassium Phosphate
    Monosaccharides
    Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)
    Monostearates
    MSG
    Mung Bean
    Musk
    Mustard Flour
    Myristic Acid
    Natural Flavoring
    Natural Flavors
    Natural Smoke Flavor
    Niacin-Niacinamide
    Neotame
    Niacin
    Niacinamide
    Nitrates
    Nitrous Oxide
    Non-fat Milk
    Nuts (except wheat, rye & barley)
    Nut, Acron
    Nut, Almond
    Oats3
    Oils and Fats
    Oleic Acid
    Oleoresin
    Olestra
    Oleyl Alcohol/Oil
    Orange B
    Oryzanol
    Palmitic Acid
    Pantothenic Acid
    Papain
    Paprika
    Paraffin
    Patially Hydrogenated Cottonseed Oil
    Patially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil
    Peas
    Pea - Chick
    Pea - Cow
    Pea Flour
    Pea Starch
    Peanuts
    Peanut Flour
    Pectin
    Pectinase
    Peppermint Oil
    Peppers
    Pepsin
    Peru Balsam
    Petrolatum
    PGPR (Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate)
    Phenylalanine
    Phosphoric Acid
    Phosphoric Glycol
    Pigeon Peas
    Polenta
    Polydextrose
    Polyethylene Glycol
    Polyglycerol
    Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (PGPR)
    Polysorbates
    Polysorbate 60
    Polysorbate 80
    Potassium Benzoate
    Potassium Caseinate
    Potassium Citrate
    Potassium Iodide
    Potassium Lactate
    Potassium Matabisulphite
    Potassium Sorbate
    Potatoes
    Potato Flour
    Potato Starch
    Povidone
    Prinus
    Pristane
    Propolis
    Propylene Glycol
    Propylene Glycol Monosterate
    Propyl Gallate
    Protease
    Psyllium
    Pyridoxine Hydrochloride
    Quinoa
    Ragi
    Raisin Vinegar
    Rape
    Recaldent
    Reduced Iron
    Rennet
    Rennet Casein
    Resinous Glaze
    Reticulin
    Riboflavin
    Rice
    Rice (Enriched)
    Rice Flour
    Rice Starch
    Rice Syrup
    Rice Vinegar
    Ricinoleic Acid
    Romano Bean (chickpea)
    Rosematta
    Rosin
    Royal Jelly
    Saccharin
    Saffron
    Sago
    Sago Palm
    Sago Flour
    Sago Starch
    Saifun (bean threads)
    Salt
    Seaweed
    Seeds (except wheat, rye & barley)
    Seed - Sesame
    Seed - Sunflower
    Shea
    Sherry Vinegar
    Silicon Dioxide
    Smoke Flavoring
    Soba (be sure its 100% buckwheat)
    Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate
    Sodium Acetate
    Sodium Alginate
    Sodium Ascorbate
    Sodium Benzoate
    Sodium Caseinate
    Sodium Citrate
    Sodium Erythrobate
    Sodium Hexametaphosphate
    Sodium Lactate
    Sodium Lauryl Sulfate
    Sodium Metabisulphite
    Sodium Nitrate
    Sodium Phosphate
    Sodium Polyphosphate
    Sodium Silaco Aluminate
    Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate
    Sodium Sulphite
    Sodium Stannate
    Sodium Tripolyphosphate
    Sorbic Acid
    Sorbitan Monostearate
    Sorbitol-Mannitol (can cause IBS symptoms)
    Sorghum
    Sorghum Flour
    Soy
    Soybean
    Soy Lecithin
    Soy Protein
    Soy Protein Isolate
    Spices (pure)
    Spirits (Specific Types)
    Spirit Vinegar
    Starch (the single word ingredient is, by law, cornstarch)
    Stearates
    Stearamide
    Stearamine
    Stearic Acid
    Stearyl Lactate
    Stevia
    Subflower Seed
    Succotash (corn and beans)
    Sucralose
    Sucrose
    Sulfosuccinate
    Sulfites
    Sulfur Dioxide
    Sweet Chestnut Flour
    Tagatose
    Tallow
    Tapioca
    Tapioca Flour
    Tapioca Starch
    Tara Gum
    Taro
    Tarro
    Tarrow Root
    Tartaric Acid
    Tartrazine
    TBHQ is Tetra or Tributylhydroquinone
    Tea
    Tea-Tree Oil
    Teff
    Teff Flour
    Tepary Bean
    Textured Vegetable Protein
    Thiamin Hydrochloride
    Thiamine Mononitrate
    Thiamine Hydrochloride
