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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    ARE CHEERIOS REALLY "NOT SAFE FOR CELIACS?" OR IS GENERAL MILLS GETTING A BAD RAP?


    Jefferson Adams


    • Journal of Gluten Sensitivity Autumn 2017 Issue


    Celiac.com 09/01/2017 - A recent story by Buzzfeed does little to answer the question of whether Cheerios and other General Mills cereals are actually gluten-free and safe for people with celiac disease.


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    There are a number of folks in the gluten-free community who complain that General Mills is making people sick by selling Cheerios that they know to be contaminated with gluten due to a faulty sorting process. Because General Mills uses a flawed sorting process, the story goes, their boxes of Cheerios are subject to gluten "hot spots," which is making some gluten-sensitive folks sick, thus the complaints.

    They point to regular complaints logged by the FDA to argue that Cheerios are clearly not gluten-free, and thus not safe for people with celiac disease. Comment sections on articles covering this topic show that plenty of people claim that Cheerios makes them sick, and triggers gluten-related symptoms.

    But, one useful measure of the basic scope of an issue is numbers. What kind of numbers are we talking about? How many complaints? How many boxes of Cheerios?

    It's important to realize that General Mills produces huge numbers of Cheerios each week. How many exactly? Well, according to their website, General Mills ships 500,000 cases of Cheerios each week. At about 12 boxes per case, that's about 6 million boxes each week, or 24 million boxes each month.

    We know that the FDA received a number of consumer complaints in 2015, when a mix-up at a Cheerios plant in California led to mass gluten contamination, and eventually to a full recall of 1.8 million boxes by General Mills.

    During that three month period, after the gluten contamination but prior to the recall, when many consumers were eating Cheerios made with wheat flour, the FDA says it received 136 complaints about adverse reactions to the product. So, during the 90 days when we know there was gluten contamination in nearly 2 million boxes of Cheerios, when people were definitely having gluten reactions, the FDA got 136 complaints. During that time General Mills shipped about 72 million boxes, and later recalled nearly 2 million of those due to gluten contamination. That's a complaint rate of about one complaint per 529,411 total boxes, and about one complaint for every 5,000 people with celiac disease; if each person with celiac ate 1 box, and the complaints came only from people with celiac disease. (Obviously this is simplified assumption for discussion purposes).

    Let's imagine another 2 million gluten-contaminated boxes got to consumers. Again, imagine that 1% of those buyers were celiac, so that 20,000 boxes of the 2 million went to celiacs—one box each. 146 complaints for 20,000 boxes is about 1 complaint per 140 boxes, give or take, for each person with celiac disease. That seems like a substantial complaint rate. So, how does that rate compare to the current rate, after the recall?

    Since the beginning of 2016, the FDA has received 46 reports of people with celiac disease or sensitivity to gluten or wheat linking their illness to General Mills cereals, including Cheerios and Lucky Charms.

    Let's forget about Lucky Charms for a minute, let's focus on Cheerios. During the 18 months from January 2016 to July 2017, General Mills has shipped something like 450 million boxes. That's about one complaint for every 10 million boxes of Cheerios, or about one complaint for every 100,000 people with celiac disease.

    And those numbers don't include Lucky Charms, which account for some portion of the 46 complaints since early 2016. If General Mills is having an issue with sorting oats, then why have complaint ratios gone down so sharply?

    Also, General Mills uses its optically sorted gluten-free oats for other products. The FDA is certainly taking all of this into account. When they get complaints, they look at large amounts of data to help them put things into perspective. Has the FDA seen corresponding numbers of complaints for different General Mills products made from the same oat sorting process? It doesn't seem so.

    Celiac.com has covered the gluten-free Cheerios story from the beginning, and will continue to do so. We stand on the side of science, and accurate information.

    Beyond the obvious gluten-contamination that led to the recall, we have been skeptical of claims that General Mills' sorting process is flawed, and that their products, including Cheerios are routinely contaminated with gluten.

    If this were true, we think the numbers would be very different, and that the pattern of official complaints would reflect that reality. We also feel that General Mills would be facing down lawsuits from hungry trial lawyers looking to put a big trophy on the wall.

    We have simply not seen any good evidence that supports claims that Cheerios and other General Mills products are contaminated with gluten "hotspots" that cause reactions in people with celiac disease. We have also not seen evidence that rules out adverse oat reactions as the cause of many of these claims.

    If someone out there has different numbers, or better information, we are all ears. However, until we see convincing evidence to the contrary, Celiac.com regards Cheerios and other General Mills products as safe for people with celiac disease and gluten-sensitivity. We do offer the caveat that people should trust their own judgement and avoid any food they think makes them sick.

