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Gluten Sensitivity and Depression

This article originally appeared in the Spring 2009 edition of Journal of Gluten Sensitivity.

Celiac.com 03/02/2009 - Patients with depression are told they have a chemical imbalance.  If someone else in their family is also depressed, the “gene card” is played.  “Your depression is genetic”, they are told.

I have been in practice for over 20 years and I find the above data to be false.  Consistently we find patients who are suffering from depression and anxiety to be gluten sensitive. How could a food cause depression?  Let’s take a look.

After the digestive tract, the most commonly affected system to be affected by gluten is the nervous system. It is thought that depression can be caused by gluten in one of two ways.  

The first area addresses the inflammatory changes gluten can cause. A gluten sensitive individual’s immune system responds to the protein gliadin.  Unfortunately, that protein is similar in structure to other proteins present in the body, including those of the brain and nerve cells. A cross reactivity can occur whereby the immune system “confuses” proteins in the body for the protein gliadin.  This is called cellular mimicry and the result is the body attacking it’s own tissues with inflammation resulting. When inflammation happens in the brain and nervous system, a variety of symptoms can occur, including depression. Research shows us that patients with symptoms involving the nervous system suffer from digestive problems only 13% of the time.  This is significant because mainstream medicine equates gluten sensitivity almost exclusively with digestive complaints.

In a study examining blood flow to the brain, 15 patients with untreated celiac disease were compared to 15 patients treated with a gluten-free diet for a year.  The findings were amazing. In the untreated group, 73% had abnormalities in brain circulation by testing while only 7% in the treated group showed any abnormalities. The patients with the brain circulation problems were frequently suffering from anxiety and depression as well.

In addition to circulation problems, other research looks at the association between gluten sensitivity and its interference with protein absorption.  Specifically the amino acid tryptophan can be deficient. Tryptophan is a protein in the brain responsible for a feeling of well-being and relaxation. A deficiency can be correlated to feelings of depression and anxiety.

Our society is too willing to accept a “chemical imbalance” as an explanation for their symptoms and instead of getting to the root cause of the condition, simply swallow a pill – a pill that in the case of anti-depressants has very dangerous and sometimes lethal side effects.

The frequency with which we are able to successfully taper patients off their anti-depressants is considered “unbelievable” to many mainstream doctors, yet we do it regularly.  How is that possible?  We actually diagnose the root cause of the depression.  Frequently the culprit is gluten, and in such cases a gluten-free diet is the main path to recovery.

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41 Responses:

 
Kristen
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said this on
10 Mar 2009 9:52:51 AM PST
Great article! It is very encouraging to read about atypical symptoms of gluten sensitivity, it is important for people to know that digestive problems are not the only symptoms.

 
laura
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said this on
10 Mar 2009 2:13:11 PM PST
Fantastic article. I was diagnosed with celiac disease a year ago with few digestive symptoms. Looking back on my year I feel like I've finally come out of a depression that lasted for years and I know it is due to cutting out the gluten. I would love to read the study.

 
Dr Vikki Petersen
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said this on
11 Mar 2009 4:28:46 PM PST
To answer Laura's request to be able to read the study I quoted in the above article, here it is:
G. Addolorado, 'Regional Cerebral Hypoperfusion in Patients with Celiac Disease,' The American Journal Of Medicine 116 (2004):312-7.
The data truly is amazing. Enjoy!

To your good health,
Dr Vikki Petersen

 
Susan
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said this on
23 Nov 2010 7:49:00 PM PST
Dr. Petersen...I do not have celiac disease, but I have a gluten intolerance and I don't know why this link isn't spoken about. Sugar also factors in and taking Seroquel you crave the gluten. It is a horrible circle. I live with an 85 year old mother that eats gluten and has depression. I am finding it impossible to stay off wheat while it is in the house. It is like alcohol. I have found an anti-imflamation supplement that is gastly in taste. I have had great success in the past and then horrible failure and I don't know how people stay on the wagon.

 
Amber
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said this on
12 Mar 2009 7:12:36 AM PST
Wonderful article. It's time for society to wake up and stop sweeping our troubles under a rug. Let's get rid of the 'band-aid concept' all together.

 
laura
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said this on
13 Mar 2009 12:25:20 AM PST
THANK YOU Dr. Petersen! This article is potentially life saving for those of us who suffer from severe mood disorders. It is wonderful to realize that I am coming 'out of the dark' in regards to my bipolar disorder. Just yesterday, I tested positive to gluten intolerance. Frankly, I was not surprised. If this is indeed the reason for my mood instability, then I have found the missing piece to the puzzle I have fought two decades to solve. I just wish the word would spread faster! So many that are suffering from 'Bandaid treatment'-which helps very little and hinders a lot-could stop the dead end cycle of 'cures' that actually do harm. Doctors need to give this study more credit and help their patients have more hope for improvement and possible recovery. A life time of psychiatric pills should be saved as a last resort.