    Titanium Dioxide
    Tofu (Soy Curd)
    Tolu Balsam
    Torula Yeast
    Tragacanth
    Tragacanth Gum
    Triacetin
    Tricalcium Phosphate
    Tri-Calcium Phosphate
    Trypsin
    Turmeric (Kurkuma)
    TVP
    Tyrosine
    Urad/Urid Beans
    Urad/Urid Dal (peas) Vegetables
    Urad/Urid flour
    Urd
    Vinegar (All except Malt)
    Vanilla Extract
    Vanilla Flavoring
    Vanillin
    Vinegars (Specific Types - Except Malt Vinegar)
    Vitamin A (retinol)
    Vitamin A Palmitate
    Vitamin B1
    Vitamin B-12
    Vitamin B2
    Vitamin B6
    Vitamin D
    Vitamin E Acetate
    Waxy Maize
    Whey
    Whey Protein Concentrate
    Whey Protein Isolate
    White Vinegar
    Wines
    Wine Vinegars (& Balsamic)
    Wild Rice
    Xanthan Gum
    Xylitol
    Yam Flour
    Yeast (except brewer's yeast)
    Yogurt (plain, unflavored)
    Zinc Oxide
    Zinc Sulfate
    1) Cellulose is a carbohydrate polymer of D-glucose. It is the structural material of plants, such as wood in trees. It contains no gluten protein. 2) Methyl cellulose is a chemically modified form of cellulose that makes a good substitute for gluten in rice-based breads, etc. 3) Recent research indicates that oats may be safe for people on gluten-free diets, although many people may also have an additional, unrelated intolerance to them. Cross contamination with wheat is also a factor that you need to consider before choosing to include oats in your diet.

    Scott Adams
    Rice and soy beverages because their production process may utilize barley enzymes. Bad advice from health food store employees (i.e., that spelt and/or kamut is/are safe for celiacs). Cross-contamination between food store bins selling raw flours and grains (usually via the scoops). Wheat-bread crumbs in butter, jams, toaster, counter, etc. Lotions, creams and cosmetics (primarily for those with dermatitis herpetaformis). Stamps, envelopes or other gummed labels. Toothpaste and mouthwash. Medicines: many contain gluten. Cereals: most contain malt flavoring, or some other non-gluten-free ingredient. Some brands of rice paper. Sauce mixes and sauces (soy sauce, fish sauce, catsup, mustard, mayonnaise, etc.). Ice cream. Packet & canned soups. Dried meals and gravy mixes. Laxatives. Grilled restaurant food - gluten contaminated grill. Fried restaurant foods - gluten contaminated grease. Ground spices - wheat flour is sometimes used to prevent clumping.

    Scott Adams
    Celiac.com 07/12/2004 - There have been numerous claims that traditional barley-based beers are gluten free or that all beers are gluten free. Unfortunately, the area is very grey and substantiated on technicalities. The purpose of this post is to eliminate the confusion about gluten as it relates to beer. Gluten is an umbrella term used to describe a mixture of individual proteins found in many grains. Celiac disease (celiac sprue or gluten intolerance, gluten sensitivity) is an autoimmune disorder that is triggered by the ingestion of some of these glutens. People with classic celiac disease are intolerant to the gluten proteins found in wheat, barley, rye, spelt and a couple other lesser known grains. All these grains have a relative of the gluten protein. Interestingly, corn, rice and sorghum also have gluten proteins but are not toxic to celiacs. Herein lies one of the fundamental problems; the use of the term gluten intolerance to cover only certain gluten containing grains is confusing for consumers and food manufacturers alike. Unfortunately, it seems that the inertia for using celiac disease and gluten intolerance as synonyms is unstoppable. Therefore, it becomes the responsibility of both consumers and manufacturers to make sure the terms being discussed are defined and understood.
