6 6
Lex_

Has anyone used Nima to test honey for gluten, by any chance?

Rate this topic

Recommended Posts

Since honey, raw or processed, may contain wheat dust due to the wide presence of wheat fields everywhere [possibly close to any bee hives anywhere], I was wondering if honey should be categorically categorised as a gluten containing food. Wondering if anyone who owns Nima has tested it?

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Ads by Google:
Ads by Google:


"Wheat dust" from fields isn't wheat flour. Wheat kernels in the field are very stable, and should not produce dust. I suppose if the bee hives were very near a flour mill there could be contamination. Please do post any test results, but I suspect that honey is nothing that celiacs need to worry about.

Actually another interesting test would be testing wheat germ oil for gluten (the oil may be gluten-free, but I've not seen tests on it).

 

  • Upvote 1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Celiac.com has a fabulous resource....the search bar (tiny little magnifying glass).  Type in “honey” and you can look at previous posts concerning this topic!  

  • Upvote 1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
On 1/11/2018 at 7:29 PM, Lex_ said:

Since honey, raw or processed, may contain wheat dust due to the wide presence of wheat fields everywhere [possibly close to any bee hives anywhere], I was wondering if honey should be categorically categorised as a gluten containing food. Wondering if anyone who owns Nima has tested it?

What is wheat dust in a farm setting?  Dried stems?  How would fully formed seed get into honey?  Bees don't take seeds in.  Seeds don't " float" into bee hives. Please share your legitimate sources for this warning as I have not seen any?

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
15 hours ago, kareng said:

What is wheat dust in a farm setting?  Dried stems?  How would fully formed seed get into honey?  Bees don't take seeds in.  Seeds don't " float" into bee hives. Please share your legitimate sources for this warning as I have not seen any?

Actually I read about this on other threads in this very same forum. The tag word was honey - whether or not honey can contain gluten. I did not notice any scientific reference, nor have I found any legitimate study on the matter. Then again, the overall amount of research on gluten and gluten related issues is limited, so I thought I would take the safe bet and ask if anyone has tested honey itself with Nima.

 

Sorry if my comment have come across as referring to any verified knowledge.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Ads by Google:


18 hours ago, cyclinglady said:

Celiac.com has a fabulous resource....the search bar (tiny little magnifying glass).  Type in “honey” and you can look at previous posts concerning this topic!  

Thanks for the insight but I did already search the website with the 'honey' tag word before posting my question. Problem is that like most other topics, I found conflicting statements, so I thought I would take the safest bet and ask if someone has tested honey via Nima.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

No worries, it’s a topic worth discussing here. That is the point of this forum! ;)

  • Upvote 1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Always remember what the doctors and scientists are trying to teach us about Celiac's disease. It's not gluten that's the problem, it's the toxic chemicals sprayed on the crops that cause Celiac's. Corn and rice gluten are safe for people with Celiac's because they aren't sprayed with round up before harvest. Oats do not contain any gluten yet they cause a celiac reaction because they are sprayed with round up before harvest. We are making giant leaps against Celiac's here in Wisconsin by attempting to ban the use of herbicides containing glyphosate.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
28 minutes ago, Kurasz said:

Oats do not contain any gluten yet they cause a celiac reaction because they are sprayed with round up before harvest.

Here in the UK at least the reason Oats are problematic for celiacs (well coeliacs here I guess) is that they're harvested, processed and packed on the same machinery as the wheat which they're grown alongside.  This proximity means its impossible to guarantee that some wheat won't sneak into the oats, unless you farm them separately, these are then sold as gluten free oats. 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
2 hours ago, Lex_ said:

Thanks for the insight but I did already search the website with the 'honey' tag word before posting my question. Problem is that like most other topics, I found conflicting statements, so I thought I would take the safest bet and ask if someone has tested honey via Nima.

Great!  I was not sure just how many people know about the search function.  