 
Rachel
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said this on
17 Mar 2009 1:12:00 PM PST
This is wonderful insight! I've been handed the 'gene card' many times. Interestingly enough, many of my family also are sensitive to milk and wheat and high gluten grains. My husband has been eating a low gluten diet and 'coincidentally' my mental health has been better. Thank you Dr. Petersen for sharing this info with us!

 
Hal
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said this on
03 Apr 2009 6:53:50 AM PST
Very good article and I can attest to the feelings of depression brought on by gluten. Trouble is they don't bother to test people with depression who haven't already been branded with the CS or Gluten allergy/intolerance, and treat them drugs.

 
Sage
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said this on
27 Jul 2009 9:05:47 PM PST
This was my first visit to the site, well written article. I suffer from Bi polar, diagnosed 4 years ago, and CS 6 months ago. I always new something wasn't right, and 2 years ago they said I had migraines! I am starting nursing school soon and I hope that more doctors look at diagnosing from more than just one angle. I know I will be researching it further to find out how much is part of the mood disorder and how much is CS for my Bi Polar. The migraines are gone since I went gluten-free. Once again, Thank you, it is hard to find good info. and your providing the journal where we can read the original findings adds to your credit.

 
Julie
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said this on
15 Aug 2009 10:09:04 PM PST
Finally an answer that has taken me over 30 years to find! I have suffered with episodes of severe depression since I was 14 years old. I knew there had to be a link to my diet but couldn't find the key ingredient. Even after I was diagnosed with gluten intolerance at age 28 no one told me about the link to depression so I continued the search. Now I know I am not going crazy and have proof to show everyone else.

 
Rusty
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said this on
04 Nov 2009 7:49:40 PM PST
I never knew this. I still have some slight amount of gluten in my diet, with most removed. Been this way for three years and my health has improved dramatically, with no overt symptoms for quite some time. However, I have had problems with anxiety and occasional depression which did not make much sense. Now it does. Looks like it's time to remove the last instances of gluten from my diet.

 
monica ryan
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said this on
16 Dec 2009 4:06:01 AM PST
I read about the link about gluten and depression. I ate a gluten-free diet and within two days my depression was gone. I had no physical symptoms of a gluten sensitivity. A food allergy test did not show up gluten as a problem and I am not celiac. I am so relieved!

 
Dr Vikki Petersen
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said this on
22 Dec 2009 10:43:41 AM PST
That's great Monica. It is truly miraculous sometimes the speed with which the inflammation of the nervous system will abate when gluten is removed.

I just wish more people knew of the association.

Best,
Dr Vikki Petersen

 
Jim
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said this on
16 Dec 2009 3:17:58 PM PST
I have suffered tremendously for two years now with severe anxiety and depression. I lost everything i.e house, career, credit rating and my mind. Just got diagnosed GS last week and was so relieved by articles like this one! I know going gluten free is tough, but I am willing to do anything to improve my mental/emotional health.

 
Dr Vikki Petersen
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said this on
22 Dec 2009 10:41:28 AM PST
I'm so glad that you got diagnosed Jim. Hang in there. Going gluten-free is totally worth it.
Let me know how you're doing and if you need anything.
Best,
Dr Vikki Petersen

 
M. Boogaart, ND, FNP-BC
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said this on
21 Jan 2010 6:26:30 AM PST
As a Family Nurse Practitioner for 13 years with quite a bit of psychiatric experience, I agree that depression may in some cases be related to celiac disease. But it is important to remember that there are usually a significant combination of causes that lead to mood disorders, such a nutritional deficiencies, as well as life events and stressors, and genetics. Not all depressed/anxious patients have celiac disease as you suggest in you article. I would not be too quick to write off the role of genetic pre-disposition as a contributing factor to mood disorders- you also suggest this is "false data". Where is the data?