    Stay tuned for more on this and other stories on gluten-free cereals and other products.

    Read more at BuzzFeed.com and GeneralMills.com.


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    Guest Shawn McBride

    Posted

    One very important fact is omitted in this article: Many people with celiac disease stopped buying/eating "gluten-free" Cheerios and oatmeal products after getting sick once. We are not idiots; we do not like being sick and endangering our long-term health; these General Mills products are simply not important enough to us to be worth the risk. If people with celiac disease stopped using the products after being sick once, then how many people are left to complain?

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    Guest Carol Litfin

    Posted

    Thank you for this article. I am a celiac (diagnosed in March 1990. I eat Honey Nut Cheerios every morning and have not had any discomfort whatsoever.

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    I'm in Canada and our standard for gluten-free is more strict then the USA. To label a product gluten-free it must be tested and contain less then 20 ppm. If it doesn't meet or exceed this standard it cannot be labelled gluten-free. Many people with Celiac and Gluten Sensitivity cannot tolerate oats and I think this is where all the complaints are coming from. It's getting blown out of proportion. One person has a reaction and then claims the product is bad - when in reality it is that one person having an adverse reaction to oats. Great article - keep up with the facts. And I do believe Canada gets our Cheerios from the USA plant - which would mean they far exceed the USA's gluten-free Standard of 20 ppm.

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    Guest Paul Battisti

    Posted

    I have celiac and I won't even try Cheerios. My observation would that the reason complaints have gone down is that most people with celiac are not about taking chances with their health. There has been no solid proof that Cheerios are gluten free and what are the chances of another big mistake happening in the future?

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    My daughter has celiac disease and has been eating a lot of Cheerios since they went gluten-free. She has no symptoms and her annual blood check ups have shown no elevations. Are some people perhaps sensitive to Oats? We are thrilled she can eat Cheerios.

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    Why doesn't the FDA or one these other entities claiming General Mills has misbranded the product(s) just test random batches to see if they fall below the threshold of 20 ppm to meet claims of being gluten-free?

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    Just playing devil's advocate here. Since many people with celiac never knew what was making them sick before diagnosis, how can we be sure, when we do feel a bit off on any given day, exactly what it was that caused us to feel off? And, since quite a few with celiac do not become symptomatic right away, some never, and some with different symptoms from any given exposure, I just can't see anything scientific about the determination of safety based on just complaints. I can eat something one day with no problem, then feel sick two days later when I eat it again. Can I be sure that one thing was the cause? No. And I would not make a complaint to a company based off that. Maybe a lot of others do the same. Bottom line, if an oat containing food is not made with certified gluten free oats on dedicated equipment within a dedicated facility, there could be a problem. We live with a certain level of risk every day. People deserve to be able to determine what level is acceptable to them based on facts. So, give them the facts about ingredients and how the food is processed and let them decide what is safe for them and what is not.

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    Thinking outside the box, there are other possibilities why those with celiac disease and NCGS may react to Cheerios. Note, for example, that Cheerios is shelved among traditional gluten cereals at the store. Once at the store, normal handling, from shelving to checkout, exposes the packages to additional external cross-contamination. It may be insignificant for many, but not all. I have personally (albeit, anecdotally) experienced this problem with packaged gluten-free bread stuffed among the wheat bread sold at a day-old outlet store. Another consideration is that some celiacs react to certified-gluten-free oats. Personally (again, anecdotally) I react to gluten-free oats with celiac symptoms when I exceed a certain amount in a certain time period, yet my blood work comes back negative for gluten in my system. Another alternative explanation is that some people experience a reaction when a new food is introduced, especially a processed food. Finally, with respect to processed foods and foods with more than five ingredients. like Cheerios, there is the chance that a reaction to any one or combination of the other ingredients may occur. The caveat noted in the article is one to live by!

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    This article is not scientific and the conclusion is absurd. First, the proper comparison would be between the number of complaints on Cherrios and those on another gluten-free cereal. I would imagine that there are cereals where millions of boxes have been shipped and there are no complaints of this sort. Secondly, in order to conclude that Cherrios are (even likely) gluten-free, you have to explain the complaints. Are people lying? Are they wrong? If so, why? You have to allege that every single complaint is from a person who is in fact not being contaminated with enough gluten to cause any unusual (for them) reaction, or that they are being affected, and it is only because they are so sensitive that 200 parts per million is not good enough for them.