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites


Ads by Google:


3 hours ago, Kurasz said:

Always remember what the doctors and scientists are trying to teach us about Celiac's disease. It's not gluten that's the problem

Celiac disease was a problem long before Round Up. My son was biopsy diagnosed in 1976. That is Big Wheat spending millions in order to divert attention. Here is a question. Why is it, when they hold congressional discussions on Genetic Modifications in Food, Wheat is specifically excluded from all discussion? Why is Wheat still government subsidized?

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
4 hours ago, Kurasz said:

Always remember what the doctors and scientists are trying to teach us about Celiac's disease. It's not gluten that's the problem, it's the toxic chemicals sprayed on the crops that cause Celiac's. Corn and rice gluten are safe for people with Celiac's because they aren't sprayed with round up before harvest. Oats do not contain any gluten yet they cause a celiac reaction because they are sprayed with round up before harvest. We are making giant leaps against Celiac's here in Wisconsin by attempting to ban the use of herbicides containing glyphosate.

 

57 minutes ago, Wheatwacked said:

Celiac disease was a problem long before Round Up. My son was biopsy diagnosed in 1976. That is Big Wheat spending millions in order to divert attention. Here is a question. Why is it, when they hold congressional discussions on Genetic Modifications in Food, Wheat is specifically excluded from all discussion? Why is Wheat still government subsidized?

If you want to have this discussion, please make your own topic.  Political/ conspiracy theories, roundup, your theories on the cause of Celiac do not belong on this lady’s question about honey

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Hi lex,

I haven't tested anything with NIMA myself, since I don't have one.  

I did find some honey sites that claim they have gluten-free honey.  This is just a couple I found in a quick search.  It seems to me honey is made from nectar of flowers.  The nectar is a precursor to the seed.  So the seed isn't formed until the flower is fertilized.  Then gluten is formed as the seed matures.  So normally I think there is little chance of honey having gluten in it because the nectar and gluten are not present at the same time in the plants.

I don't think it's impossible for honey to somehow get some gluten in it.  Honey from china has been adulterated with other things already.  Generally high fructose corn syrup.  But who know what else they put in it?

I think's its safer to buy local honey where you know the farmer than imported brands IMHO.

If there were a large flour mill in the area where the honey was being harvested I'd be a little wary of it myself.  At least for honey produced during the harvest season.

http://www.barkmanhoney.com/faqs/does-honey-contain-gluten/

http://www.capilanohoney.com/au-en/faq/is-your-honey-gluten-free

Is your honey gluten free?

  •  
  •  
  •  

Honey is naturally free of gluten. It does not contain wheat or its by-products. Our honey is 100% pure and natural, nothing has been added to it, therefore it is 100% gluten free. In addition to this, no gluten containing products are handled or stored in our packing facilities.

 

  • Upvote 1

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
On 1/13/2018 at 6:35 PM, kareng said:

 

If you want to have this discussion, please make your own topic.  Political/ conspiracy theories, roundup, your theories on the cause of Celiac do not belong on this lady’s question about honey

That's because they were using DDT before round up which also contained glyphosate, which has been proven to cause Celiac's and many other diseases

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Just now, Kurasz said:

That's because they were using DDT before round up which also contained glyphosate, which has been proven to cause Celiac's and many other diseases

This is still not the place for your politcal feelings.  this is not relevaent to the topic.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
5 hours ago, GFinDC said:

Hi lex,

I haven't tested anything with NIMA myself, since I don't have one.  

I did find some honey sites that claim they have gluten-free honey.  This is just a couple I found in a quick search.  It seems to me honey is made from nectar of flowers.  The nectar is a precursor to the seed.  So the seed isn't formed until the flower is fertilized.  Then gluten is formed as the seed matures.  So normally I think there is little chance of honey having gluten in it because the nectar and gluten are not present at the same time in the plants.

I don't think it's impossible for honey to somehow get some gluten in it.  Honey from china has been adulterated with other things already.  Generally high fructose corn syrup.  But who know what else they put in it?

I think's its safer to buy local honey where you know the farmer than imported brands IMHO.

If there were a large flour mill in the area where the honey was being harvested I'd be a little wary of it myself.  At least for honey produced during the harvest season.

http://www.barkmanhoney.com/faqs/does-honey-contain-gluten/

http://www.capilanohoney.com/au-en/faq/is-your-honey-gluten-free

Is your honey gluten free?