 
John
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said this on
01 Dec 2010 9:44:18 PM PST
I certainly agree with M. Boogaart causes of mood disorders can include nutritional deficiencies and genetics. I would also like to point out that gluten sensitivities (especially celiac) are genetic (the 'gene card' could still be genes - but for gluten sensitivities) and can cause nutritional deficiencies (antibodies killing off the villi in the small intestine, which are what absorbs nutrients). As for life events and stressors, they can be a factor of the mood, but they don't contribute to mood disorders, even if they manifest them.

 
adriana
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said this on
14 Jun 2012 1:32:32 PM PST
Your statement..."Where is the data?" It's all over this page. Even without research, individuals are proving good results. It's sad to learn that hard work and invested time in your particular studies will most definitely be affected by this newfound knowledge.

 
Steven Sommerfeld D.D.S.
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said this on
01 Feb 2010 7:50:21 AM PST
I agree with the last comment, my son is 12 and diagnosed with celiac disease 4 1/2 years ago. He also suffers from depression and anxiety. Some of the symptoms of depression did seem to change for the positive when switching to gluten free, but the diet was not the only answer. He takes medication now, which has made a world of difference, so the effectiveness and need of these medications cannot be discounted, if anything, we feel like we waited to long before starting him on it (the meds). So I feel it is reasonable to incorporate medication as well as a gluten free diet to minimize the effects of celiac disease and associated depression. He also works with a psychotherapist who gives him methods of dealing with the depression and anxiety.

 
Tammy
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said this on
26 Sep 2011 11:00:38 AM PST
Steven, thank you for your comment. I have a 10 year old son who was diagnosed with celiac at age 5. His diet is perfect and within the past year he has shown serious signs of depression. I have been so concerned because many people say that eating GF will cure depression. I have wondered why it is not working for my boy. Thank you for your comment. I am taking him to see a psychologist this week and am praying that he can help my son.

 
admin
( Author)
said this on
27 Sep 2011 10:57:11 AM PST
Depression can have a number of causes besides gluten, and seeking medical help is a good idea in your case. Also consider other food intolerance issues like dairy, corn, soy, etc., and make sure that his diet is 100% gluten free.

 
Shirley
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said this on
02 Feb 2010 3:40:56 AM PST
I was recently diagnosed with gluten/sprue allergy.I knew there had to be a reason for years of anxiety and depression and so many other problems.I cant wait to start this journey of gluten free to feel better. Thank You!

 
daniknik
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said this on
21 Mar 2010 8:50:48 AM PST
I have had digestive problems since birth and was diagnosed with depression at age 14. I began taking anti-depressants while in college around age 20 and am now 29. After years of declining health, I went through blood and stool testing and which identified my genetic predisposition to celiac/gluten sensitivity and other food intolerance's (I carry DQ8 and DQ6 genes). Four months ago I began a gluten-free, casein free, soy free, egg free, and nightshade free diet and in that time my quality of life has improved dramatically. In fact, at my last doctor's appointment I was able to cut my depression medications in half and I may be able to get off of them completely in the next year. While I can't guarantee I'll be able to quit the medications, I've definitely seen an improvement beyond what medication alone could achieve and that is a godsend!

 
Bonnie
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said this on
03 Jun 2010 9:46:13 AM PST
My 22 year old son was diagnosed last year with celiac disease but we never knew that his anxiety, depression, ADHD, mood swings and anger were all intertwined with gluten intolerance. After a year being gluten-free you would never know he was the same person - amazing. Thank you for such an educational article.

 
curtisbedowin
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said this on
14 Dec 2010 6:25:38 PM PST
I was off of gluten for about 3 months and didn't realize how my depression had just gone away. Because I started the testing process with my doctor, I started eating gluten again and Oh dear... did it all come back with a vengeance. I find myself going to sleep crying, waking up crying, overreacting about everything, beating myself up over being such a mess to the point I start it all over again. I am having my endoscopy in just less than a month and I'm counting the days. I feel desperate to give up the gluten, yet want the tests to be accurate. It seems so crazy that my GI doc said he couldn't help with the depression, only the digestive issues. So many specialists just don't understand, but I know this is true... and so does my family! May God truly bless them for being so patient with me!

 
Julian
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said this on
20 Jan 2011 2:45:15 PM PST
curtisbedowin , I wouldn't wait for a medical test, accurate or not it might not be useful. Just go gluten free right away & see how your life changes.

 
Amy
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said this on
28 Dec 2010 4:43:18 PM PST
This is very intersting. I have been off gluten and dairy for about 3 months now but don't feel any better, and maybe feel worse. I am wondering how long it would be before one would know if this kind of diet is helpful for mental health disorders.

