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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/24/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What is Celiac Disease and the Gluten-Free Diet? What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    PROBIOTIC MODULATION OF IMMUNE RESPONSE IN GLUTEN SENSITIVITY


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 11/02/2009 - When it comes to health and wellness, probiotics are the new black. Their role in promoting beneficial gut bacteria and in mediating adverse gut reactions is gaining a great deal of attention and study among the nutrition and health-minded. This is also true in the field of celiac disease research, where the role of probiotic strains in positively influencing various immune reactions within the gut is drawing clinical study and a good deal of interest.


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    A number of strains of probiotic bacteria are important in regulating certain activities in gut-associated lymphoid tissue. By better understanding exactly what factors control probiotic-driven immuno-modulation, researchers hope to improve their role in the treatment, or even prevention, of specific immune-mediated diseases.

    A team of Italian researchers recently set out to examine the effects of various strains of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium lactis in transgenic mice expressing the human DQ8 heterodimer, a HLA molecule linked to celiac disease. The research team was made up of R. D'Arienzo, F. Maurano, P. Lavermicocca, E. Ricca, and M. Rossi of the Institute of Food Sciences, CNR, in Avellino, Italy.

    The team used live mice mucosally immunized with the gluten component gliadin. To support their efforts, the team conducted in vitro analysis on immature bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (iBMDCs). Their results revealed that all strains up-regulated surface B7-2 (CD86), indicating DC maturation, but with varying intensity.

    No probiotic strain triggered significant levels of IL-10 or IL-12 in iBMDCs, whereas Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus fermentum basically induced TNF-alpha expression. Notably, when probiotic bacteria were co-administered in live mice with mucosa immunized with the gluten component gliadin, each of these strains increased the antigen-specific TNF-alpha secretion.

    The results indicate that probiotics promote strain-specific reactions that support, rather than suppress, the innate and adaptive immune systems of live mice with gluten antigen sensitivity. Using live mice models to better understand the role of probiotic bacteria in mediating immune response to gliadin and other food proteins provides important insight into how such immune responses may be mediated in humans. Such insights will help to speed better treatments for celiac disease and possibly other food-triggered immune reactions. This study supports the notion that Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium lactis strains may be helpful in promoting better gut health for sufferers of celiac disease. However, further research in humans is needed for conclusive evidence.

    Source:
    Cytokine. September 5th, 2009.


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    So how do we interpret this? What is the end result of DC maturation? What does induced TNF- alpha expression result in? So are you saying we should maybe avoid yogurt that has live lactobacillus cultures?

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    So I don't get it; should I be taking a probiotic? Does it help those of us with celiac? Not enough information explained in a lay person's terms.

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    Guest Barry Pressman

    Posted

    No one understands this mumbo jumbo. If you are going to circulate it than put it in understandable terms.

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    I agree with Hallie. This article is confusing and leaves me wondering if probiotics are not useful for celiacs. What I would really find helpful is some translation of the medicalese (what does "inductive" mean in this context?) and interpretation of the results as to what they mean for people with celiac disease.

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    I have found since I began taking probiotics and drinking probiotic rich kefir my digestion and gas and bloating problems have improved significantly.

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    I've read this article 3 times. I have no idea what the results are telling me !! Tell us what this means !!

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    Guest CeliBelli

    Posted

    I would like to give this article a high rating, because this is an important and intriguing topic. However, as with most of Jefferson Adams' essays, it is too dense with medical research terminology, and completely lacking in vernacular translation. He might was well simply say, "Hey, there's some great new research. Here's the link to the scientific journal...." Like Hallie, I am left wondering whether the high-culture yoghurt I eat nightly is good or bad for my Celiac Disease.

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    Guest Lisa Snellings

    Posted

    I am glad to see this article and think it is great, yet I can understand the confusing feeling one might feel.

    I am a nurse and have read so many articles that over time; I can interpret them better. The second to last sentence explains best; look for those specific probiotics in your supplements ;whether they be yogurt or pill form.

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    Guest Elraton

    Posted

    Probiotics have been attributed many beneficial effects in the health of the intestine, including some protection against intestinal wall permeability. The permeability of the intestinal lining is altered in celiacs, so probiotics have been suggested to be beneficial for us because of this effect. In the study presented here, scientists gave probiotics to mice that are sensitive to gluten in an attempt to modulate the immune response that gluten triggers in celiac patients, which is one of the mechanisms of the disease (in addition to the increased permeability and others). However, instead of observing a decrease in the response, some strains of probiotics actually stimulated the production of molecules that are pro-inflammatory, suggesting that this response might not be beneficial for celiacs. No one single research study is definite as they evaluate different aspects of one problem. Research in celiac disease is still ongoing, so the benefits of probiotics for celiac patients can not be clearly and indisputably established yet.