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    There are two important confounding factors that make all your calculations rather meaningless from a scientific standpoint. First, you don't know how many sensitive individuals got sick from the Cheerios/Lucky Charms and just didn't bother to report it. Second, you don't know how many sensitive people had a reaction but couldn't pinpoint the source. The second point has an additional factor in that if the cereal the affected person ate was the cause of their reaction, but they trusted it's gluten free status, they probably mis-attributed to another food source and therefore wouldn't have reported it.

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    Guest Pam Lewellen

    Posted

    Thank you for the article. You put numbers to the claim and clarified those numbers very well. I was worried when I started to read this since we have two big boxes of Cheerios and have been eating with no problems. Thanks again for the investigation!

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    Guest Joyce Donahue

    Posted

    So, how does one report this to the FDA, and do people even know they should? I would expect that many people who have reacted have not reported. Personally, I ate a bowl of these at a friend's house while staying the weekend and had diarrhea for three weeks after - and I am sure I didn't eat anything else unsafe because I brought all my own food other than that, but it never occurred to me to do anything more than never eat gluten-free Cheerios again.

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    Well, I do think it's a shame that a processed food can be called gluten-free when it has any amount of gluten in it. As a celiac, I'm very very careful about what I eat. I eat very little processed food anyway, preferring to simply eat food that naturally has no gluten. Seems like the safest/healthiest way for me personally. So, no, I don't eat Cheerios at all.

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    Guest Heather

    Posted

    I didn't even know there was a place to complain besides GM and that's a waste of time. I've had issues with their cereals that contain oats to the point I just won't buy them. I'm sure many don't even realize there is somewhere else they can complain.

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    My son and I never complained to General Mills, we just stopped eating Cheerios. They made both of us sick and triggered our gluten symptoms.

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    This article makes me very angry, indeed. First, you are devaluing the experience of the people who reported getting glutened (the 46, 136, or 146...all of them). These are not nameless numbers. These are human beings. Even one person being glutened because of a company's negligence is completely unacceptable. If I eat gluten, I am violently sick for 3-5 days; have fatigue, thyroid crashes, and intense brain fog for weeks; and have violently elevated antibodies and attack on my organs for 6 months or more. And you're saying that hundreds of people being made this sick because a company was not diligent enough is acceptable, because it's hundreds, not thousands. That's simply irresponsible, ignorant, and uncaring. If you spend millions on an ad campaign to get celiacs and people with NCGS to buy your product, you damn well better have made sure it is 100% safe. Maybe if they took those millions and applied them to safer production techniques, that complaint number would be zero. Second, how many of us know exactly what glutened us? Based on extensive experience, I would hazard a guess that for every person who complained, there were 10, 20, or more celiacs/NCGS who didn't report it, because they weren't sure which item they had eaten had made them sick. And you claim to be only interested in scientific data. But this is one of the least scientific statements I've ever seen. It is pure conjecture (and grossly incorrect conjecture if one knows anything about celiac and/or human psychology: "If this were true, we think the numbers would be very different, and that the pattern of official complaints would reflect that reality. We also feel that General Mills would be facing down lawsuits from hungry trial lawyers looking to put a big trophy on the wall." Pure conjecture and fantasy. You think. You feel. Zero science. So please drop the pretense of only being interested in scientific fact. And don't pretend that you, or anyone who sanctioned this article, cares about the health and well-being of the celiac/NCGS community.

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    Please contact Tricia Thompson at GlutenfreeWatchdog.com. She has been doing the EXTENSIVE work in discussion with GM and has VERY valid and reliable information about all of this. As a "supporter" for those with celiac disease, you need to take more caution in making safety recommendations. I know 2 people in my own family who get sick when they eat Cheerios and they just have not submitted claims, despite my pleading. Numbers that you "see" don't always reflect what tests measure, which is what she is doing. It would be optimal that you retract your statement of "safety" on this matter until you speak with her directly.

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    Guest Joanna Davis

    Posted

    Say what you want, I know Cheerios are bad for celiacs. Working for General Mills these days? This cereal is made with cross contaminated oats, period! They have been tested and they contain more than 20 ppm. As a celiac I react to anything greater than 5 ppm, as do many other celiacs.

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    Guest Jack Miller

    Posted

    Buzz Feed is just another political left wing lying organization that likes to create trouble. Don't trust them. If at this moment Cheerios were to contain gluten then I would be going into anaphylactic shock as this happens to me from ingesting gluten. I have been eating Cheerios for quite a while and experience no shock reactions. Buzz Feed is full of bull cookies with raisins and gluten!