  •  
  •  
  •  

Honey is naturally free of gluten. It does not contain wheat or its by-products. Our honey is 100% pure and natural, nothing has been added to it, therefore it is 100% gluten free. In addition to this, no gluten containing products are handled or stored in our packing facilities.

 

Thank you for your response, GFinDC. I agree that buying from a local producer is a safe bet.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

My husband & I used to be beekeepers. It would be almost impossible for wheat protein to get into honey. The honey is inside the hive; it's not like it's laying out in the open in a plate or a bowl. Here's a hive.: https://www.mannlakeltd.com/10-frame-traditional-growing-apiary-kit-wood-frames-painted?gclid=CjwKCAiA4vbSBRBNEiwAMorER1htsezzCA5djegusWEGx_DzRHG4xePYQIxxd1paGZy4ibxMR_dSFxoCFUoQAvD_BwE

The bees have a narrow opening at the bottom of the hive where they enter & exit & when they enter then they climb upward inside the hive. The bottom section is the brood chamber where the queen lays eggs & eventually become bees. At the top of that section is something called a queen excluder which is generally a metal screen type thing with holes in it. The queen is larger than the workers so the holes are smaller than the queen in order to keep her in the brood chamber. This is so she doesn't go laying eggs all over the hive. The workers fit through the excluder allowing them to go to the supers (boxes) above where the nectar is deposited in honeycomb & turned into honey & when a cell is full, they cap it off. You've seen honeycomb before. So when harvest time comes, the beekeeper takes the full (of honey) supers off the brood chamber & replaces them with empty (of honey) supers so the bees can start filling those up. The full supers get taken to what we call the honey house which is where extraction takes place. Here's a YouTube video of honey extraction. As you can see, this is not anywhere that other food is being made or prepared. Other food does not get done in honey production. It's a class all it's own. There's not going to be any wheat barley or rye there. 

 

  • Like 1
  • Upvote 2

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!

Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.

Sign In Now
6 6

  • Who's Online   11 Members, 1 Anonymous, 988 Guests (See full list)

