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  • Roy Jamron
    Roy Jamron

    The REAL Best Ever Gluten-Free Bread - Designing the Perfect 4 Inch Tall Oat-Sorghum-Buckwheat-Banana-Flaxseed GF Bread

    Reviewed and edited by a celiac disease expert.

    Journal of Gluten Sensitivity Summer 2018 Issue

    The REAL Best Ever Gluten-Free Bread - Designing the Perfect 4 Inch Tall Oat-Sorghum-Buckwheat-Banana-Flaxseed GF Bread - Image: Roy Jamron
    Caption: Image: Roy Jamron

    Celiac.com 06/29/2018 - Warning! If you crave the taste of "real" bread, this gluten free bread may be addictive.

    No rice flour here. This totally satisfying, wholesome, nutritious, hearty gluten free bread exudes the robust taste and firm, springy texture of rye bread. It really, really tastes like REAL bread, no exaggeration. The bread is absolutely delicious toasted or untoasted, keeps fresh for over 2 weeks in the refrigerator, and does not tear, sink in the center, dry out or crumble. This incredible 4 inch tall loaf can even be sliced nearly paper thin and still hold together. It is vegan, free of soy, corn, wheat, gluten, nuts, dairy, or eggs. Add caraway seeds and you'll want to break out the mustard, pickles, and coleslaw. It makes the perfect deli bread. Want pizza? Toasted slices of this bread make great pizza crusts for quick and easy gluten free mini pizzas. Even those not on a gluten free diet will find this bread utterly irresistible.

    A Quest Begins

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    This outstanding GF bread is the result of a years long quest for the perfect GF bread recipe. It began with the classic GF bread recipe of rice flour, tapioca starch, corn or potato starch, powdered dry milk, eggs, oil, sugar, salt, xanthan gum, yeast and water. It later evolved to include bean flours. These early GF bread recipes, mostly starch and "empty" calories, simply tasted horrible and left a bitter aftertaste.

    Rice flour, bean flours and corn starch were quickly eliminated. After scientific studies concluded oats were gluten free and safe (except for possible wheat contamination), oat flour became a central ingredient. Starches were limited to no more than one third of the flour mix. Mashed banana, apple sauce, pumpkin puree, and yogurt were added to increase bread height and volume. Oat flour was blended with flour from other seeds and grains, including sorghum, millet, amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat. A blend of oat and sorghum flour, tapioca and potato starch, mashed banana and low fat vanilla yogurt became standard GF bread recipe ingredients.


    Einkorn an ancient form of wheat, was separately investigated. At that time, einkorn was considered potentially safe for celiacs. Samples of einkorn were obtained from Prime Grains [1] in Saskatchewan, Canada. Einkorn flour was found to have most of same height, volume, and sinking in the center problems as with any other gluten free flour blend in creating a GF bread. Einkorn bread, however, does not require the addition of starches. An oat/einkorn bread recipe similar to an oat/sorghum recipe minus the starches was created, but it became necessary to end the einkorn investigation when new research on einkorn came out showing that einkorn does contain gluten epitopes potentially harmful to celiacs. However, gluten content in einkorn is very low. The investigation produced no ill effects from consuming einkorn. Those with gluten sensitivity rather than celiac disease may well tolerate einkorn with no problems.


    Along with the Prime Grains einkorn samples sent from Saskatchewan, samples of golden and brown flaxseed were also sent. Using a coffee grinder to grind the flaxseed, the ground flaxseed was steeped in near-boiling water and used as egg replacer in GF bread recipes. The steeping releases mucilage from the outer coating of flaxseed to create a thick, slimy emulsion. Flaxseed mucilage seems to have a synergy with beta glucan in oats, a soluble fiber, forming a hydrocolloid combination that increases bread volume. When the Prime Grains flaxseed ran out, flaxseed was locally purchased. It was immediately noticed locally purchased flaxseed produced a much thinner emulsion than did the Prime Grains flaxseed. The local flaxseed had a much lower mucilage content. GF bread made with the local flaxseed had less volume and height and more sinking in the center than the Prime Grains flaxseed. Were it not for the flaxseed samples sent with the einkorn, the great variation in mucilage content in different varieties of flaxseed grown in different localities would have been missed. Little information is available on the mucilage content of flaxseed grown in North America. One study was found [2,3,4].

    Prime Grains flaxseed is currently distributed through Farmer Direct Co-op [5] in Regina, Saskatchewan. High mucilage Farmer Direct Co-op flaxseed has been available from Whole Foods in the bulk foods section. Amazon's recent Whole Foods purchase may change that as bulk bin labels no longer state "Farmer Direct", only that it originates from Canada. However, the issue of high mucilage versus low mucilage flaxseed may be moot. The reason is buckwheat. Buckwheat, like flaxseed, also releases mucilage. It turns out buckwheat mucilage also increases bread height and volume, and, when used together with flaxseed, high mucilage flaxseed has no more effect on bread height and volume than lower mucilage flaxseed. More on buckwheat later.

    Deep Loaf Pans

    GF breads containing eggs and mostly starch can achieve high height and volume without collapsing using an ordinary loaf pan. But to achieve a full 4 inch loaf height using flaxseed as egg replacer and a low starch content requires a loaf pan with high sides. The deepest loaf pans available are 4 inch deep pullman loaf pans. Ideally a pan deeper than 4 inches is desired because GF breads tend to rise above the loaf pan and then fall during baking. Additionally, during baking, the loaf shrinks and pulls away from the pan side walls, more at the top than the bottom, resulting in a loaf narrowing toward the top rather than straight sides. Ideally the the sides of the loaf pan should taper so the bottom is narrower than the top. This cancels out the narrowing of the loaf at the top creating a finished loaf with straight sides. A small batch of 4-1/2 inch depth by 4-1/4 inch width by 8-1/2 inch and 13 inch length tapered heavy duty 16 gauge solid aluminum loaf pans were custom made by a USA baking pan manufacturer for this author to sell online. These long-life, heavy duty pans were ideal, but, unfortunately, high cost and price made for underwhelming online sales. The website was shut down years ago. However, a cheaper 13 inch long by 4 inch width by 4 inch depth aluminum-coated, folded thin steel pullman loaf pan should be adequate for the recipe which later follows. The cover is not needed. The following pans are suggested: USA Pan 13x4x4 Large Pullman Loaf Pan & Cover 1160PM-1 [6] or Chicago Metallic 44615 Pullman pan,single 13x4x4 [7].