    As this relates to beer, there is a gluten protein found in barley. This protein is known as hordein. Wheat gluten is known as gliadin. Rye gluten is known as secalin. Presently, assay tests (or lab tests) are only commercially available for the testing of gliadin. We are unaware of any tests for hordein or any manufacturer that presently tests for hordein (Note: If you know of anyone that does in fact test specifically for hordein, please let us know). Therefore the idea that a barley based beer can be considered gluten free based upon the lack of testing is very difficult to fathom. It should be understood that a company using an assay test for gliadin to test for hordein will not return accurate results.
    There has been widespread speculation that the brewing process eliminates these hordein proteins making all beers gluten-free. Although commercial assay tests for hordein are not available there is conclusive evidence that the brewing process does not degrade hordein to non-toxic levels. A research study in Australia on improving beer haze shows that hordein is still present in beer after the brewing process (http://www.regional.org.au/au/abts/1999/sheehan.htm). Therefore, claims that hordein or gluten is destroyed in the brewing process is unsubstantiated and clearly, based upon the Australian research, is highly questionable.
    Based upon the continuous claims by beer companies that beers are gluten free, it is clear that the issue is misunderstood and, as always, it is up to the consumer to educate them on the facts. Hopefully, the information provided here will give consumers and manufacturers alike the ability to discuss these gluten issues intelligently and effectively.
    About the author: Kevin Seplowitz is the President and Co-founder of the Bards Tale Research Company, LLC and organization that researches the correlations between nutrition, diet, and autoimmune disorders. Bards Tale Research owns and operates Bards Tale Beer Company, LLC (www.bardsbeer.com) a company that develops commercial gluten-free beers. Mr. Seplowitz is a diagnosed Celiac.

    Megan Tichy
    What is Gluten?
    Gluten is a huge molecule held together by smaller molecules linked together called amino acids. A very tiny part of the gluten molecule can initiate a response. If each amino acid that makes up gluten is represented as a single letter that very tiny part would be: SGQGSFQPSQQ. There are other sequences of amino acids that cause a reaction in gluten sensitive individuals, but the point is, as tiny as this fragment is with respect to the entire gluten protein, it is still HUGE with respect to the size of ethanol (the stuff you are drinking).
    What is Alcohol?
    The alcohol you drink is ethanol. Ethanol is smaller than the size of the smallest amino acid in the smallest fragment of gluten that has been shown to initiate an autoimmune reaction. More specifically, ethanol is about 10 atomic mass units smaller than just the G in the sequence shown above.
    What are Amino Acids?
    The G is glycine, and by the way, each of these amino acids (represented by letters) by themselves is safe, and sold at most health food stores. For example Q = glutamine (yes, “L-glutamine,” the same amino acid mentioned in a recent post and used to heal intestinal damage). If the protein is viewed as beads on a string, then one of those beads might be good for you, but certain sequences strung together can initiate an allergic reaction of many types from acute peanut allergy to less-than-obvious gluten sensitivity.
    What is Distillation?
    When a distillation is performed, pure ethanol is separated away from all of the other “stuff” that forms as a result of fermentation. This is because ethanol is volatile (meaning it becomes a gas in the distillation process). Imagine a vat of fermentation products, you heat it, and only the volatile molecules like ethanol enter a tube attached to the vat. This tube is not just any tube - it is a curved condensation tube! Here is what it does: While the heated gas form of ethanol floats into it (because that is what gases do), the molecules are cooled and condense back into a liquid, and fall into a new sparkling clean vessel containing the stuff that intoxicates you and any other volatiles. So the fancier distillation columns that are actually used industrially also purify the ethanol away from other volatiles. Gluten does not stand a chance of “crossing over” because it is not volatile.