 
Jim
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said this on
29 Jan 2011 12:07:07 PM PST
You know, it could be that you're REALLY sensitive to gluten and you're consuming "gluten-free" grain products which is a misleading term for grain products because a food made from oats, for instance, and labeled “gluten-free” must contain less than 20 ppm gluten.
Maybe you could try cutting grains out all together?

 
Wen
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said this on
25 Feb 2011 5:00:17 AM PST
Thank you for posting this article. I am fairly new to all of this. I have had seasonal allergies all my life. This past fall I attempted to go vegetarian and had increased my wheat consumption with it. I Within two weeks of no meat I was having severe stomach issues. Nothing was ever found.. Sonograms and doctors visits. I just happened to cut out all pasta, bread and sweets and within a few weeks my stomach was better.

More important to note before the stomach issues happened...I had started having dizziness and anxiety. Never have I had this
Problem. My doctor did not link this to my stomach. Not only dis my stomach heal but my mood began improving within a few months of just about no gluten. One of my doctors told me to start eating normally. I went for it.... Within 5 days of cereal and 4-5 servings of bread I had the side discomfort and my brain fog had come back. I did have the blood panel done.. And was tested for vitamin deficiencies as I am also positive for Vitamin d deficiency. I don't care so much about the blood panel at this point. I want to know about deficiency. I went back gluten free 2 days ago an am not going back.

 
Jane
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said this on
07 Apr 2011 7:26:31 PM PST
I took a month Jan 1 to 31 to go gluten free. No sugar,no grains except rice no juice, no coffee, no tea, no bread. Only chicken and turkey. I hated the diet I needed bread. I needed pasta. I was so glad at the end of the month to return to my real world of Pasta bread and anything but foul.
I found within a few days a new freedom. My brain fog lifted.I was able to do what I wanted to do without that little voice in my head that said NO!
Still with all of that I started good news I returned to my pasta and my bread and within a short time I was lost in a world of second guessing every thing I did.
Could it be true ? Could I have such a reaction ? I sleep at the top of waking, can't sleep , I am nervous irritable, can't make a decision without second guessing it.
So now I will give up the Pasta and the bread and the snacks. I hate gluten free anything! the gluten bread is horrible, the pasta is no better than the bread.
I need to mention here that I have never had a weight problem, and never have I eaten anything I didn't like.
Still I will do it. I can't live with such depression and anxiety. Also I have always had digestion problems, always.

 
Marv
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said this on
08 Apr 2011 8:50:01 AM PST
Hi I just want to you to know that I'm suffering from anxiety and depression from my teenage years and now I'm fed-up with this. My mother and sisters have the same problem . Some times I feel my life has no worth, feel so low and little tasks seem so big. I'm desperately wanted to know what are the reasons behind this anxiety. I want to be free from this. After reading this article should I immediately go for the gluten-free diet? I'm not a celiac patient but am gluten intolerant, but I would love to go for this diet if it prevents me from this anxiety permanently. Please help me and my family.

 
Lisa
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said this on
18 May 2011 3:47:03 PM PST
Dr. Vicki! I think I love you!

 
healing123
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said this on
19 Aug 2011 3:47:14 PM PST
Thank you for the article. It was a video that you posted, that changed our lives, and saved my son's life. He became severely depressed, and what an up hill battle it was , as all the doctors, psychiatrist, counselors, would not believe, that gluten was the issue. They would share, give him comfort food, yet that food was the culprit. After seeing your video, that yes, gluten can trigger depression, we went gluten free 100 percent, the behaviors stopped. We met with a functional doctor and he is helping with overgrowth of yeast, as well. The doctor we see, actually told, us, I didn't believe you, as we went back each month, and he could see the change. We are still healing the gut, and any exposure to gluten, brings it all back. Keep posting, and including research, as I can then bring it to my doctor to share. Thank you, for the articles and video. It was validating, and helped me be an advocate for my teen. Thank you

 
julie
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said this on
14 Sep 2011 6:48:10 AM PST
I feel much better since I cut off gluten in my diet, happier and more stable. Try coconut flour to cook with, it is amazing...quinoa and rice are good too!

 
Wishful Spirit
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said this on
10 Oct 2011 11:02:45 AM PST
I found the scientific information in this article quite helpful, am I'm thrilled to hear that a gluten free diet has helped people with depression. However, the "one size fits all" perspective bothers me. Depression is a complex condition and no one solution works everyone.

Antidepressants, especially SSRIs, are not nearly as dangerous as this article makes out, though all medications present risks and patients should discuss these with their primary care doctors.