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    Guest Tar wood

    Posted

    There are less complaints because celiac people aren't buying it anymore. Your numbers don't include demographics on the number of celiacs that did buy and got sick vs those who did not pre and post the recall.

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    I am one with celiac disease who cannot tolerate even gluten free oats. They cause the same reaction in me as gluten. I avoid oats the same way I avoid gluten. Since giving up eating oats a few years ago, I rarely experience symptoms that I associate with eating gluten. I avoid gluten free Cheerios because of the oats, not because I don't think they are gluten free. I avoid eating ANY product with oats. I still have to check ingredient labels on all products that are marked gluten free to make sure they do not contain oats. If there are complaints about General Mills products causing adverse symptoms, perhaps the individual is reacting to the oats themselves, not to any gluten contamination of the oats. I have been enjoying General Mills gluten free Chex cereals for years and they have never made me sick.

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    My husband has had problems with Cheerios also. He is celiac. We have not bothered to report it as we are too busy. It seems every so many boxes is bad or perhaps the top 3/4 of the box is ok but not the bottom. I was wondering if anyone has done a study on how gluten reacts such as falling to the bottom of a box during transit. Perhaps your answer is the fact most people eating Cheerios aren't celiac. Most people I know just stay away if there is a problem. Very few would report it.

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    Guest Outlier Babe

    Posted

    Cheerios sent me racing to the bathroom. I thought at first it was gluten, but no: It was my corn allergy. Cornstarch is the second ingredient. I supposedly had a corn allergy my entire life, per allergy scratch tests, but it was asymptomatic until 2012 when my gut went haywire and I could no longer digest gluten (or sorghum, teff, quinoa, etc. Is it possible that some celiacs who think they are reacting to gluten in Cheerios instead have developed an undiagnosed corn allergy?

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    The CCA has made numerous statements questioning the process General Mills uses to create their Gluten-Free Cheerios, and other oat products.
    CCA statements, or statements attributed to the CCA include comments in an article published in October 26, 2017, in which Globalnews.ca writes "[CCA] expressed doubt in the company's mechanical sorting system and claim of 100 per cent removal of cross-contaminants."
    Candiangrocer.com reported in August 2016 that the CCA was, to paraphrase, "awaiting evidence showing the new line [of Gluten Free Cheerios] is 100% free of gluten." It is unclear what the CCA means by such terms as "100% gluten-free," "100 percent removal," and "100 percent safe for people with celiac disease."
    Is the CCA hinting that the standard for gluten-free products should be 0 ppm?
    Besides voicing fear and concerns, and citing alleged complaints by members, the CCA never actually provided any evidence that Cheerios failed to meet the US and Canadian standard of 20 ppm allowable gluten, and were, thus, not gluten-free.
    The CBC reported on August 31 2016, that the "Canadian Celiac Association is warning against gluten-free Cheerios products over concerns the cereal is not 100 per cent safe for people with celiac disease."
    Again, the CCA made this recommendation based not on independent product testing, or on any confirmed accounts of gluten-exposure in people with celiac disease who had consumed Cheerios, but on "fear" and "concerns" driven by anecdotal evidence. Moreover, they seemingly disregarded overwhelming anecdotal evidence provided by people with celiac disease who say they eat Cheerios safely. The CCA has yet to provide a satisfactory response for their warnings, or to provide any clarification of their position regarding the safety of products that test under 20 ppm gluten for people with celiac disease.
    The FDA recently announced that 99.5% of products tested came in under the 20 ppm standard set by the FDA for labeling a product "gluten-free." In fact, only one of 750 samples taken from 250 products tested above 20 ppm. That product was recalled and the manufacturer corrected the problem. There has been no indication the Cheerios tested outside the FDA's gluten-free standard.
    That means that even an ambitious sorting process like the one developed by General Mills seems to be working as designed. It means that consumers can trust the FDA, and American gluten-free labels, and that consumers of gluten-free foods can buy with confidence.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 11/06/2017 - Gluten-free Starbucks patrons in South Florida just got a nice piece of news. Starbucks is now offering a new, gluten-free cupcake to select South Florida locations. Oh, and the cupcake also happens to be vegan.
    To deliver their newest gluten-free offering, Starbucks has partnered with Miami-based bakery, Bunnie Cakes, who will provide their locally made, gluten-free, and vegan passionfruit cupcakes to select Starbucks stores in the area.
    Bunnie Cakes has been a labor of love since owner, Mariana Cortez, first began making gluten-free and treats for two of her children, who have celiac disease.
    The small, nearly bite-sized cupcakes have been called 'cute,' but they have gained a popular following among gluten-free eaters, and are regarded by many as "one of the best cupcakes in Miami," Starbucks wrote in a press release.
    Bunnie Cakes' products have also attracted a bit of national attention, such as being named as a winner on Food Network's Cupcake Wars.
    If you live in South Florida, or if you find yourself visiting, and happen find yourself enjoying Bunnie Cakes gluten-free cupcakes, either at Starbucks, or at the bakery itself, we encourage you to share your experience in our comments section.
    Read more at onegreenplanet.org.

