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  • Scott Adams

    Does an Interplay Between Type 2 Transglutaminase (TG2), Gliadin Peptide 31-43 and Anti-TG2 Antibodies Promote Celiac Disease?

    Scott Adams
    Reviewed and edited by a celiac disease expert.

      Can type 2 transglutaminase (TG2), gliadin peptide 31-43 and anti-TG2 antibodies work together to trigger celiac disease?

    Image: CC BY-SA 4.0--Roger Burger
    Caption: Image: CC BY-SA 4.0--Roger Burger

    Celiac.com 07/23/2020 - Celiac disease is a common inflammatory autoimmune condition that is influenced by both genetic factors and environmental triggers. Researchers still don't know very much about the early genesis of celiac disease. A team of researchers recently set out to describe the interplay between type 2 transglutaminase (TG2), gliadin peptide 31-43 and anti-TG2 antibodies in celiac disease.

    The team included Stefania Martucciello, Silvia Sposito, Carla Esposito, Gaetana Paolella, and Ivana Caputo. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Chemistry and Biology; and the European Laboratory for the Investigation of Food-Induced Diseases (ELFID) at the University of Salerno in Fisciano (SA), Italy

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    Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye and barley, and is the main factor implied in the onset of celiac disease, which involves both innate and adaptive immune responses to gluten. 

    The immune-triggering potential of some gluten sequences are increased by the deamidation of specific glutamine residues by type 2 transglutaminase (TG2), an enzyme whose expression is up-regulated in the intestine of celiacs. 

    The α-gliadin peptide 31-43 is a short gluten chain that resists intestinal proteases, and which seems to modulate TG2 function in the gut. Interestingly, TG2 can also influence the biological activity of this α-gliadin peptide 31-43. 

    A strong auto-immune response to TG2 is a classic sign of celiac disease. Auto-antibodies exert biological effects on multiple cells. These effects partly overlap with those caused by α-gliadin peptide 31-43. 

    In their recent review, the team poses a scenario in which TG2, anti-TG2 antibodies and peptide 31-43 come together to synergistically trigger and promote celiac disease. If their hypothesis is correct, further study could help researchers better understand celiac development and potentially point the way to new measures of prevention and/or treatment for celiac disease.

    Stay tuned for more articles on the role of TG2, anti-TG2 antibodies and peptide 31-43 in the development of celiac disease.


    Read more at Int J Mol Sci. 2020 May; 21(10): 3673

    Edited by Scott Adams


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  • About Me

    Scott Adams was diagnosed with celiac disease in 1994, and, due to the nearly total lack of information available at that time, was forced to become an expert on the disease in order to recover. In 1995 he launched the site that later became Celiac.com to help as many people as possible with celiac disease get diagnosed so they can begin to live happy, healthy gluten-free lives.  He is co-author of the book Cereal Killers, and founder and publisher of the (formerly paper) newsletter Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. In 1998 he founded The Gluten-Free Mall which he sold in 2014. Celiac.com does not sell any products, and is 100% advertiser supported.

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