    Xanthan Gum and Konjac Glucomannan

    In the early development of oat and einkorn bread recipes, xanthan gum caused some problems. The use of xanthan gum alone often produced strange odd loaf shapes with concave sides. In one case an extra added teaspoon of xanthan gum caused the loaf to balloon well above the 4-1/2 inch deep loaf pan. When done, the sides of the loaf were sucked inwards and a cross section of loaf had the appearance of a giant mushroom. Konjac glucomannan powder [8] was then investigated. Konjac glucomannan is a natural, odorless soluble fiber that is found in the konjac plant and is the most viscous hydrocolloid available. Konjac used by itself produces a very firm loaf and restricts the bread height and volume. Xanthan gum produces a softer, more elastic bread. Konjac used together with xanthan gum have a synergy which allows the firmness of bread to be adjusted depending on their ratio and amounts. Konjac also "tames" xanthan gum so that the loaf has straight sides instead of turning into a mushroom. For a long time, 1-1/2 teaspoons each of konjac powder and xanthan gum, a one to one ratio, was used in the standard GF bread recipe. But this ratio and amount always resulted in at least some sinking in the center of the loaf. Recalling that additional xanthan gum creates a "mushroom" effect which results in a rounded top, the ratio was changed to 3 teaspoons of xanthan gum and 1 teaspoon konjac powder. This worked, resulting in a loaf with a slightly rounded or flat top, no longer sinking in the center. Psyllium husk was never tried as it generally decreases bread volume and height, not the desired effect [9].

    Attempts That Did Not Work

    For years a standard GF bread recipe consisting of oat flour, sorghum flour, tapioca starch, potato starch, flaxseed, banana, low fat vanilla yogurt, molasses, sugar, canola margarine, cinnamon, ginger, salt, yeast, xanthan gum, konjac powder, apple cider vinegar, and water became standard daily fare. This recipe provided an acceptable GF bread, but was by no means perfect. It tended to crumble, required delicate handling, sank in the center, and had less volume and height than desired. It was not vegan or dairy free, and its taste could stand improvement. Deciding it was time for a change, numerous attempts to fix these short-comings were made. The attempts that failed included using citrus pectin, sugar beet fiber, gum arabic, and aquafaba (liquid from cooked chickpeas). High methoxyl citrus pectin did succeed in increasing height and volume and reducing crumbling, but its strong, bitter taste made it totally unacceptable.

    Choosing the Best GF Starches - Arrowroot and Potato Starch: Yes - Tapioca: No

    After the previous failures, investigations focused on how choice of starch affects GF bread volume. One especially interesting published research paper looked at GF breads made using a single starch in place of flour [10]. The study compared breads made with wheat, potato, tapioca, corn, and rice starch. Only wheat and potato starch produced any real bread structure. Corn starch had some bread structure. Tapioca and rice starch produced structures too far gone to be fully analyzed in the study. Tapioca starch produced a shapeless blob. Rice starch produced a crust circling a large empty center. The study revealed that potato starch would be the best GF starch for achieving greater volume and preventing sinking in the center. Unfortunately, the study did not look at arrowroot starch which later was found to be superior to tapioca starch.

    The standard oat/sorghum GF bread recipe used equal amounts of potato and tapioca starch. Two baking tests with these starches were performed using the standard GF bread recipe. One test used 3 parts potato to 1 part tapioca starch and the other test used 1 part potato to 3 parts tapioca starch. The test favoring potato starch produced a higher volume and height bread with reduced center sinking, as expected. The test favoring tapioca starch resulted in a drop in volume and height with increased center sinking. Potato starch has a bland, supposedly neutral taste. In the test favoring potato starch the "bland" taste dominated the entire taste of the bread covering up the taste of all other ingredients including molasses, spices, and banana, oats and sorghum, a totally unacceptable result. In the test favoring tapioca starch, a slight off taste was noted, but, worse, when toasted, the tapioca caused increased burning of the crust resulting in a bitter crust taste. It was concluded one should not make excessive use of potato starch and that tapioca starch may not be the best choice for a starch. This led to arrowroot starch as the next subject for investigation.

    Arrowroot and tapioca starches appear to be very similar. They definitely are not. Two baking tests were performed with arrowroot and potato starch. One test used 3 parts arrowroot to 1 part potato starch and the other test used equal parts of arrowroot and potato starch. In the test favoring arrowroot starch, the bread did not sink in the center or lose as much volume as when tapioca starch was favored. When toasted, the crust did not burn as with tapioca starch or produce any bitterness. Arrowroot starch also had no off taste as with tapioca starch. In the test with equal parts arrowroot and potato starch, there was a slight improvement in volume and less center sinking than with tapioca and potato starch at equal parts. The conclusion was that arrowroot starch is a superior choice over tapioca starch. Arrowroot may cost more than tapioca starch, but arrowroot starch now replaces tapioca starch as the preferred choice for a perfect GF bread recipe. Arrowroot starch can be found online in bulk at reasonable prices.

    Buckwheat - The Key to Volume, Height, Amazing Taste and a Bread That Does Not Sink or Crumble

    Still seeking the key to increasing bread volume and height, the world wide web was scoured for ideas. Intrigued by the impressive volume and height of GF breads made with buckwheat and rice flours by Strange Grains Gluten Free Bakery [11] in Perth, Australia, the question was asked, "Could buckwheat be the key?" Buckwheat had previously been rejected from consideration in the course of earlier oat bread recipe development due to a strong, unpleasant bitter taste. It turns out however, toasted buckwheat groats (kasha) were unknowingly used in that earlier trial years ago, a very bad and unfortunate choice. The world wide web provides many learning opportunities, one being that buckwheat flour does not have to taste awful.

    Buckwheat flour can be ground from three different forms of buckwheat, each having a completely different taste. The three forms are: 1) whole unhulled buckwheat; 2) raw dehulled buckwheat or buckwheat groats; 3) toasted buckwheat groats or kasha. The familiar earthy slightly bitter taste comes from the buckwheat hulls. In fact, some whole buckwheat flour contains added ground hulls for a stronger earthy flavor. The hulls create a greyish colored flour. Buckwheat groats are dehulled buckwheat seeds. Dehulling removes the source of the familiar earthy flavor. Flour from raw buckwheat groats has a creamy white color and a very mild sourdough rye flavor acceptable to just about everybody except for those who really miss having that earthy buckwheat hull flavor. Kasha or toasted buckwheat groats, on the other hand, has an extremely strong taste and odor that is popular in some cultures, but absolutely repulsive to most people. Kasha has a taste slightly suggestive of rye on the plus side but an odor strongly reminiscent of rotting food waste on the minus side. Kasha can easily be made by stirring raw buckwheat groats in a pan on medium heat for about 5 minutes until evenly brown and "fragrant". If the "fragrance" drives you out of your house into a freezing snowstorm, then you probably won't like kasha. Actually, after about a week of storage in a plastic bag in the refrigerator, the odor of rotting waste in bread made with kasha flour dissipates leaving the desirable sourdough rye flavor.

