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Metabonomic Signature of Celiac Disease

Celiac.com 12/23/2008 - Metabolites are small–molecule products of biochemical processes in the body’s cells. Analysis of these metabolites can detect changes in the body caused by chemical toxicity, disease, gene mutations, or diet. Bacteria in the gut also contribute to this “metabolic signature”, so it is also a way to understand changes in gut microbe populations.

Because metabolites are excreted from the cells into blood and urine, collecting these samples can be easy, noninvasive, and inexpensive. Chemical techniques like nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are used to analyze the samples. The results of NMR spectroscopy are chemical patterns, showing the simultaneous alterations of many compounds. The measurement and analysis of multiple metabolite changes in response to genetic changes or environmental stimuli is known as metabonomics.

Metabonomics has a number of potential applications. Ease of sample collection may enable researchers to develop a rapid screening tool for diseases like celiac disease. Using metabonomics, it is not necessary to know the specific metabolites that differ in people with a given disease (the disease biomarkers). Rather than looking for the presence or absence of a particular biomarker, the overall pattern of metabolite concentrations is compared to patterns of people known to have the disease (the metabolic signature of the disease) and patterns of people who do not have the disease. Large numbers of metabolites are analyzed simultaneously, instead of one by one, providing a snapshot into what is happening in the cells at a given time.

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In this first study to investigate the metabonomic signature of celiac disease, blood and urine samples of 34 people with celiac disease were analyzed at the time of diagnosis, which was based on antibody tests and confirmed with biopsies of the small intestine. These patterns were compared to the metabolite patterns of 34 people without celiac disease. Using blood samples, researchers were able to predict celiac disease up to 83% of the time. Analysis of urine samples gave accuracy of about 70%.

These accuracy rates are lower than those achieved with antibody tests, but this is only the first small study and refining the techniques may significantly improve accuracy rates. In addition, analyzing the metabolic signature may lead to a greater understanding of celiac disease and the cause of its various symptoms. For example, results from this study included lower levels of some metabolites such as pyruvate (a product of glucose breakdown) coupled with elevated levels of other metabolites such as glucose and 3-hydroxybutyric acid (a by-product of fat breakdown) in people with celiac disease.

These results suggest a possible explanation for chronic fatigue experienced by up to 87% of patients with celiac disease—a possible impairment in the body’s ability to use glucose for energy. As expected, evidence of altered gut bacteria was also found, as were an increase in metabolites that indicate an increased intestinal permeability (“leaky gut”). After 12 months of a strict gluten-free diet, these altered metabolite patterns reverted to normal.

Metabonomics is an emerging field of study, which like genomics, holds great promise in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases like celiac disease.

Reference:
Bertini I, et al. The metabonomic signature of celiac disease. Journal of Proteome Research. 2008 Dec 11 [Epub ahead of print]

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4 Responses:

 
Deb
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said this on
01 Jan 2009 2:13:42 PM PDT
Great information!

 
Roberta Wall
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said this on
04 Jan 2009 8:04:45 PM PDT
Interesting field of study. The more ways that researchers have to study Celiac Disease, the closer we get to having ways to make our lives easier!

 
Revina
Rating: ratingfullratingfullratingfullratingfullratingfull Unrated
said this on
26 Jun 2009 11:01:48 AM PDT
This study is of great importance to me and my family. I suffer from Diverticulitis, Diabetes, Skin itchiness, Arthritis/ joint problems and Glucomma, also an under active Thyroid. I need help

 
Tina
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said this on
01 Jul 2009 9:35:29 PM PDT
This sounds like a metabolism urine test that was the first test in the discovery of my son's case of celiac.




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Celiac.com Celiac Disease & Gluten-Free Diet Forum - All Activity

I use almond, and coconut a lot now my bakery used to use oat and almond blends. We never used rice, or starches as our goal was to keep it low glycemic. Now days we are transitioning to cut out oats. I started having....ok I omitted and gave in after being in denial a similar reaction to oats (10% of celiacs do if I recall) over a year ago. Anyway as for flour blends premade avoiding rice and grains try simple mills at https://www.simplemills.com/collections/all I have composed a huge list of various gluten-free goods here, even recently updated with grain free, and pizza section https://www.celiac.com/gluten-free/topic/117090-gluten-free-food-alternatives-list/

Hello Everyone, New here and have joined because I couldn't find an answer to my question online. I was diagnosed after a long spell with anemia in 2015 and have been on the diet (and improving!) ever since. But I wonder whether how much rice I'm eating is very healthy. I have always liked to bake and it took awhile to find a flour mix I like (Cup 4 Cup - worth its weight in gold...), but a lot of gluten-free food subs in rice (white rice, brown rice, rice flour) plus I eat actual rice as a side dish. Is this too much? Keep in mind, I also eat salads like it's my job and love making vegetable soups too. Any advice on gluten-free foods (specifically flours) that don't fall back on rice as a substitute? I should add that I can't really get excited about quinoa, despite my best efforts. Thanks in advance.