    Here is a simplified analogy. Let's say you put some sand in the bottom of your tea kettle. If you take the spout off your tea kettle, and attach a condensing tube to the opening (a curved tube would be the simplest type of condensing tube but there are many elaborate types), you could distill your water away from the sand. The condensing tube would be curved so as to open into a new clean pot. Let us pretend that the sand is gluten and the water is ethanol. When you heat to the boiling point, the liquid becomes gas so it travels into the condenser, cools and becomes liquid, then falls into the clean pot.
    Now having read that, is there any way that the new clean pot would contain any sand? No, and distilled alcohol (ethanol) does not contain any gluten. Remember, gluten is not volatile. Another non-volatile compound is table salt. So you could perform a distillation at home, with salt water. Has anyone ever inadvertently done this? Boiled a pot of salt water, perhaps to make some Tinkyada pasta, and walked away to do something else. You came back to find your pot almost empty with white crusty stuff (salt) all inside the pot.
    So the gluten is left behind in a distillation process. If malt is added to the distilled product it will be disclosed on the ingredients label.
    What is Vinegar?
    Vinegar is formed by fermentation in a similar way that ethanol is formed by fermentation. The process is to take ethanol and ferment it with bacteria. Later, there is a filtration to remove the bacteria. Rarely, vinegar is fermented from wheat-based alcohol. “Distilled vinegar,” gets its name from the fact that it was fermented from distilled alcohol.
    Why is Vinegar Still Questioned?
    The answer could be, perhaps, because so many people report a reaction to it and vinegar-based products. The never-ending fear is that cross-contamination during the fermentation process is leading to barely detectable amounts of gluten in the finished product (by barely detectable, I mean in terms of commercially available tests). Since the vinegar is rarely distilled post fermentation from the ethanol, the “messy” nature of the second fermentation step could pose a problem, especially for highly sensitive individuals. If the alcohol gets all used up by the bacteria, the bacteria go on to form carbon dioxide and water from the vinegar. So alcohol is periodically added in the fermentation process. Conceivably, one “shortcut” would be to just add beer at this juncture. Adding beer or some other form of cheap malted alcohol would keep the culture alive, and increase the “quality” and yield of the vinegar. Another fear is that the bacterial “mother” as it is called, contains trace gluten through cross-contamination. Claims that these practices actually take place are unsubstantiated by evidence.
    Why are Distilled Spirits Still Questioned?
    That is a good question, I do not know.Take a Short Quiz on this Topic:
    You bought mustard and pickles at the grocery store. These products contain “distilled vinegar” according to the ingredients labels, and the label does NOT say “contains: wheat.” Are the mustard and pickles gluten-free? Rum, gin, whiskey, and vodka are distilled beverages. If they are not flavored with something that contains wheat (would be declared on the label), rye, or barley (usually in the form of “malt”), are they gluten-free?  What is wrong with the following statements (they have all been cut and pasted from various blogs and forums on the topic of celiac disease)?a. “Most alcohols are distilled in such a way that any wheat gluten is no longer present.”b. “Even trace amounts of gluten that make it past the filter system can be harmful.”c. “It seems improbable to me, too, that gliadin could survive the distillation process.”

    Answers:
    Yes, unless you have reason to believe otherwise, in which case you should simply avoid them.
    Yes.
    3a. All alcohols, if distilled, have been removed from any type of gluten.
    3b. Distillation is nothing like a filtration. We are not separating small from large, there is no filter. Filtration would be like how your coffee pot separates water from the coffee grains. A tear in the filter would result in a big problem, right? Filtration is a separation based on size, distillation is a separation based on volatility.
    3c. Do we care whether gliadin (a name given to part of wheat gluten) “survives” the process or not? No, because it has been left behind to stew in its own juices in the distillation pot. Your stuff (the ethanol) has floated away, and entered a new, clean pot. Some people have this idea that we heat the fermented mixture to smithereens and it somehow decomposes the molecules of gluten. Clearly, such a process would be ineffective or else we could simply “cook,” “roast,” “fry,” or “burn” the gluten out of our foods, and we know that we cannot do that.