    Buckwheat flour can easily be made by grinding groats or whole buckwheat in a coffee grinder. Raw buckwheat groat flour is not readily available, especially gluten free certified flour, so a coffee grinder is needed. Gluten free whole buckwheat and raw buckwheat groats are readily available. Bob's Red Mill whole buckwheat flour is NOT certified gluten free (its groats are) but Anthony's Goods has certified gluten free whole buckwheat flour. Whole Foods has raw buckwheat groats in the bulk section at a very reasonable price. Bulk raw buckwheat groats are available online at reasonable prices.

    To test if buckwheat was the key to a perfect GF bread, a blend of one cup each of buckwheat, oat, and sorghum flours together with 2/3 cup each of potato and arrowroot starches went into the bread dough for the baking test. The buckwheat flour made the dough much more workable and elastic. Into to oven it went. The result? Success! Buckwheat indeed proved to be the missing key. The bread volume and height increased, reaching just over 4 inches tall. The use of 3 teaspoons xanthan gum and 1 teaspoon konjac powder contributed to a loaf with a slightly rounded top and absolutely no sinking in the center. The bread did not crumble. The rye-like taste was amazing. Why did buckwheat work? Buckwheat, like flaxseed, contains mucilage, and that slimy fiber likely gives buckwheat flour its high viscosity and unique baking properties [12].

    Making GF Bread Dairy Free

    The final challenge was making the GF bread recipe vegan and dairy free. Low fat vanilla yogurt had been used to increase bread volume and protein. A substitute was needed. The latest trend in protein supplements is yellow pea isolate [13,14]. Yellow pea's protein amino acid profile compares favorably to that of dairy whey although it is not a totally complete protein. One study determined yellow pea protein added to GF bread had the highest level of sensory perception consumer acceptance compared to other proteins added to GF bread [15]. Yellow pea protein has also been used as the basis for a dairy free milk made by Ripple Foods [16]. Yellow pea protein is available from a number sources including Anthony's Goods, Bob's Red Mill, and Bulk Food Supplements. For the new GF bread vegan recipe, 2/3 cup of low fat vanilla yogurt was replaced with 1/4 cup yellow pea protein isolate powder plus 5 oz water. Yellow pea is a legume. If you have allergies to soy or peanuts (also legumes) use with caution, though yellow pea is considered to be much less likely to be an allergen. The yellow pea protein powder can be omitted with little effect on the overall GF bread recipe. Just replace it with another heaping tablespoon each of buckwheat, oat and, sorghum flours to maintain bread volume.

    Another vegan consideration is choice of oil. Canola oil, olive oil, coconut oil or a vegan buttery flavored spread like Smart Choice Original or Earth Balance Soy Free can be used. Smart Choice Original and Earth Balance Soy Free use yellow pea protein in place of dairy whey and sunflower lecithin in place of soy lecithin.

    Molasses or Maple Syrup?

    Molasses is used in the standard GF bread recipe to achieve a satisfying robust rye flavor. For an alternative subtle, delicate, sweet maple taste, grade A very dark and strong flavor maple syrup can be used in place of the molasses and granulated sugar. Pure maple syrup is a very pricey ingredient. The subtle change in taste using maple syrup may not really be worth the syrup's high cost, but the option is included in the recipe below, nonetheless. Maple syrup is sold in four grades: grade A golden color and delicate taste; grade A amber color and rich flavor; grade A dark color and robust flavor; and grade A very dark and strong flavor. Only use grade A very dark and strong flavor maple syrup for baking. The maple flavor of lighter shades of maple syrup is too weak to be tasted when used in most baked goods. The money spent using lighter shades of pricey maple syrup will only be wasted. Grade A very dark and strong flavor maple syrup is mostly used for cooking and not available in most grocery stores. It is readily available online and direct from maple syrup farms. Shipping from the east coast to the west coast may cost more than the maple syrup itself. Try to find an online deal with free shipping.


    Oat-Sorghum-Buckwheat-Banana-Flaxseed GF Bread

    This recipe produces a 56 ounce (1.588 kg) gluten free bread loaf yielding 28 slices 7/16 inch (11.11 mm) thick. Preparation time is about 2 hours 15 minutes. Baking time is 1 hour 40 minutes.

    Kitchen Essentials:

    • Coffee grinder (preferably burr-type)
    • Electric mixer (preferably a stand mixer)
    • Mixing bowl
    • Pullman loaf pan, 13 inch x 4 inch x 4 inch (33.02 cm x 10.16 cm x 10.16 cm)
    • Lidded 2 quart/liter (or larger) plastic food container
    • Quart/liter glass or plastic measuring cups (2)
    • 5 ounce (150 ml) glass measuring cup
    • Potato/banana masher, ricer or food processor
    • Hard rubber bowl scraper, specifically Rubbermaid FG1901000000 Scraper 9-1/2 inch
    • 1 inch pastry brush
    • A good set of stainless steel measuring cups and spoons
    • 10 inch x 14 inch (25.4 cm x 35.56 cm) plastic food storage bags with twist ties
    • Cooling rack

    Dry Ingredients:

    • 1 cup (240 ml) oat flour
    • 1 cup (240 ml) sorghum flour
    • 1 cup (240 ml) buckwheat flour milled from raw dehulled buckwheat groats
    • 2/3 cup (160 ml) potato starch
    • 2/3 cup (160 ml) arrowroot starch
    • ~3/4 cup (180 ml) (approx.) milled flaxseed freshly ground from 1/2 cup (120 ml) whole flaxseed
    • 1/4 cup (60 ml) yellow pea protein isolate powder (* can be replaced with 1 heaping tablespoon (20 ml) each of oat, sorghum and buckwheat flour)
    • 2 tablespoons (30 ml) granulated sugar (* omit granulated sugar if using maple syrup in place of molasses)
    • 2 tablespoons (30 ml) caraway seed (* optional for deli rye flavor)
    • 1-1/2 (7.5 ml) teaspoons salt
    • 1-1/2 (7.5 ml) teaspoons ground cinnamon
    • 1-1/2 (7.5 ml) teaspoons ground ginger
    • 1 teaspoon (5 ml) baking soda
    • 3 teaspoons (15 ml) xanthan gum
    • 1 teaspoon (5 ml) konjac glucomannan powder
    • 4 teaspoons (20 ml) fast acting yeast