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    Guest Jefferson Adams

    Posted

    Thanks for writing, I understand your frustration with certain

    articles being highly technical. Most articles are based on abstracts from studies. Some can be highly technical and aimed not at laypeople, but at clinicians and researchers. That, coupled with the fact that scientists sometimes write unclearly, so deciphering them can sometimes be doubly challenging.

     

    I've rewritten the conclusion to the article in an effort to make it

    more clear. See below.

     

    These trials were done on live mice, and so have little direct

    application to humans. Moreover, it's focusing on specific probiotic strains.

     

    Here's the revised conclusion to the article:

     

    The results indicate that probiotics promote strain-specific reactions

    that support, rather than suppress, the innate and adaptive immune

    systems of live mice with gluten antigen sensitivity. Using live mice

    models to better understand the role of probiotic bacteria in

    mediating immune response to gliadin and other food proteins provides important insight into how such immune responses may be mediated in humans. Such insights will help to speed better treatments for celiac disease and possibly other food-triggered immune reactions. This study supports the notion that Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium lactis strains may be helpful in promoting better gut health for sufferers of celiac disease. However, further research in humans is needed for

    conclusive evidence.

     

     

    I hope that helps!

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    Am J Clin Pathol. 2004 Apr;121(4):546-50 Celiac.com 04/20/2004 – According to researchers at the Department of Anatomic Pathology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI, the cause of flattened villi is not always celiac disease. The researchers studied seven patients who experienced several weeks of gluten-sensitivity and the same type of villi injury—"increased lymphoplasmacytic lamina propria inflammation, moderate to complete villous flattening, numerous crypt mitoses, and markedly increased villous intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs)." All patients were diagnosed with gluten sensitivity, and all returned 9 to 38 weeks later questioning their diagnosis, as their symptoms had substantially or completely disappeared, and clinical improvement in these patients seemed unrelated to their ingestion of gluten. A follow up endoscopy and colonoscopy was performed on these patients 4 to 16 months later, and the results of each showed a normal mucosa.
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    "Diseases other than GS can cause marked villous flattening and increased villous IELs in adults. The cause of small bowel mucosal injury is unknown. A similar non-GS-associated clinicopathologic complex, assumed to be due to a protracted viral enteritis or slow regression of a virus-induced immune reaction, occurs in children. The temporal aspects of symptom improvement and mucosal restitution in these 7 patients are similar to acute self-limited colitis. An overly exuberant immune response to an infectious agent is possible."

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 12/05/2012 - Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are play a pivotal role in helping our bodies tolerate self-antigens and dietary proteins. Interleukin (IL)-15 is a cytokine that is overly present in the intestines of patients with celiac disease.
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    To better understand how control of effector T cells by regulatory T cells is inhibited, a team of researchers compared Treg numbers and responses of intestinal and peripheral T lymphocytes to suppression by Tregs in celiac disease patients and in a control group.
    The research team included N.B. Hmida, M. Ben Ahmed, A. Moussa, M.B. Rejeb, Y. Said, N. Kourda, B. Meresse, M. Abdeladhim, H. Louzir, and N. Cerf-Bensussan. They are affiliated with the Department of Clinical Immunology and the Institut Pasteur de Tunis in Tunis, Tunisia.
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    Source:
    Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Apr;107(4):604-11. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2011.397. Epub 2011 Nov 22.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 12/10/2012 - In celiac disease, doctors use video capsule endoscopy (VCE) mainly to follow-up on stubborn cases, and to diagnose adenocarcinoma, lymphoma or refractory celiac disease. However, some doctors are suggesting that VCE could replace standard esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and biopsy in certain circumstances.
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    Source:
    BMC Gastroenterolohy. 2012;12(90)

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/22/2014 - Blood tests are highly valuable for diagnosing celiac disease. However, their role in gauging mucosal healing in celiac children who have adopted gluten-free diets is unclear.
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    Source:
    BMC Gastroenterology 2014, 14:28. doi:10.1186/1471-230X-14-28

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    Tammy Rhodes
    Celiac.com 04/24/2018 - Did you know in 2017 alone, the United States had OVER TENS OF THOUSANDS of people evacuate their homes due to natural disasters such as fires, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes and tsunamis? Most evacuation sites are not equipped to feed your family the safe gluten free foods that are required to stay healthy.  Are you prepared in case of an emergency? Do you have your Gluten Free Emergency Food Bag ready to grab and go?  
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    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
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    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
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    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764