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/23/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to learn whether celiac disease patients commonly suffer cognitive impairment at the time they are diagnosed, and to compare their cognitive performance with non-celiac subjects with similar chronic symptoms and to a group of healthy control subjects.
    The research team included G Longarini, P Richly, MP Temprano, AF Costa, H Vázquez, ML Moreno, S Niveloni, P López, E Smecuol, R Mazure, A González, E Mauriño, and JC Bai. They are variously associated with the Small Bowel Section, Department of Medicine, Dr. C. Bonorino Udaondo Gastroenterology Hospital; Neurocience Cognitive and Traslational Institute (INECO), Favaloro Fundation, CONICET, Buenos Aires; the Brain Health Center (CESAL), Quilmes, Argentina; the Research Council, MSAL, CABA; and with the Research Institute, School of Medicine, Universidad del Salvador.
    The team enrolled fifty adults with symptoms and indications of celiac disease in a prospective cohort without regard to the final diagnosis.  At baseline, all individuals underwent cognitive functional and psychological evaluation. The team then compared celiac disease patients with subjects without celiac disease, and with healthy controls matched by sex, age, and education.
    Celiac disease patients had similar cognitive performance and anxiety, but no significant differences in depression scores compared with disease controls.
    A total of thirty-three subjects were diagnosed with celiac disease. Compared with the 26 healthy control subjects, the 17 celiac disease subjects, and the 17 disease control subjects, who mostly had irritable bowel syndrome, showed impaired cognitive performance (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively), functional impairment (P<0.01), and higher depression (P<0.01). 
    From their data, the team noted that any abnormal cognitive functions they saw in adults with newly diagnosed celiac disease did not seem not to be a result of the disease itself. 
    Their results indicate that cognitive dysfunction in celiac patients could be related to long-term symptoms from chronic disease, in general.
    Source:
    J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001018.

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
    Due to personal health reasons and restrictions, I find that I need to retire. My husband and I can no longer travel the country speaking at conferences and to support groups (which we dearly loved to do) nor can I commit to writing more books, articles, or menus. Consequently, I will no longer be contributing articles to the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. 
    My following books will still be available at Amazon.com:
    Gluten-free Cooking for Dummies Student's Vegetarian Cookbook for Dummies Wheat-free Gluten-free Dessert Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Reduced Calorie Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Cookbook for Kids and Busy Adults (revised version) My first book was published in 1996. My journey since then has been incredible. I have met so many in the celiac community and I feel blessed to be able to call you friends. Many of you have told me that I helped to change your life – let me assure you that your kind words, your phone calls, your thoughtful notes, and your feedback throughout the years have had a vital impact on my life, too. Thank you for all of your support through these years.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
    Under the deal, personalized digital media company Catalina will be joining forces with Label Insight. Catalina uses consumer purchases data to target shoppers on a personal base, while Label Insight works with major companies like Kellogg, Betty Crocker, and Pepsi to provide insight on food label data to government, retailers, manufacturers and app developers.
    "Brands with very specific product benefits, gluten-free for example, require precise targeting to efficiently reach and convert their desired shoppers,” says Todd Morris, President of Catalina's Go-to-Market organization, adding that “Catalina offers the only purchase-based targeting solution with this capability.” 
    Label Insight’s clients include food and beverage giants such as Unilever, Ben & Jerry's, Lipton and Hellman’s. Label Insight technology has helped the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) build the sector’s very first scientifically accurate database of food ingredients, health attributes and claims.
    Morris says the joint partnership will allow Catalina to “enhance our dataset and further increase our ability to target shoppers who are currently buying - or have shown intent to buy - in these emerging categories,” including gluten-free, allergen-free, and other free-from foods.
    The deal will likely make for easier, more precise targeting of goods to consumers, and thus provide benefits for manufacturers and retailers looking to better serve their retail food customers, especially in specialty areas like gluten-free and allergen-free foods.
    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.
    Source:
    cnbc.com