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/19/2018 - Could baking soda help reduce the inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease? Scientists at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University say that a daily dose of baking soda may in fact help reduce inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease.
    Those scientists recently gathered some of the first evidence to show that cheap, over-the-counter antacids can prompt the spleen to promote an anti-inflammatory environment that could be helpful in combating inflammatory disease.
    A type of cell called mesothelial cells line our body cavities, like the digestive tract. They have little fingers, called microvilli, that sense the environment, and warn the organs they cover that there is an invader and an immune response is needed.
    The team’s data shows that when rats or healthy people drink a solution of baking soda, the stomach makes more acid, which causes mesothelial cells on the outside of the spleen to tell the spleen to go easy on the immune response.  "It's most likely a hamburger not a bacterial infection," is basically the message, says Dr. Paul O'Connor, renal physiologist in the MCG Department of Physiology at Augusta University and the study's corresponding author.
    That message, which is transmitted with help from a chemical messenger called acetylcholine, seems to encourage the gut to shift against inflammation, say the scientists.
    In patients who drank water with baking soda for two weeks, immune cells called macrophages, shifted from primarily those that promote inflammation, called M1, to those that reduce it, called M2. "The shift from inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory profile is happening everywhere," O'Connor says. "We saw it in the kidneys, we saw it in the spleen, now we see it in the peripheral blood."
    O'Connor hopes drinking baking soda can one day produce similar results for people with autoimmune disease. "You are not really turning anything off or on, you are just pushing it toward one side by giving an anti-inflammatory stimulus," he says, in this case, away from harmful inflammation. "It's potentially a really safe way to treat inflammatory disease."
    The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
    Read more at: Sciencedaily.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/18/2018 - Celiac disease has been mainly associated with Caucasian populations in Northern Europe, and their descendants in other countries, but new scientific evidence is beginning to challenge that view. Still, the exact global prevalence of celiac disease remains unknown.  To get better data on that issue, a team of researchers recently conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis to get a reasonably accurate estimate the global prevalence of celiac disease. 
    The research team included P Singh, A Arora, TA Strand, DA Leffler, C Catassi, PH Green, CP Kelly, V Ahuja, and GK Makharia. They are variously affiliated with the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India; Innlandet Hospital Trust, Lillehammer, Norway; Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Gastroenterology Research and Development, Takeda Pharmaceuticals Inc, Cambridge, MA; Department of Pediatrics, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; USA Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; and the Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    For their review, the team searched Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE for the keywords ‘celiac disease,’ ‘celiac,’ ‘tissue transglutaminase antibody,’ ‘anti-endomysium antibody,’ ‘endomysial antibody,’ and ‘prevalence’ for studies published from January 1991 through March 2016. 
    The team cross-referenced each article with the words ‘Asia,’ ‘Europe,’ ‘Africa,’ ‘South America,’ ‘North America,’ and ‘Australia.’ They defined celiac diagnosis based on European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines. The team used 96 articles of 3,843 articles in their final analysis.
    Overall global prevalence of celiac disease was 1.4% in 275,818 individuals, based on positive blood tests for anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or anti-endomysial antibodies. The pooled global prevalence of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease was 0.7% in 138,792 individuals. That means that numerous people with celiac disease potentially remain undiagnosed.
    Rates of celiac disease were 0.4% in South America, 0.5% in Africa and North America, 0.6% in Asia, and 0.8% in Europe and Oceania; the prevalence was 0.6% in female vs 0.4% males. Celiac disease was significantly more common in children than adults.
    This systematic review and meta-analysis showed celiac disease to be reported worldwide. Blood test data shows celiac disease rate of 1.4%, while biopsy data shows 0.7%. The prevalence of celiac disease varies with sex, age, and location. 
    This review demonstrates a need for more comprehensive population-based studies of celiac disease in numerous countries.  The 1.4% rate indicates that there are 91.2 million people worldwide with celiac disease, and 3.9 million are in the U.S.A.
    Source:
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jun;16(6):823-836.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.06.037.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/16/2018 - Summer is the time for chips and salsa. This fresh salsa recipe relies on cabbage, yes, cabbage, as a secret ingredient. The cabbage brings a delicious flavor and helps the salsa hold together nicely for scooping with your favorite chips. The result is a fresh, tasty salsa that goes great with guacamole.