People who have had bad experienced tend to talk about it more than people who have had good experiences, like me. I can honestly say Prozac saved my life and my sanity. For those who haven't experienced full relief from therapy or dietary changes, I'd recommend it.

 
bill
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said this on
20 Oct 2011 11:06:14 AM PST
I know too well how gluten effects the body and mind. After years of doctors' BS, I tested positive for gluten sensitivity and went on a gluten free diet, which helped a little. One day my wife said did you know (beer) has wheat, rye, barley all gluten. After a week or so of no beer, I noticed I was feeling better, my wife said I looked better and its been getting better everyday. PS mercury fillings are big reason for a lot of illness, I had mine replaced and what a difference.

 
Chris
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said this on
02 Nov 2011 5:16:53 PM PST
I have suffered for years with anxiety, depression, and fatigue. I found out a week ago I had a gluten and lactose intolerance, and my symptoms disappeared over night.

 
Kristin
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said this on
27 Nov 2011 2:12:40 PM PST
I thought I was gluten-free and that it was the answer, but I had some serious depression and anxiety lately. Could dairy also contribute? Anytime I fast I feel great. I just don't know what specific allergies I do have. I don't have any money right now, so please don't tell me to go see a functional wellness practitioner. I will when I am back on my feet . The problem is that the mood swings ruin your life and when you are picking up the pieces, you can't afford the help that you need. I went through one of the top 3 hospital programs in the country and guess what...I spent most of my days eating graham crackers, cookies and coke of which they had an ample supply. They HAVE NO CLUE! They medicated me and sent me home. It was the Ultra Simple diet that saved my life. I am off track again. I was almost ready to take the pills they wanted me to take...all at once, when I decided to try going back to that plan...remove all junk food, sugar, gluten, dairy, soy, eggs and see if I can get on track. I can't count how many times I have picked myself back up. I am so sick of it.

So if I go clean...how long does it take? Can anyone give me 2 decades of my life back? Please? Maybe the hospital should. They are supposed to help. For me, their program would be free. Ironic, huh? I have a job now and if I stay clean (Sound like an alcoholic here...bread is like that for me) then I hope to have the money to get a functional doctor or naturopath to help me. Last time, I did the diet for 2 months and started feeling strange. I needed help and couldn't afford it. Ok. Enough rambling. Thanks so much for this article and all these helpful posts!!!!

 
Amy Staple
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said this on
28 Jun 2013 12:40:47 PM PST
This article is a bit frightening, as one may assume their depression will disappear if they eliminate gluten from their diet. I am and have been on a gluten-free diet since 2005. It changed my life. Our food choices most definitely make a difference in how we feel. My asthma disappeared, my body aches, and my allergies. In 2010, still eating gluten free, I found myself in the hospital for planning my suicide. I still eat gluten-free, and I "pop" a pill that helps alleviate depression. What comes first, mental illness or celiac disease? The chicken or the egg?

 
W. RoBards, RN, ND
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said this on
09 Dec 2013 6:38:29 PM PST
I was diagnosed with gluten intolerance through genetic testing and a stool test for gliadin. I have improved by following a gluten-free diet. I have a 45 year history of major depression/anxiety. Following a gluten free diet did not completely free me of depression/anxiety, but I also have candidiasis which has affected my entire gastrointestinal tract and crossed the blood brain barrier. This condition was caused by the many antibiotics I received since childhood, steroids for inflammation and eating too much sugar. Candidiasis causes malabsorption issues/dysbiosis and the proper neurotransmitters don't reach the synapses of the brain, hence, depression/anxiety/fatigue/insomnia, etc. I have to take large doses of amino acids. So if going gluten free does not alleviate your "neurotransmitter deficiency disorder", please consider an overgrowth of yeast/fungi. Most physicians don't recognize this condition, but as a Reg. Nurse and Naturopath, I know it's real.

 
Stacy

said this on
25 Jul 2014 8:13:12 AM PST
Even if the cause is gluten, it is still a "chemical imbalance." Additionally, if you are so "imbalanced" that one single thing, gluten, can throw you off that much then you still have a problem. Most disorders, including depression, can be largely managed with lifestyle changes (diet and exercise) for those who are willing to make the change. Often some medications are still necessary, but at much lower doses and therefore fewer side effects. Claiming gluten free will fix all that ails you is just as bad a claiming medication is the only answer. Few physicians actually claim that, it is the patient who wants the "magic pill" to fix everything rather than changing their diet and going to the gym.




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