    Wet Ingredients:

    • 2 cups (480 ml) cold water to mix with milled flaxseed
    • Additional water to mix with mashed banana and molasses (or maple syrup) to achieve 2 cups total mixture
    • ~1 cup (240 ml) (approx.) mashed ripe banana (2 medium to large bananas)
    • 4-1/2 tablespoons (67.5 ml) molasses, unsulphured, mild (or full flavor) to one's taste (* Alternately, omit molasses and use 3/4 cup (180 ml) maple syrup, grade A very dark and strong flavor)
    • 2 + 1 tablespoons (30 + 15 ml) canola, olive or melted coconut oil or melted vegan buttery flavored spread
    • Additional oil or vegan spread to grease loaf pan
    • 1 teaspoon (5 ml) apple cider vinegar (as an antimicrobial, anti-mold agent)

    1. Grind enough raw dehulled buckwheat groats in a coffee grinder to make 1+ cups (260 ml) buckwheat flour.
    2. Grind 1/2 cup (120 ml) whole flaxseed in a coffee grinder.
    3. Place 2 cups (480 ml) COLD water in a quart/liter measuring cup and stir in the ground flaxseed with a fork.
    4. Heat water and flaxseed mixture in a microwave oven until near boiling. Let steep for 10 to 20 minutes.
    5. Combine all dry ingredients EXCEPT flaxseed into a lidded 2 quart/liter (or larger) plastic food container.
    6. Thoroughly shake and blend dry ingredients together in the food container holding lid down securely.
    7. Mash, rice, or puree 2 medium to large bananas into a separate quart/liter measuring cup.
    8. Using 5 ounce (150 ml) glass measuring cup, warm 4-1/2 tablespoons (67.5 ml) molasses in microwave oven to thin and add to mashed bananas, or, in place of molasses, add 3/4 cup (180 ml) maple syrup to mashed bananas
    9. Add enough water to the bananas and molasses (or maple syrup) and stir together so that the liquid mixture measures 2 cups (480 ml).
    10. Warm up the banana molasses (or maple syrup) mixture in a microwave oven for 2-3 minutes.
    11. Melt 2 tablespoons (30 ml) of coconut oil or vegan spread in a microwave oven in a small bowl, if these oils used.
    12. Stir banana molasses (or maple syrup) mixture and steeped flaxseed into a mixing bowl.
    13. Add 2 tablespoons (30 ml) oil plus 1 teaspoon (5 ml) apple cider vinegar to the mixing bowl.
    14. Grease a 13 inch x 4 inch x 4 inch pullman loaf pan. Use a pastry brush for applying liquid oil.
    15. Using an electric mixer with a dough hook, blend liquids for 1-2 minutes at a high medium speed.
    16. Stop mixer and add dry ingredients to the bowl. Start mixing at low speed for 15 seconds, then increase to a low medium speed and mix for 16 minutes to a smooth, thick, moist (not wet), elastic dough consistency.
    17. Preheat oven to 300-325° F (150-160° C).
    18. Using a hard rubber bowl scraper, transfer dough from mixing bowl to the greased pullman loaf pan.
    19. Plunge the hard rubber bowl scraper up and down in the dough to level and even out the dough.
    20. Melt remaining 1 tablespoon (15 ml) coconut oil or vegan spread in the microwave in a small bowl, if oils used.
    21. Use a pastry brush to spread 1 tablespoon (15 ml) oil on top of the dough. Smooth and round the top of the dough with the pastry brush.
    22. Allow the dough to rise to just above the top of the pullman loaf pan.
    23. Place the pullman loaf pan (uncovered) in the preheated oven and bake for 1 hour 40 minutes maintaining an oven temperature slightly above 300° F (150° C) to avoid burning the crust.
    24. When done, remove loaf pan from oven and allow the loaf to cool in pan for only about 10 minutes to avoid the crust becoming soggy from trapped pan moisture.
    25. Remove loaf from pan, tapping pan bottom corner edges on counter to loosen loaf. Transfer loaf to cooling rack.
    26. Allow bread to cool to room temperature before slicing the loaf into 2 halves with a sharp, smooth edged (not serrated) slicing knife.
    27. Store each loaf half in 10 inch x 14 inch plastic food storage bags with twist ties and place in the refrigerator.
    28. If you can wait, keep it in the refrigerator overnight before consuming. The bread taste and texture actually improve overnight as it firms up in the fridge. When firm, the bread can easily be sliced nearly paper thin without falling apart. The bread will keep fresh in the fridge for well over 2 weeks and seems to improve in taste as it ages.


    Quick and Easy Gluten Free Mini Pizzas

    Making mini pizzas using bread slices for crusts is nothing new. But finding a GF bread suitable for a pizza crust is somewhat elusive. Just finding a GF bread with tall enough slices is a challenge. The Oat-Sorghum-Buckwheat-Banana-Flaxseed GF Bread presented above works great! Its full size slices, taste, and texture make for a wonderful mini crust upon which to build an easy, tempting GF mini pizza.

    The recipe is simple. Key to this recipe is the use of a cooling rack on top of a metal baking sheet. The cooling rack raises the pizza crust above the surface of the baking sheet allowing hot oven air to circulate under the crust. This keeps the crust dry and crispy, preventing the crust from getting soggy due to moisture trapped between the crust and baking sheet.

    Directions for one 2-slice pizza serving:

    1. Prepare or slice any toppings you desire.
    2. Preheat the oven to 450° F (232° C).
    3. Toast 2 slices of Oat-Sorghum-Buckwheat-Banana-Flaxseed GF Bread to a golden brown.
    4. Place toast on top of a cooling rack sitting on top of a metal baking sheet.
    5. Spread a generous tablespoon of your favorite pizza sauce, canned or homemade, on each slice.
    6. Spread a layer of shredded mozzarella cheese on top of the sauce, about 1/3 cup (80 ml) per slice.
    7. Spread any other cheeses, such as diced or shredded sharp cheddar, on top of the mozzarella.
    8. Add your toppings and a touch more mozzarella.
    9. Slide the mini pizzas, cooling rack, and baking sheet together into the hot oven.
    10. Bake for 9 minutes until cheese melts and bubbles.
    11. Slide the baking sheet and rack out from the oven and transfer pizzas to a plate using a metal spatula.
    12. Serve.