  • Top Posters +

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/19/2018 - Could baking soda help reduce the inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease? Scientists at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University say that a daily dose of baking soda may in fact help reduce inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease.
    Those scientists recently gathered some of the first evidence to show that cheap, over-the-counter antacids can prompt the spleen to promote an anti-inflammatory environment that could be helpful in combating inflammatory disease.
    A type of cell called mesothelial cells line our body cavities, like the digestive tract. They have little fingers, called microvilli, that sense the environment, and warn the organs they cover that there is an invader and an immune response is needed.
    The team’s data shows that when rats or healthy people drink a solution of baking soda, the stomach makes more acid, which causes mesothelial cells on the outside of the spleen to tell the spleen to go easy on the immune response.  "It's most likely a hamburger not a bacterial infection," is basically the message, says Dr. Paul O'Connor, renal physiologist in the MCG Department of Physiology at Augusta University and the study's corresponding author.
    That message, which is transmitted with help from a chemical messenger called acetylcholine, seems to encourage the gut to shift against inflammation, say the scientists.
    In patients who drank water with baking soda for two weeks, immune cells called macrophages, shifted from primarily those that promote inflammation, called M1, to those that reduce it, called M2. "The shift from inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory profile is happening everywhere," O'Connor says. "We saw it in the kidneys, we saw it in the spleen, now we see it in the peripheral blood."
    O'Connor hopes drinking baking soda can one day produce similar results for people with autoimmune disease. "You are not really turning anything off or on, you are just pushing it toward one side by giving an anti-inflammatory stimulus," he says, in this case, away from harmful inflammation. "It's potentially a really safe way to treat inflammatory disease."
    The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
    Read more at: Sciencedaily.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/18/2018 - Celiac disease has been mainly associated with Caucasian populations in Northern Europe, and their descendants in other countries, but new scientific evidence is beginning to challenge that view. Still, the exact global prevalence of celiac disease remains unknown.  To get better data on that issue, a team of researchers recently conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis to get a reasonably accurate estimate the global prevalence of celiac disease. 
    The research team included P Singh, A Arora, TA Strand, DA Leffler, C Catassi, PH Green, CP Kelly, V Ahuja, and GK Makharia. They are variously affiliated with the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India; Innlandet Hospital Trust, Lillehammer, Norway; Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Gastroenterology Research and Development, Takeda Pharmaceuticals Inc, Cambridge, MA; Department of Pediatrics, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; USA Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; and the Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    For their review, the team searched Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE for the keywords ‘celiac disease,’ ‘celiac,’ ‘tissue transglutaminase antibody,’ ‘anti-endomysium antibody,’ ‘endomysial antibody,’ and ‘prevalence’ for studies published from January 1991 through March 2016. 
    The team cross-referenced each article with the words ‘Asia,’ ‘Europe,’ ‘Africa,’ ‘South America,’ ‘North America,’ and ‘Australia.’ They defined celiac diagnosis based on European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines. The team used 96 articles of 3,843 articles in their final analysis.
    Overall global prevalence of celiac disease was 1.4% in 275,818 individuals, based on positive blood tests for anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or anti-endomysial antibodies. The pooled global prevalence of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease was 0.7% in 138,792 individuals. That means that numerous people with celiac disease potentially remain undiagnosed.
    Rates of celiac disease were 0.4% in South America, 0.5% in Africa and North America, 0.6% in Asia, and 0.8% in Europe and Oceania; the prevalence was 0.6% in female vs 0.4% males. Celiac disease was significantly more common in children than adults.
    This systematic review and meta-analysis showed celiac disease to be reported worldwide. Blood test data shows celiac disease rate of 1.4%, while biopsy data shows 0.7%. The prevalence of celiac disease varies with sex, age, and location. 
    This review demonstrates a need for more comprehensive population-based studies of celiac disease in numerous countries.  The 1.4% rate indicates that there are 91.2 million people worldwide with celiac disease, and 3.9 million are in the U.S.A.
    Source:
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jun;16(6):823-836.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.06.037.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/16/2018 - Summer is the time for chips and salsa. This fresh salsa recipe relies on cabbage, yes, cabbage, as a secret ingredient. The cabbage brings a delicious flavor and helps the salsa hold together nicely for scooping with your favorite chips. The result is a fresh, tasty salsa that goes great with guacamole.
    Ingredients:
    3 cups ripe fresh tomatoes, diced 1 cup shredded green cabbage ½ cup diced yellow onion ¼ cup chopped fresh cilantro 1 jalapeno, seeded 1 Serrano pepper, seeded 2 tablespoons lemon juice 2 tablespoons red wine vinegar 2 garlic cloves, minced salt to taste black pepper, to taste Directions:
    Purée all ingredients together in a blender.
    Cover and refrigerate for at least 1 hour. 
    Adjust seasoning with salt and pepper, as desired. 
    Serve is a bowl with tortilla chips and guacamole.

