Jump to content
  • Sign Up
  • Join Our Community!

    Get help in our celiac / gluten-free forum.

  • Jefferson Adams
    Jefferson Adams

    Researchers Discover Gluten-Degrading Bacteria in Mouth and Upper Gastro-Intestinal Tract

    Reviewed and edited by a celiac disease expert.

    Caption: Image: CC--carmelats

    Celiac.com 03/24/2014 - Two new studies have confirmed colonization of gluten-degrading bacteria in the human mouth and in the upper gastrointestinal tracts respectively.

    Image: CC--carmelatsBoth studies come out of the Department of Periodontology and Oral Biology, Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine in Boston, Massachusetts. The research teams included Maram Zamakhchari, Guoxian Wei, Floyd Dewhirst, Jaeseop Lee, Detlef Schuppan, Frank G. Oppenheim, and Eva J. Helmerhorst.

    Gluten is notoriously hard for mammals to digest, because gliadin proteins resist mammalian proteolytic enzymes in the gut, so researchers wanted to find sources of gluten-digesting microbial enzymes from the upper gastro-intestinal tract. These microbial enzymes have the potential to neutralize the gluten peptides that act as celiac disease triggers.

    In the first study the researchers assessed proteolytic activity in suspended dental plaque towards a) gliadin-derived paranitroanilide(pNA)-linked synthetic enzyme substrates B) a mixture of natural gliadins and c) synthetic highly immunogenic gliadin peptides (33-mer of α2-gliadin and 26-mer of γ-gliadin).

    In addition, they conducted gliadin zymography to establish the approximate molecular weights and pH activity profiles of the gliadin-degrading oral enzymes and performed liquid iso-electric focusing to determine overall enzyme iso-electric points.

    Their results provide the first known evidence of gluten-degrading microorganisms associated with the upper gastro-intestinal tract.

    Such microorganisms may play a hitherto unappreciated role in the digestion of dietary gluten and thus protection from celiac disease in subjects at risk.

    In the second study, the team employed a selective plating strategy using gluten agar to obtain oral microorganisms with gluten-degrading capacity. They then used16S rDNA gene sequencing to carry out microbial speciations.

    To determine enzyme activity, they used gliadin-derived enzymatic substrates, gliadins in solution, gliadin zymography, and 33-mer a-gliadin and 26-mer c-gliadin immunogenic peptides.

    They separated fragments of the gliadin peptides by RP-HPLC, and structurally characterized them using mass spectrometry. They found that strains Rothia mucilaginosa and Rothia aeria showed high gluten-degrading activity. For example, gliadins (250 mg/ml) added to Rothia cell suspensions (OD620 1.2) degraded by 50% after 30 minutes of incubation.

    Importantly, the 33-mer and 26-mer immunogenic peptides were also cleaved, primarily C-terminal to Xaa-Pro-Gln (XPQ) and Xaa-Pro-Tyr (XPY). The major gliadin-degrading enzymes produced by the Rothia strains were 70–75 kDa in size, and the enzyme expressed by Rothia aeria was active over a wide pH range (pH 3–10).

    While the human digestive enzyme system lacks the capacity to cleave immunogenic gluten, such activities are naturally present in the oral microbial enzyme repertoire.

    Taken together, these studies suggest a potential for these bacteria to fuel the development of compounds that can degrade of harmful gluten peptides that trigger celiac disease in susceptible individuals.

    Source:


    User Feedback

    Recommended Comments

    Hmm, so is this a symptom for those who suffer from current celiac symptoms, but not if you're safely in control of your diet? So what's next?

     

    What about drinking kombucha regularly throughout the day, wish-washing it in your mouth and digesting it to add more bacteria.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites


    Join the conversation

    You are posting as a guest. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.
    Note: Your post will require moderator approval before it will be visible.

    Guest
    Add a comment...

    ×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

      Only 75 emoji are allowed.

    ×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

    ×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

    ×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


  • About Me

    Jefferson Adams is Celiac.com's senior writer and Digital Content Director. He earned his B.A. and M.F.A. at Arizona State University, and has authored more than 2,000 articles on celiac disease. His coursework includes studies in science, scientific methodology, biology, anatomy, medicine, logic, and advanced research. He previously served as SF Health News Examiner for Examiner.com, and devised health and medical content for Sharecare.com. Jefferson has spoken about celiac disease to the media, including an appearance on the KQED radio show Forum, and is the editor of the book "Cereal Killers" by Scott Adams and Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.

  • Related Articles

    Scott Adams
    Gastrointest Endosc. 2004 Jan;59(1):116-8. Celiac.com 06/28/2004 - This study, although small, indicates that there may be additional damage to the second part of the duodenum caused by celiac disease, and that this can also be used for a marker for diagnosing the disease:

    Dickey W, Hughes D.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Altnagelvin Hospital, Londonderry, Northern...

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/23/2007 - A study published in a recent issue of the journal Gut suggests that wheat gliadin might trigger pathological development in mucosal cells that are already abnormal, but otherwise tolerated, within the intestinal tracts of individuals with celiac disease.
    Researchers at the Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II in Naples, Italy, led by Dr....

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 08/01/2012 - Failure to conduct small bowel biopsies during endoscopy, especially on men and people of color, may be one of the reasons that celiac disease remains under-diagnosed in the United States, according to a new study. This finding was made by a research team that set out to study sex and racial disparities in duodenal biopsy evaluations for celiac disease.<...

  • Forum Discussions

    Hey!  I found this article and I wondered if.... https://www.thehealthy.com/nutrition/medical-mystery-scurvy-2012/ It's about a man with scurvy, yep, Vitamin C deficiency!  Do you think your symptoms are similar? And this a...
    Not sure if this article will help...it's about when antibodies develop in children predisposed to Celiac and diabetes, but it discusses the different antibody tests and the ages different antibodies appear.   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.g...
    Have you been checked for a vitamin B12 deficiency?  B12 deficiency can cause diarrhea, bloating, migraines, vision problems like your flashes of light, skin rashes, itching,  hallucinations, and mental problems like mania, bipolar, depression, ...
×
×
  • Create New...