    About Gluten Free Toasters

    Toasting gluten free bread in a typical kitchen 2 or 4-slice toaster cannot be completed in one toasting cycle. To achieve a golden brown toast requires 2 or even 3 toaster cycles. Typical toasters provide toasting times of no more than 2-1/2 minutes maximum per cycle. A few more expensive toasters can toast up to 3 minutes. It is common for GF breads to require a single cycle toasting time of more than 5 minutes to toast golden brown. It takes 5 minutes 15 seconds starting in a cold 1000 watt kitchen toaster to toast slices of Oat-Sorghum-Buckwheat-Banana-Flaxseed GF Bread to a golden brown in a single cycle.

    A toaster-oven can provide a longer single cycle toasting time, but may require 10 minutes or longer to toast GF bread golden brown. A toaster-oven is less efficient for toasting bread than a 2 or 4-slice toaster because it must heat up a much larger volume than a 2 or 4-slice toaster which has heating elements up against the bread.

    A few manufacturers have provided toasters with a "Gluten Free" button to extend the maximum single cycle toasting time. These include Crux 2 and 4-Slice Toasters [17] available exclusively at Macy's, Bella Pro Series and Ultimate Elite 2 and 4 Slice Toasters [18,19], and the Williams Sonoma Open Kitchen 2-Slice Stainless Steel Toaster [20]. There are several problems with these toasters. First, the maximum toasting times on the "Gluten Free" setting are still not long enough. Maximum toasting times provided by Bella for its Ultimate Elite Toaster are 3 minutes 50 seconds for the "Gluten Free" setting and 4 minutes 20 seconds for the "Gluten Free" + "Frozen" setting. Second, a gluten-free toaster for celiacs, by necessity, must be used exclusively for GF breads to avoid wheat contamination. A gluten free toaster does not need a "Gluten Free" button. A gluten free toaster simply requires a 6 minute maximum toasting time to adequately toast gluten free breads. One should not have to remember to push a "Gluten Free" button every time they toast bread. Is it so hard for manufacturers to offer a toaster with a 6 minute timer?

    For those with some basic electronic technical skills, there is a relatively easy solution to having a toaster with a sufficiently long 6 minute maximum toasting time for GF bread. The electronic toaster controller board in a toaster can be modified to extend the maximum toasting time by simply replacing a resistor and/or a capacitor on the board. First one needs to find a toaster in which the controller board can easily be accessed. It turns out the Nesco T1000 toaster [21] is well-suited to the task. As toasters go, almost all are made in China and tend to have a high percentage of manufacturing defects per customer product reviews. The Nesco T1000 is a nice looking, sturdy toaster with nice features. With the right screwdriver to remove the "tamper proof" screws, the controller board is easy to get to and easy to modify. The only flaw in the Nesco T1000 is that the toasting time is shorter in a hot Nesco T1000 toaster than the toasting time in a cold Nesco T1000 toaster at the same browning setting, resulting in inconsistent browning. If toasting always begins in a cold toaster, browning is always consistent, and the browning setting need never be touched to achieve the same results every time.

    Below, instructions on modifying the Nesco T1000 are provided. A modified Nesco T1000 toaster has been perfectly toasting GF bread daily for over 4 years without a single problem. These notes are of a technical nature. Modifying the Nesco T1000 toaster will void the warranty. Any modifications you perform are done so at your own risk. If you are not familiar with electronic components or a soldering iron, do not attempt the modification. Find a friend or someone with the technical skills if you wish to have a modified Nesco T1000 toaster.

    Nesco T1000 Toaster Tech Notes - How to Increase the Toasting Cycle Time

    The browning control circuit of the Nesco T1000 toaster is designed around the AO201D toaster controller chip, an 8-pin DIP integrated circuit. Toaster cycle timing is achieved by adjusting the frequency of a timer oscillator on board the AO201D via an external RC circuit. The frequency is inversely proportional to RC. Increasing R (resistance) and/or C (capacitance) decreases frequency and increases the toasting cycle time. R in the Nesco toaster is a summation of a 250k potentiometer (variable resistor) in parallel with a 390k resistor (R6) in series with a 68k thermistor (NTC) in parallel with a 180k resistor (R5). C is a .033µf capacitor (C3). The Defrost button increases the toasting cycle time by switching in an additional .0047µf capacitor (C4) in parallel with C3. The thermistor decreases the resistance as the toaster ambient temperature rises and is supposed to help stabilize the oscillator frequency which is affected by heat. Ideally, temperature compensation provided by the thermistor and the AO201D should keep the oscillator frequency stable and browning shade the same from batch to batch as the toaster ambient temperature rises. Unfortunately, in the Nesco toaster, the oscillator frequency becomes unstable and increases as the toaster heats up, significantly reducing the toaster cycle time when the toaster is hot compared to the cycle time of a cold toaster. Hence, to maintain the same browning shade of a cold toaster, the browning control must be turned up higher when toasting in a hot toaster. The modifications below will increase the original factory maximum toasting cycle time of about 2.5 minutes to about 5.5 minutes when the toaster is cold. The Defrost button adds up to 30 seconds or so additional time. (Note: There is no datasheet available online for the AO201D chip. A datasheet in chinese is available for a similar MCU CMS12530 chip [22] with some diagrams and tables labelled in english. The Pericom PT8A2514A toaster controller chip [23] is also of interest with an english datasheet and a timer that can be adjusted from 30 sec to 10 min.)

    Tools Required:

    • TA23 triangle head screwdriver (Silverhill Tools ATKTR4 Triangle Head 5 Size Screwdriver Set)
    • #1 Phillips head screwdriver
    • Mini needle nose pliers
    • Mini wire cutter
    • 25 watt taper point soldering iron
    • Desolder bulb, wick, or tool
    • 60/40 Tin/Lead rosin core solder

    Parts Required:

    • .02µf 25v to 100v ceramic or polyester film capacitor
    • 68k 1/4-watt resistor (blue-gray-orange)


    • Lay some newspaper or a towel on the work surface.
    • Have a container handy to keep the small screws and parts from getting lost.
    • Remove the crumb tray (which makes 2 tabs on the plastic base that slip under the shell lip more visible).
    • Lay the toaster upside down on the work surface.
    • Using the TA23 screwdriver, remove the tiny black screw from the bottom of the chrome pop-up lever knob.
    • Insert a tool slightly larger than the TA23 screwdriver into the screw hole (the TA27 driver if you have it) and push the black plastic insert out of the chrome portion of the pop-up lever knob to free the knob from the metal lever.
    • Slip the knob off the metal pop-up lever.
    • Remove the 4 triangle head screws which attach the black plastic base to the metal shell.
    • Separate and lift the metal shell off the plastic base noting the 2 tabs that were under the crumb tray and the 4 metal tabs at the ends of the toaster slots that insert into small slots on top of the inner metal cage.
    • Disconnect the 4-wire cable small white nylon connector connected to the browning control circuit board attached to the toaster shell.
    • Completely separate the base and inner cage from the outer metal shell and set aside the base.
    • Using the #1 Phillips screwdriver, remove the 2 broad head screws securing the insulation board to the browning control circuit board attached to the outer metal shell.
    • Remove the 4 Phillips screws securing the browning control circuit board.
    • Turn the browning control to an extreme so that you can easily realign it on reassembly.
    • Lift up and slip the browning control circuit board from out behind the browning control knob and push buttons (the knob and buttons remain in place and do not have to be removed).