    Ingredients:
    3 cups ripe fresh tomatoes, diced 1 cup shredded green cabbage ½ cup diced yellow onion ¼ cup chopped fresh cilantro 1 jalapeno, seeded 1 Serrano pepper, seeded 2 tablespoons lemon juice 2 tablespoons red wine vinegar 2 garlic cloves, minced salt to taste black pepper, to taste Directions:
    Purée all ingredients together in a blender.
    Cover and refrigerate for at least 1 hour. 
    Adjust seasoning with salt and pepper, as desired. 
    Serve is a bowl with tortilla chips and guacamole.

    Dr. Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.
    Celiac.com 06/15/2018 - There seems to be widespread agreement in the published medical research reports that stuttering is driven by abnormalities in the brain. Sometimes these are the result of brain injuries resulting from a stroke. Other types of brain injuries can also result in stuttering. Patients with Parkinson’s disease who were treated with stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, an area of the brain that regulates some motor functions, experienced a return or worsening of stuttering that improved when the stimulation was turned off (1). Similarly, stroke has also been reported in association with acquired stuttering (2). While there are some reports of psychological mechanisms underlying stuttering, a majority of reports seem to favor altered brain morphology and/or function as the root of stuttering (3). Reports of structural differences between the brain hemispheres that are absent in those who do not stutter are also common (4). About 5% of children stutter, beginning sometime around age 3, during the phase of speech acquisition. However, about 75% of these cases resolve without intervention, before reaching their teens (5). Some cases of aphasia, a loss of speech production or understanding, have been reported in association with damage or changes to one or more of the language centers of the brain (6). Stuttering may sometimes arise from changes or damage to these same language centers (7). Thus, many stutterers have abnormalities in the same regions of the brain similar to those seen in aphasia.
    So how, you may ask, is all this related to gluten? As a starting point, one report from the medical literature identifies a patient who developed aphasia after admission for severe diarrhea. By the time celiac disease was diagnosed, he had completely lost his faculty of speech. However, his speech and normal bowel function gradually returned after beginning a gluten free diet (8). This finding was so controversial at the time of publication (1988) that the authors chose to remain anonymous. Nonetheless, it is a valuable clue that suggests gluten as a factor in compromised speech production. At about the same time (late 1980’s) reports of connections between untreated celiac disease and seizures/epilepsy were emerging in the medical literature (9).
    With the advent of the Internet a whole new field of anecdotal information was emerging, connecting a variety of neurological symptoms to celiac disease. While many medical practitioners and researchers were casting aspersions on these assertions, a select few chose to explore such claims using scientific research designs and methods. While connections between stuttering and gluten consumption seem to have been overlooked by the medical research community, there is a rich literature on the Internet that cries out for more structured investigation of this connection. Conversely, perhaps a publication bias of the peer review process excludes work that explores this connection.
    Whatever the reason that stuttering has not been reported in the medical literature in association with gluten ingestion, a number of personal disclosures and comments suggesting a connection between gluten and stuttering can be found on the Internet. Abid Hussain, in an article about food allergy and stuttering said: “The most common food allergy prevalent in stutterers is that of gluten which has been found to aggravate the stutter” (10). Similarly, Craig Forsythe posted an article that includes five cases of self-reporting individuals who believe that their stuttering is or was connected to gluten, one of whom also experiences stuttering from foods containing yeast (11). The same site contains one report of a stutterer who has had no relief despite following a gluten free diet for 20 years (11). Another stutterer, Jay88, reports the complete disappearance of her/his stammer on a gluten free diet (12). Doubtless there are many more such anecdotes to be found on the Internet* but we have to question them, exercising more skepticism than we might when reading similar claims in a peer reviewed scientific or medical journal.
