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Celiac Disease and Toxoplasma Gondii

Celiac.com 12/08/2011 - Researchers have shown that celiac disease and Toxoplasma gondii infection can both cause a strong neutrophil-mediated immune reaction that can have an adverse impact pregnancy outcomes.

In most cases, people with otherwise healthy immune systems who develop toxoplasmosis remain asymptomatic, but Toxoplasma gondii can trigger both chronic infection and abortion in adults, as well as fatal illness in patients with immune deficiencies.

In addition, interleukin-8 (IL8) is known to selectively stimulate the ability of tissue that has been injured or inflamed by neutrophil and T lymphocytes.

To determine a possible connection between celiac disease and Toxoplasma
gondii, the research team recruited 827 pregnant women.

On average, the team took samples 5.5 months into pregnancy, and used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine Toxoplasma-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM (Trinity-Biotech Toxo IgG & IgM, NY).

To assess IL8 levels, they used human IL8/ NAP-1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Bender MedSystems, Vienna, Austria, in accordance with manufacturer's instructions as well as IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies for celiac disease as described previously.

After childbirth, those patients satisfied for follow-up who tested positive for anti-tissue transglutaminase submitted to biopsy specimens. The team evaluated biopsies using Marsh-Rostami classification.

AJGIn all,  27 subjects (3.3 % confidence interval: 1.2 – 4.3) tested positive for anti-tissue transglutaminase. Those patients averaged 27 years of age, and 4.8 months mean pregnancy. Eight of the 27 celiac disease-serology positive subjects submitted to endoscopy. Six of them showed abnormal histology, including two Marsh I, three Marsh IIIa, and one Marsh IIIc.

Overall, one hundred and fifty-four women (31% ) and 58 (7% ) pregnant women showed positive results for total IgG and IgM for Toxoplasma gondii serology, respectively.

Notably, 16 out of 27 (59%) celiac disease-serology positive subjects were infected by T. gondii compared with 257 out of 800 (32%) non-celiac disease pregnant women (odd ratio = 3.07, 95% confidence interval: 1.4 – 6.7)

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This finding highlights an important relationship between incidences of celiac disease-serology and Toxoplasma gondii ( P = 0.04).

Three patients with Marsh I, IIIa, and IIIc also positive IgG showed Toxoplasma gondii infections.

Regardless of their celiac disease status, patients infected with toxoplasma gondii showed elevated levels of IL8, especially IgM positive patients.

Results showed that positive celiac disease or Toxoplasma gondii blood screens were connected to poor pregnancy outcomes.

In all, 9 of 27, or 33.4%, of test subjects with positive celiac disease-serology showed poor medical histories, while more than half of had either previously miscarried (4/9) or produced low birth weight babies (3/9).

Thus, the researchers point out that positive celiac disease-serology correlated with greater risk of low birth weights and miscarriages regardless of T. gondii status.

The results of this study show patients with positive celiac disease-serology had higher overall rates of Toxoplasma gondii infection rates than did those with negative celiac disease serology, but celiac disease did not trigger increase in proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL8.

This suggests that celiac disease may increase the risk of Toxoplasma gondii infection.

From these observations, the research team proposes that celiac disease predisposes individuals to Toxoplasma gondii infection and may promote distribution of the ingested Toxoplasma gondii oocysts beyond small bowel lesions and might increase sensitivity to gluten in some way.

On the other hand, the presence of Toxoplasma gondii may promote the celiac disease in susceptible individuals. This is in keeping with prior studies that suggest that other enteric infections may promote celiac disease among susceptible individuals.

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2 Responses:

 
stephanie gorkowski
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said this on
12 Dec 2011 4:31:50 PM PDT
Excellent article, will copy and take to my gastro next week, upper endoscopy, Tuesday!!! Also Dr. Roger Greenlaw of Rockford gastroenterologists just retired last year and he has tried all medications on me since 1975 when I got Crohn's at birth of 2nd child! Then told she would have died if Crohn's had started a little earlier!!!! I was the last child of 2 girls, now she has it and lung and esinophils and asthma symptoms, with severe mucus on lungs!!!

 
Andrew
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said this on
29 Dec 2011 5:20:10 PM PDT
This may tie in with research noted by William Davis MD in his new book, "Wheat Belly," linking schizophrenia to wheat consumption. Also elevated Interleukin 8 levels in mothers have been linked to increased schizophrenia in offspring. Wheat induced zonulin may make the blood brain barrier more permeable and more susceptible to impact also.




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Hi wondering if someone could help. my daughter has mildly raised TTG levels and the gliadine levels, she has one Coeliacs gene, but her biopsy came back negative. We have kept her off gluten (and low dairy) for nearly a year to see if her symptoms improved. They haven't. But I don't know if they are related to gluten specifically. Just wondering if anyone has other suggestions that may be going on with her. Her symptoms are: - Short stature, she's nearly 9 and my 6 year old boy is nearly bigger than her - bumps on back of her arms - urine leaking and occasional soiled pants, which could be from constipation she has at time's - sticking out stomach - dry patchy rashes on her face - joint pain sporadically - vomits every 6 weeks, but hasn't had gluten and seems to be no food connection - reoccurring thrush She had gluten last night at a party and was fine today. I'm a bit lost and not sure where else to turn. Thanks for any help.

We have gone gluten free, our whole house, as of a month ago. It was pretty seamless since I had been gluten-free for 5 months last year. I have found many good recipes, and my picky husband and one of my boys who is also a picky eater, even prefer many gluten-free recipes to the regular ones. My husband did see my point about the size of the gluten protein means nothing. Its a gluten protein period, that's what you are avoiding. It doesn't matter if its hiding in the scratch of your baking sheet and you can't see it. You can't see the wind, but it's still there. I hear you on the anemia. I've been anemic for several years, I just thought it as because I was getting a little older. Has your anemia gone away or do you still have problems with it?

Ennis, it is made out of metal, coated with plastic I think. You have such a hard time, my heart really hurts for you. But you are such a support to those on this board, and a great teacher for those of us who are new.

Thanks everyone! I think its hard for people to fully accept because they cant see the damage it does every time you get glutened. It's invisible. Im glad to know I wasnt being paranoid. I sure was when I was first diagnosed. I laugh at myself now, but its a pretty steep learning curve.

FYI......anxiety is a common symptom with celiac disease and NCGI. It seems to resolve on a gluten-free diet. ?