    • Desolder and remove the 390k resistor (orange-white-yellow) labelled R6 (no replacement needed).
    • Desolder and remove the 180k resistor (brown-gray-yellow) labelled R5. Replace R5 with a 68k 1/4-watt resistor (blue-gray-orange).
    • Locate capacitor C3 (.033µf) which is numbered 2A333J.
    • Turn the circuit board over and on the back side solder a .02µf 25v to 100v ceramic or polyester film capacitor across the two C3 capacitor connections keeping the .02µf capacitor flat against the circuit board and trimming off excess leads.


    • Before reassembling, take a look at the pop-up lever spring mechanism and make sure the small metal plate beneath the lever properly aligns with the electromagnet arms when lowered. If skewed, twist the the metal plate until it is properly aligned (the plate in my toaster was skewed at the factory which caused a glitch preventing the pop-up lever from latching when first testing the toaster out of the box).
    • Reverse the steps used in disassembly.
    • Be sure to reconnect the 4-wire connecter, use the 2 broad head screws for the insulator board, and carefully align and insert the 4 outer metal shell tabs into the inner metal cage slots.
    • Make sure you properly align the small notch in the black plastic insert with metal pop-up lever notch before pressing it back into the chrome portion of the pop-up knob.
    • Do not over-tighten the triangle head screws, especially the tiny black screw in the pop-up knob (tighten just enough to bottom-out the screw heads).


    • Make sure all functions still work (you don't need bread in the toaster to test).
    • Get a watch and time the toasting cycles at "1" and "6" settings both in hot and cold conditions (give the toaster plenty of time to cool to the touch for cold testing).
    • At "1" you should get about 32 sec hot and 1 min 23 sec cold.
    • At "6" you should get about 4 min 25 sec hot and 5 min 35 sec cold.
    • Pressing the "Defrost" button will add additional time.


    1. Prime Grains Inc. http://www.primegrains.com/about-us.htm
    2. Variation of Mucilage Content in the Flaxseed Coat; Diederichsen A, Raney JP, Duguid SD; Saskatchewan Flax Grower Oct 2003 Vol 5 No 1 https://saskflax.com/quadrant/media/Pdfs/Newsletters/flaxfall03.pdf
    3. Variation of mucilage in flax seed and its relationship with other seed characters; Diederichsen A, Raney JP, Duguid SD; Crop Science Feb 2005 Vol 46 No 1, p 365-371 https://dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/cs/abstracts/46/1/365
    4. Selection for increased seed mucilage content in yellow mustard; J Philip Raney and Gerhard FW Rakow; (Describes method used for determining mucilage content in seed); The Regional Institute, Online Publications http://www.regional.org.au/au/gcirc/4/79.htm
    5. Farmer Direct Co-op http://www.farmerdirect.coop/
    6. USA Pan 13x4x4 Large Pullman Loaf Pan & Cover 1160PM-1 https://www.usapan.com/13-x-4-x-4-large-pullman-loaf-pan-and-cover-1160pm
    7. Chicago Metallic 44615 Pullman pan,single 13x4x4 https://www.bundybakingsolutions.com/product/44615/
    8. Konjac Glucomannan Powder http://www.konjacfoods.com/product/1.htm
    9. The Gluten-Free-Bread Baking-with-Psyllium-Husks-Powder Test by Annalise Roberts http://mygluten-freetable.com/2014/04/the-gluten-free-bread-baking-with-psyllium-husks-powder-test/
    10. Fundamental Study on the Impact of Gluten-Free Starches on the Quality of Gluten-Free Model Breads; Horstmann SW, Belz MC, Heitmann M, Zannini E, Arendt EK; Foods. 2016 Apr 21;5(2) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5302342/pdf/foods-05-00030.pdf
    11. Strange Grains Gluten Free Bakery https://www.strangegrainsbakery.com.au/gluten-free-bread-perth
    12. Technological Properties of Pea and Buckwheat Flours and Their Blends; Ilze Beitane, Gita Krumina-Zemture, Martins Sabovics; Latvia University of Agriculture Research for Rural Development 2015, Annual 21st International Scientific Conference Proceedings Vol 1, p 137-42 http://llufb.llu.lv/conference/Research-for-Rural-Development/2015/LatviaResearchRuralDevel21st_volume1-137-142.pdf
    13. Northern Pulse Grower Association Pea Flour Brochure http://www.northernpulse.com/uploads\resources\661\pulse-flour-brochure.pdf
    14. USA Dry Pea & Lentil Council Brochures https://www.usapulses.org/brochures
    15. Non-gluten proteins as structure forming agents in gluten free bread; Ziobro R, Juszczak L, Witczak M, Korus J; J Food Sci Technol. 2016 Jan;53(1):571-80 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4711467/pdf/13197_2015_Article_2043.pdf
    16. Ripple Foods Pea Milk https://www.ripplefoods.com/
    17. Crux Toasters http://www.cruxkitchen.com/crux_toaster_2slice.php
    18. Bella Pro-Series Toasters https://bellahousewares.com/products-bella/?taxonomy=productscategories&term=pro-series
    19. Bella Ultimate-Elite Toasters https://bellahousewares.com/products-bella/ultimate-elite-collection-2-slice-digital-toaster/
    20. Williams Sonoma Open Kitchen Toaster https://www.williams-sonoma.com/products/willaims-sonoma-open-kitchen-2-slice-stainless-steel-toaster/
    21. Nesco T1000 2-Slice Toaster http://www.nesco.com/products/Small-Appliances/Toasters/TWO-SLICE-TOASTER-THUNDER-GREY/
    22. MCU CMS12530 toaster controller chip (in chinese) http://mcu.com.cn/uploads/file/2015/20150819163253_26043.pdf
    23. Pericom PT8A2514A toaster controller chip https://www.diodes.com/assets/Datasheets/PT8A2514A.pdf

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    Recommended Comments

    This recipe has only been vetted for the flours and ingredients as described in the recipe and article.  You are encouraged to try substitutions to meet your specific needs, but these substitutions may alter the qualities of the bread.  You may be able to omit oat flour and simply replace with more sorghum and buckwheat flours.  Millet flour might work, but large consumption of millet poses a risk for goiter.  Rice flour is, of course, an option that I have chosen to personally avoid.

