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Study Points Toward Better Gluten-free Bread

Celiac.com 05/15/2009 - Certain proteins found in the gluten of wheat, rye and barley trigger adverse responses in people with gluten intolerance and celiac disease. This happens when the offending gluten proteins encounter the immune systems of susceptible individuals, triggering a CD4+ T-cell mediated immune response, together with inflammation of the small intestine. However, a number of gluten proteins contain no T-cell stimulatory epitopes, and so trigger no such adverse immune response. So, not all gluten is equally offensive to celiacs, and some may be both well tolerated and useful for making better bread.

Gluten proteins are found in multiple gene sites on chromosomes 1 and 6 of the three different genomes of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) (AABBDD).

Gluten is the stuff that makes bread delightfully chewy, among other desirable properties, so being able to successfully incorporate non-offending gluten into bread recipes might yield better breads that are safe for consumption by folks with celiac disease. Obviously, being able to produce high-quality, celiac-safe bread on a commercial scale would be of tremendous benefit for both producers and consumers. Currently, most gluten-free bread contains no gluten, as it has been difficult or impractical to separate the offending proteins from the non-offending proteins.

Recently, a team of researchers based in the Netherlands attempted to  remove celiac disease-related protein from Chinese Spring wheat while maintaining the beneficial bread-baking properties.

The team was made up of Hetty C. van den Broeck, Teun W. J. M. van Herpen, Cees Schuit, Elma M. J. Salentijn, Liesbeth Dekking, Dirk Bosch, Rob J. Hamer, Marinus J. M. Smulders, Ludovicus J. W. J. Gilissen and Ingrid M. van der Meer.

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The team used a set of deletion lines of Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring to assess the results of removing individual gluten sites on both the level of the T-cell stimulatory epitope in the gluten proteome and the favorable qualities of the flour.

To measure the reduction of T-cell stimulatory epitopes, the team used monoclonal antibodies that recognize T-cell epitopes contained in gluten proteins. They then clinically tested the deletion lines for their dough mixing properties and dough composition.

The team's attempts to remove the alpha-gliadin site from the short arm of chromosome 6 of the D-genome (6DS) yielded in a favorable decrease in the presence of T-cell stimulatory epitopes, but also yielded a significantly loss of favorable baking properties.

However, by deleting the omega-gliadin, gamma-gliadin, and LMW-GS locations from the short arm of chromosome 1 of the D-genome (1DS), researchers were able to strip offending T-cell stimulatory epitopes from the proteome while maintaining technological properties.

The team concludes that their data hold important implications for lowering the quantity of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in wheat, and promoting the creation of celiac-safe wheat varieties that will potentially yield breads of higher quality than currently available.


BMC Plant Biology 2009, 9:41
 

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2 Responses:

 
Tammy
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said this on
03 Jun 2009 4:32:41 AM PDT
Would have been great if the author would have gone one step further and listed the grains which contain the less offending gluten, which he mentioned in the first paragraph.

 
Jared
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said this on
04 Jun 2009 2:38:18 PM PDT
Nice! I hope it makes for better beer, too. The sorghum beers just don't do it for me.




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you're lucky you dont catch colds. im the opposite i catch everything very easily and get alot sicker than whoever i caught it from and take much longer to get better.

Even one positive can be diagnostic. This is one: Gliadin deamidated peptide IgG 33.9. If unsure, a biopsy of the small intestine will provide definite confirmation. There is a control test to validate the other ones, but I don't see it there. What is does is validate the others by checking on the overall antibody levels. But it is to detect possible false negatives. A positive is a positive. I think your daughter has joined our club.

My daughter, almost 7 years old, recently had a lot of blood work done, her Dr is out of the office, but another Dr in the practice said everything looked normal. I'm waiting for her Dr to come back and see what she thinks. I'm concerned because there is one abnormal result and I can't find info to tell me if just that one test being abnormal means anything. The reason for the blood work is mainly because of her poor growth, though she does have some other symptoms. IgA 133 mg/dl Reference range 33-200 CRP <2.9 same as reference range Gliadin Deamidated Peptide IgA .4 Reference range <=14.9 Gliadin deamidated peptide IgG 33.9 Reference range <=14.9 TTG IgA .5 Reference range <=14.9 TTG IgG <.8 Reference range <=14.9

Just watch out. I just went to the expo in Schaumburg, IL, and ended up getting glutened. I realized afterward that I ate all these samples thinking they were gluten free, and they weren't. One company was advertising some sugar, and had made some cake, but then I realized.... How do I know if this contains any other ingredients that might have gluten? Did they make it with a blender or utensils that had gluten contamination? Makes me realize the only safe things would be packaged giveaways with gluten free labeling. My fault for not thinking things through. It was just too exciting thinking i could try it all and enjoy without worry.

No fasting required for a celiac blood test unless they were checking your blood glucose levels during the same blood draw.