I would say get retested, to be sure, do a gluten challenge with her where she eats gluten for 12 weeks, not much just a half slice of bread a day or a wheat cracker for the blood test and 2 weeks for the biopsy. You mentioned bumps, and dry patches...this might be DH from celiacs and if it is you can go to a dermatologist and they can test it. In some people with DH reactions to gluten, their intestines do not show much damage as most of the antibodies are directed elsewhere. In this case you would have your symptoms. Now Celiac is a autoimmune disease that commonly has other auto immune diseases associated with it. NOW if your daughter has the gene for it she could have another automimmune disease I am not very familiar with and someone else might be able to help you more on suggestions for testing. Now in my personal opinion it sounds like she was still getting into gluten when you said she was off of it. NOTE gluten is a tricky bugger, it is a protein smaller then a germ that can stick in cracks and scratches on all your utensils, food prep area, knifes, etc. As a flour it can hang in the air for hours and even be inhaled effecting some of us. It is present in a lot of things we do not consider, like makeup, playdough, shampoos, seasonings, sauces, even some dry wall spackles. Now if she is in a shared house hold with other kids and not everyone is on this diet she has likely been getting into gluten somewhere, like touching glutened surfaces the other kids touched after eating gluten foods then putting her hand in her mouth or on safe foods. Or just randomly eating gluten foods, note symptoms can last weeks and wane from how it is effecting you. It does not take much to trigger symptoms you might have to be more careful and move her to a whole foods only diet, and have a separate prep area, utensils, cooking zone for her if you wish to keep fixing separate meals for her vs the gluten family. I would suggest just changing the entire family over, anyway perhaps start with a separate fold out table, use freezer paper to line the prep area, a microwave, mini toaster oven, and some microwave cook ware like steamers, steam bags, etc. and using gloves to fix her meals. She will need her own condiment jars (crumbs in hte jars) and area for safe snacks. I would suggest getting her only gluten-free CERTIFIED FOODS for now. You can find some whole food healthy snacks at mygerbs.com, and a few other places. I will provide a link to gluten-free food list. PERHAPS you can change the entire family over....now days it is more like changing brands as everything you used to eat is available in a gluten-free brand. ALSO have a lot of dairy free options there. https://www.celiac.com/gluten-free/topic/117090-gluten-free-food-alternatives-list/

Hi wondering if someone could help. my daughter has mildly raised TTG levels and the gliadine levels, she has one Coeliacs gene, but her biopsy came back negative. We have kept her off gluten (and low dairy) for nearly a year to see if her symptoms improved. They haven't. But I don't know if they are related to gluten specifically. Just wondering if anyone has other suggestions that may be going on with her. Her symptoms are: - Short stature, she's nearly 9 and my 6 year old boy is nearly bigger than her - bumps on back of her arms - urine leaking and occasional soiled pants, which could be from constipation she has at time's - sticking out stomach - dry patchy rashes on her face - joint pain sporadically - vomits every 6 weeks, but hasn't had gluten and seems to be no food connection - reoccurring thrush She had gluten last night at a party and was fine today. I'm a bit lost and not sure where else to turn. Thanks for any help.

We have gone gluten free, our whole house, as of a month ago. It was pretty seamless since I had been gluten-free for 5 months last year. I have found many good recipes, and my picky husband and one of my boys who is also a picky eater, even prefer many gluten-free recipes to the regular ones. My husband did see my point about the size of the gluten protein means nothing. Its a gluten protein period, that's what you are avoiding. It doesn't matter if its hiding in the scratch of your baking sheet and you can't see it. You can't see the wind, but it's still there. I hear you on the anemia. I've been anemic for several years, I just thought it as because I was getting a little older. Has your anemia gone away or do you still have problems with it?