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    For those of you sensitive to oats, I tested a non-oat loaf of the bread by substituting the cup of oat flour with another cup of sorghum flour to make a flour blend of 2 cups sorghum flour, 1 cup buckwheat flour, 2/3 cup potato starch, 2/3 cup arrowroot starch.  The result is shown in the photograph above with the volume of the non-oat loaf only slightly less than that of the oat loaf.  The bread taste and qualities are similar to that of oat version except for the distinct round top of the non-oat loaf due to the sorghum. 

    The greater volume of the oat loaf can likely be attributed to the high content of water soluble beta-glucan fiber in oats.  Oats and barley have the highest beta-glucan content among all grains.  Sorghum and millet also contain lower amounts of beta-glucan.  Beta-glucan extracted from millet has been demonstrated to increase volume of baked goods when added at up to 5% of the mixture.

    To make up for the volume loss in the non-oat loaf, I will be adding an additional 1/2 cup of buckwheat flour plus 1/4 cup water to my next test of a non-oat loaf.  Following that test, I will try adding an additional 1/4 cup of sorghum flour plus 2 tablespoon water to my next oat loaf to attempt to achieve a slightly rounded top in the oat loaf.


    Beta Glucan: Health Benefits in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
    D. El Khoury, C. Cuda, B. L. Luhovyy, and G. H. Anderson
    Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, Volume 2012 https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnme/2012/851362/

    "Among cereals, the highest content (g per 100 g dry weight) of beta-glucan has been reported for barley: 2-20 g (65% is water-soluble fraction) and for oats: 3-8 g (82% is water-soluble fraction). Other cereals also contain beta-glucan but in much lower amounts: sorghum 1.1-6.2 g, rye 1.3-2.7 g, maize 0.8-1.7 g, triticale 0.3-1.2 g, wheat 0.5-1.0 g, durum wheat 0.5-0.6 g, and rice 0.13 g. Other sources of beta-glucan include some types of seaweed and various species of mushrooms such as Reishi, Shiitake, and Maitake."

    Effect of addition of different levels of beta-glucan from minor millet on the functional, textural and sensory characteristics of cake premix and cake
    Seema Sharma, Dharmesh C. Saxena, Charanjit S. Riar
    Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, June 2018, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 1186-1194 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11694-018-9732-5

    "The volume index of cake was improved with beta-glucan addition up to 5.0% and decreased with further addition to 7.5%."


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    Your analysis of the ingredients was like a breath of fresh air.  I've been trying to find the right combination of ingredients to get a good dough for pizza crust and pita bread for a long time (nearly five years since I had to go gluten-free because of celiac), and while I've found some pretty good combinations, after reading this article I got to the best yet.  Long ago I became resistant to the conventional wisdom that tapioca starch and xanthan gum were essential to any gluten-free yeast bread.  And I'd found that light buckwheat flour was a good component, and that millet flour gave things a good aroma and flavor.  I'd tried including arrowroot, but it had never really seemed to be important.

    But based on your explanations and my experience, I tried a mix of millet flour, sorghum flour, light buckwheat flour, arrowroot starch, and potato starch, with an initial mixture of oat bran (Montana Gluten Free), psyllium husk powder, sugar, ascorbic acid, yeast and water.   This produced a dough which worked very well-- as well as I remember wheat flour dough working-- and which baked up into some wonderful pita bread.  As another experiment I used an amount of the dough equal to that for one round of pita, divided it in two, rolled it out fairly thin, and used it to make a couple of empanadas, and that also worked well.  (If you're interested, I can give you the details on the ingredient amounts and preparation steps.)  Anyhow, thank you for the enlightenment-- it is much appreciated.

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    Pizza_lover:  I am very happy you were able to benefit from my pursuits.  You really should submit your own article to Celiac.com to share your success with flat breads. 

    I am still concentrating on getting the most height and volume out of gluten-free breads and looking more into beta-glucan towards that end.  70% pure beta-gluten powder extracted from baker's yeast is readily available, and I have just ordered some to try adding to the non-oat version of my bread.  Unfortunately, this yeast beta-glucan (1,3 1,6) is not water soluble like oat beta-glucan (1,3 1,4) though water soluble yeast beta-glucan is being developed, some commercially available now.   The non-soluble yeast beta-glucan may  be able to demonstrate whether or not the beta-glucan in oats is responsible for oat flour's greater contribution to bread volume than sorghum flour.  I have not found any online mention of or reference to using yeast beta-glucan as an additive to enhance gluten-free bread volume.  This will be a first.  If it works, every gluten-free bread baker will be using it.  If it doesn't work, perhaps water soluble millet beta-glucan extract might become readily available in the near future.  Oat bran with a high concentration of beta-glucan is available, but still a problem for those with oat sensitivity.


    Preparation of Water Soluble Yeast Glucan by Four Kinds of Solubilizing Processes
    Liping Du, Xuekuang Zhang, Chao Wang, Dongguang Xiao
    Engineering, 2012, 5, 184-188 http://file.scirp.org/pdf/ENG_2013102117101981.pdf

    Scientific Opinion on the safety of ‘yeast beta-glucans’ as a Novel Food ingredient
    European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy https://mobil.bfr.bund.de/cm/343/EFSAopinionBeta-GlucanHefe2011.pdf

    Influence of Yeast Beta-Glucan on Cookies Sensory Characteristics and Bioactivities
    Umar Bacha, Muhammad Nasir, Sanaullah Iqbal, and Aftab Ahmad Anjum
    Journal of Chemistry, Volume 2018, Article ID 1295184 https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2018/1295184/

    Beta Glucan (1,3 1,6) 70% https://purebulk.com/beta-glucan-1-3-1-6-powder/?nosto=productpage-nosto-3

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    This is a summary of some bread recipe test variations. 

    First, adding non-soluble baker's yeast beta-glucan to the no-oat recipe did nothing to increase bread volume or height.  Only water soluble beta-glucan can be expected to have an affect on bread volume, and oat beta-glucan is the only option at this time.