    Dr. Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.
    Celiac.com 06/15/2018 - There seems to be widespread agreement in the published medical research reports that stuttering is driven by abnormalities in the brain. Sometimes these are the result of brain injuries resulting from a stroke. Other types of brain injuries can also result in stuttering. Patients with Parkinson’s disease who were treated with stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, an area of the brain that regulates some motor functions, experienced a return or worsening of stuttering that improved when the stimulation was turned off (1). Similarly, stroke has also been reported in association with acquired stuttering (2). While there are some reports of psychological mechanisms underlying stuttering, a majority of reports seem to favor altered brain morphology and/or function as the root of stuttering (3). Reports of structural differences between the brain hemispheres that are absent in those who do not stutter are also common (4). About 5% of children stutter, beginning sometime around age 3, during the phase of speech acquisition. However, about 75% of these cases resolve without intervention, before reaching their teens (5). Some cases of aphasia, a loss of speech production or understanding, have been reported in association with damage or changes to one or more of the language centers of the brain (6). Stuttering may sometimes arise from changes or damage to these same language centers (7). Thus, many stutterers have abnormalities in the same regions of the brain similar to those seen in aphasia.
    So how, you may ask, is all this related to gluten? As a starting point, one report from the medical literature identifies a patient who developed aphasia after admission for severe diarrhea. By the time celiac disease was diagnosed, he had completely lost his faculty of speech. However, his speech and normal bowel function gradually returned after beginning a gluten free diet (8). This finding was so controversial at the time of publication (1988) that the authors chose to remain anonymous. Nonetheless, it is a valuable clue that suggests gluten as a factor in compromised speech production. At about the same time (late 1980’s) reports of connections between untreated celiac disease and seizures/epilepsy were emerging in the medical literature (9).
    With the advent of the Internet a whole new field of anecdotal information was emerging, connecting a variety of neurological symptoms to celiac disease. While many medical practitioners and researchers were casting aspersions on these assertions, a select few chose to explore such claims using scientific research designs and methods. While connections between stuttering and gluten consumption seem to have been overlooked by the medical research community, there is a rich literature on the Internet that cries out for more structured investigation of this connection. Conversely, perhaps a publication bias of the peer review process excludes work that explores this connection.
    Whatever the reason that stuttering has not been reported in the medical literature in association with gluten ingestion, a number of personal disclosures and comments suggesting a connection between gluten and stuttering can be found on the Internet. Abid Hussain, in an article about food allergy and stuttering said: “The most common food allergy prevalent in stutterers is that of gluten which has been found to aggravate the stutter” (10). Similarly, Craig Forsythe posted an article that includes five cases of self-reporting individuals who believe that their stuttering is or was connected to gluten, one of whom also experiences stuttering from foods containing yeast (11). The same site contains one report of a stutterer who has had no relief despite following a gluten free diet for 20 years (11). Another stutterer, Jay88, reports the complete disappearance of her/his stammer on a gluten free diet (12). Doubtless there are many more such anecdotes to be found on the Internet* but we have to question them, exercising more skepticism than we might when reading similar claims in a peer reviewed scientific or medical journal.
    There are many reports in such journals connecting brain and neurological ailments with gluten, so it is not much of a stretch, on that basis alone, to suspect that stuttering may be a symptom of the gluten syndrome. Rodney Ford has even characterized celiac disease as an ailment that may begin through gluten-induced neurological damage (13) and Marios Hadjivassiliou and his group of neurologists and neurological investigators have devoted considerable time and effort to research that reveals gluten as an important factor in a majority of neurological diseases of unknown origin (14) which, as I have pointed out previously, includes most neurological ailments.
    My own experience with stuttering is limited. I stuttered as a child when I became nervous, upset, or self-conscious. Although I have been gluten free for many years, I haven’t noticed any impact on my inclination to stutter when upset. I don’t know if they are related, but I have also had challenges with speaking when distressed and I have noticed a substantial improvement in this area since removing gluten from my diet. Nonetheless, I have long wondered if there is a connection between gluten consumption and stuttering. Having done the research for this article, I would now encourage stutterers to try a gluten free diet for six months to see if it will reduce or eliminate their stutter. Meanwhile, I hope that some investigator out there will research this matter, publish her findings, and start the ball rolling toward getting some definitive answers to this question.