    There are many reports in such journals connecting brain and neurological ailments with gluten, so it is not much of a stretch, on that basis alone, to suspect that stuttering may be a symptom of the gluten syndrome. Rodney Ford has even characterized celiac disease as an ailment that may begin through gluten-induced neurological damage (13) and Marios Hadjivassiliou and his group of neurologists and neurological investigators have devoted considerable time and effort to research that reveals gluten as an important factor in a majority of neurological diseases of unknown origin (14) which, as I have pointed out previously, includes most neurological ailments.
    My own experience with stuttering is limited. I stuttered as a child when I became nervous, upset, or self-conscious. Although I have been gluten free for many years, I haven’t noticed any impact on my inclination to stutter when upset. I don’t know if they are related, but I have also had challenges with speaking when distressed and I have noticed a substantial improvement in this area since removing gluten from my diet. Nonetheless, I have long wondered if there is a connection between gluten consumption and stuttering. Having done the research for this article, I would now encourage stutterers to try a gluten free diet for six months to see if it will reduce or eliminate their stutter. Meanwhile, I hope that some investigator out there will research this matter, publish her findings, and start the ball rolling toward getting some definitive answers to this question.
    Sources:
    1. Toft M, Dietrichs E. Aggravated stuttering following subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease--two cases. BMC Neurol. 2011 Apr 8;11:44.
    2. Tani T, Sakai Y. Stuttering after right cerebellar infarction: a case study. J Fluency Disord. 2010 Jun;35(2):141-5. Epub 2010 Mar 15.
    3. Lundgren K, Helm-Estabrooks N, Klein R. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature. J Neurolinguistics. 2010 Sep 1;23(5):447-454.
    4. Jäncke L, Hänggi J, Steinmetz H. Morphological brain differences between adult stutterers and non-stutterers. BMC Neurol. 2004 Dec 10;4(1):23.
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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/14/2018 - Refractory celiac disease type II (RCDII) is a rare complication of celiac disease that has high death rates. To diagnose RCDII, doctors identify a clonal population of phenotypically aberrant intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). 
    However, researchers really don’t have much data regarding the frequency and significance of clonal T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (TCR-GRs) in small bowel (SB) biopsies of patients without RCDII. Such data could provide useful comparison information for patients with RCDII, among other things.
    To that end, a research team recently set out to try to get some information about the frequency and importance of clonal T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (TCR-GRs) in small bowel (SB) biopsies of patients without RCDII. The research team included Shafinaz Hussein, Tatyana Gindin, Stephen M Lagana, Carolina Arguelles-Grande, Suneeta Krishnareddy, Bachir Alobeid, Suzanne K Lewis, Mahesh M Mansukhani, Peter H R Green, and Govind Bhagat.
    They are variously affiliated with the Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, and the Department of Medicine at the Celiac Disease Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, New York, USA. Their team analyzed results of TCR-GR analyses performed on SB biopsies at our institution over a 3-year period, which were obtained from eight active celiac disease, 172 celiac disease on gluten-free diet, 33 RCDI, and three RCDII patients and 14 patients without celiac disease. 
    Clonal TCR-GRs are not infrequent in cases lacking features of RCDII, while PCPs are frequent in all disease phases. TCR-GR results should be assessed in conjunction with immunophenotypic, histological and clinical findings for appropriate diagnosis and classification of RCD.
    The team divided the TCR-GR patterns into clonal, polyclonal and prominent clonal peaks (PCPs), and correlated these patterns with clinical and pathological features. In all, they detected clonal TCR-GR products in biopsies from 67% of patients with RCDII, 17% of patients with RCDI and 6% of patients with gluten-free diet. They found PCPs in all disease phases, but saw no significant difference in the TCR-GR patterns between the non-RCDII disease categories (p=0.39). 
    They also noted a higher frequency of surface CD3(−) IELs in cases with clonal TCR-GR, but the PCP pattern showed no associations with any clinical or pathological feature. 
    Repeat biopsy showed that the clonal or PCP pattern persisted for up to 2 years with no evidence of RCDII. The study indicates that better understanding of clonal T cell receptor gene rearrangements may help researchers improve refractory celiac diagnosis. 
    Source:
    Journal of Clinical Pathologyhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2018-205023