    Sources:
    1. Toft M, Dietrichs E. Aggravated stuttering following subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease--two cases. BMC Neurol. 2011 Apr 8;11:44.
    2. Tani T, Sakai Y. Stuttering after right cerebellar infarction: a case study. J Fluency Disord. 2010 Jun;35(2):141-5. Epub 2010 Mar 15.
    3. Lundgren K, Helm-Estabrooks N, Klein R. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature. J Neurolinguistics. 2010 Sep 1;23(5):447-454.
    4. Jäncke L, Hänggi J, Steinmetz H. Morphological brain differences between adult stutterers and non-stutterers. BMC Neurol. 2004 Dec 10;4(1):23.
    5. Kell CA, Neumann K, von Kriegstein K, Posenenske C, von Gudenberg AW, Euler H, Giraud AL. How the brain repairs stuttering. Brain. 2009 Oct;132(Pt 10):2747-60. Epub 2009 Aug 26.
    6. Galantucci S, Tartaglia MC, Wilson SM, Henry ML, Filippi M, Agosta F, Dronkers NF, Henry RG, Ogar JM, Miller BL, Gorno-Tempini ML. White matter damage in primary progressive aphasias: a diffusion tensor tractography study. Brain. 2011 Jun 11.
    7. Lundgren K, Helm-Estabrooks N, Klein R. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature. J Neurolinguistics. 2010 Sep 1;23(5):447-454.
    8. [No authors listed] Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 43-1988. A 52-year-old man with persistent watery diarrhea and aphasia. N Engl J Med. 1988 Oct 27;319(17):1139-48
    9. Molteni N, Bardella MT, Baldassarri AR, Bianchi PA. Celiac disease associated with epilepsy and intracranial calcifications: report of two patients. Am J Gastroenterol. 1988 Sep;83(9):992-4.
    10. http://ezinearticles.com/?Food-Allergy-and-Stuttering-Link&id=1235725 
    11. http://www.craig.copperleife.com/health/stuttering_allergies.htm 
    12. https://www.celiac.com/forums/topic/73362-any-help-is-appreciated/
    13. Ford RP. The gluten syndrome: a neurological disease. Med Hypotheses. 2009 Sep;73(3):438-40. Epub 2009 Apr 29.
    14. Hadjivassiliou M, Gibson A, Davies-Jones GA, Lobo AJ, Stephenson TJ, Milford-Ward A. Does cryptic gluten sensitivity play a part in neurological illness? Lancet. 1996 Feb 10;347(8998):369-71.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/14/2018 - Refractory celiac disease type II (RCDII) is a rare complication of celiac disease that has high death rates. To diagnose RCDII, doctors identify a clonal population of phenotypically aberrant intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). 
    However, researchers really don’t have much data regarding the frequency and significance of clonal T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (TCR-GRs) in small bowel (SB) biopsies of patients without RCDII. Such data could provide useful comparison information for patients with RCDII, among other things.
    To that end, a research team recently set out to try to get some information about the frequency and importance of clonal T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (TCR-GRs) in small bowel (SB) biopsies of patients without RCDII. The research team included Shafinaz Hussein, Tatyana Gindin, Stephen M Lagana, Carolina Arguelles-Grande, Suneeta Krishnareddy, Bachir Alobeid, Suzanne K Lewis, Mahesh M Mansukhani, Peter H R Green, and Govind Bhagat.
    They are variously affiliated with the Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, and the Department of Medicine at the Celiac Disease Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, New York, USA. Their team analyzed results of TCR-GR analyses performed on SB biopsies at our institution over a 3-year period, which were obtained from eight active celiac disease, 172 celiac disease on gluten-free diet, 33 RCDI, and three RCDII patients and 14 patients without celiac disease. 
    Clonal TCR-GRs are not infrequent in cases lacking features of RCDII, while PCPs are frequent in all disease phases. TCR-GR results should be assessed in conjunction with immunophenotypic, histological and clinical findings for appropriate diagnosis and classification of RCD.
    The team divided the TCR-GR patterns into clonal, polyclonal and prominent clonal peaks (PCPs), and correlated these patterns with clinical and pathological features. In all, they detected clonal TCR-GR products in biopsies from 67% of patients with RCDII, 17% of patients with RCDI and 6% of patients with gluten-free diet. They found PCPs in all disease phases, but saw no significant difference in the TCR-GR patterns between the non-RCDII disease categories (p=0.39). 
    They also noted a higher frequency of surface CD3(−) IELs in cases with clonal TCR-GR, but the PCP pattern showed no associations with any clinical or pathological feature. 
    Repeat biopsy showed that the clonal or PCP pattern persisted for up to 2 years with no evidence of RCDII. The study indicates that better understanding of clonal T cell receptor gene rearrangements may help researchers improve refractory celiac diagnosis. 
    Source:
    Journal of Clinical Pathologyhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2018-205023