    The photo above shows the result of adding an additional 1/2 cup of buckwheat flour to the non-oat bread recipe for a flour blend of 2 cups sorghum flour, 1-1/2 cups buckwheat flour, 2/3 cup potato starch, and 2/3 cup arrowroot starch plus an additional 1/4 cup of water added to the 2 cups of flaxseed water.  The result was a high curved top, higher at the center than at the ends of the loaf.  The top crust cracked open from expansion, so scoring of the top with shallow cuts is recommended to control the expansion.  Also distributing the dough in the loaf pan so there is less dough at the center than at the ends is recommended to even out the finished loaf height.  Sorghum flour causes the finished loaf to stick to the pan much more than oat flour, so it is recommended to use parchment paper at the bottom of the pan and free the loaf sides from the pan with a knife or icing spatula for this non-oat bread recipe.


    The second photo shown above shows the result of adding to the oat version of the bread recipe an additional 1/4 cup each of sorghum and buckwheat flours for a flour blend of 1-1/4 cup sorghum flour, 1-1/4 cup buckwheat flour, 1 cup oat flour, 2/3 cup potato starch, 2/3 cup arrowroot starch plus an additional 1/4 cup of water added to the 2 cups of flaxseed water.  The 1/4 cup sorghum addition gives the loaf a slightly curved top and the 1/4 cup buckwheat addition is needed to maintain the 4 inch loaf height.  This recipe variation produces an aesthetically more pleasing loaf shape than the original recipe and virtually guaranties the loaf will never sink in the center.

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    Substituting Millet Flour For Oat Flour


    The above photo shows the result of substituting millet flour for oat flour in the recipe.  The version shown uses 1-1/4 cup sorghum flour, 1-1/4 cup buckwheat flour, 1 cup millet flour, 2/3 cup potato starch, 2/3 arrowroot starch plus an additional 1/4 cup water (2-1/4 cups total) added to the milled flaxseed.  Unlike how replacing oat flour with additional sorghum flour causes the crust to crack open from expansion, when using millet the crust does not crack open, while the bread achieves a nice rounded top and a more even loaf height along its full length.  The bread properties remain similar to the other recipe versions except that the millet adds a slight "cracker" flavor to the bread and even gives off a a slight "cracker" aroma while baking.  When using millet the bread does not stick to the loaf pan as much as replacing oat with sorghum so parchment paper may not be needed on the loaf pan bottom.  If you don't mind a hint of cracker taste, this millet version is probably the best version to substitute for the oat version if oats are a problem for you.

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    Further evaluation of millet flour as a replacement for oat flour in this bread recipe has revealed some disappointing millet flour properties.  Millet flour produces a denser, firmer texture and harder crust than in bread using oat or extra sorghum flour.  Unlike the oat or additional sorghum non-oat versions which retain their original pliable texture, the millet bread version becomes increasingly hard during 2 weeks of storage in the refrigerator.  The hardness of the millet bread does make it more suitible for a crispy mini-pizza crust.  Though hard, the millet bread still remains tasty and palatable during storage and it toasts well.  Millet's dense properties appear to be best suited for flat breads, pizza and pie crusts, crackers, and crispy cookies and baked goods rather than high volume soft sandwich breads.  Oat flour still produces the best overall bread qualities.

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    Longer Mixing Time Boosts Bread Height


    Bread loaves made with identical ingredients are compared in the above photo.  The taller loaf on the left was made from dough mixed for 35 minutes.  The loaf on the right was made from dough mixed for 16 minutes at the same speed.  The loaf on the left contained 1/4 cup more water than the loaf on the right to keep the dough moist during the longer mixing time.  These loaves used a flour blend of 1-1/4 cup sorghum, 1-1/4 cup buckwheat, 1 cup oats, 2/3 cup arrowroot starch, 2/3 cup potato starch.  2-1/2 cups and 2-1/4 cups of water to steep the milled flaxseed were used in the left and right loaves, respectively.  The longer mixing time allows the yeast to develop a more open grain distributed evenly throughout the dough increasing bread volume and height.  A Bosch Compact mixer with dough hook on speed number "2" was used for mixing the dough.

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    Replacing Oat Flour with Quinoa Flour


    The photo above shows the quinoa (no oats) version of the Perfect 4 Inch Tall gluten-free Bread.  This version uses a flour mix of 1 cup rinsed and toasted white quinoa flour, 1 cup sweet white sorghum flour, 1-1/2 cups raw dehulled buckwheat flour, 2/3 cup potato starch, and 2/3 cup arrowroot starch.  2-3/4 cups water are used to steep the flaxseed.  The dough was mixed for 35 minutes with a Bosch Compact Mixer with a dough hook at speed number "2".  To remove the bitter saponin coating, bulk whole quinoa was rinsed under running water for about 4 or 5 minutes in a fine mesh sieve while swishing the sieve in a mixing bowl collecting the runoff water.  The quinoa, spread on a raised edge metal baking sheet, was then toasted for 3-1/2 hours in an oven at 250 degrees Farenheit before grinding the whole quinoa into flour with a coffee grinder.  Toasting removes most of the strong, over-whelming earthy, grassy taste of quinoa

    The result is a thoroughly satisfying gluten-free bread every bit as desirable as the oat version of this bread.  The slight grassy taste remaining in the toasted quinoa is suggestive of a hint of dill weed which is completely compatible with the sourdough rye flavor of the bread.  The bread is a bit heavy and dense, but the quinoa has a soft texture.  Though quinoa produces a bread with slightly less volume than oats, for those who are sensitive to oats, quinoa is a superb choice to replace oat flour and worth the extra effort of rinsing and toasting to prepare it.

    Whole quinoa can be purchased in bulk at a reasonable price.  If you are lucky to live in the Northwest, West or Southwest U.S. near a large population center, the large discount grocery superstore chain, WinCo Foods, carries bulk white quinoa at only $1.89 a pound!  You can get 4 or 5 pounds of whole organic white quinoa online for about $3.50 a pound with free shipping from anthonysgoods.com or PowerNutrishop on eBay.

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    Substituting Teff For Oat Flour


    Ivory Maskal Teff Flour is substituted for oat flour in the above shown photo.  The flour blend used consists of 1 cup ivory teff flour, 1 cup sweet white sorghum flour, 1-1/2 cups raw, dehulled buckwheat flour, 2/3 cup potato starch, 2/3 cup arrowroot starch plus 2-3/4 cups water for steeping the milled flaxseed.  Mixing time was 35 minutes with a dough hook at speed #2 on a Bosch Compact Mixer.  The result is a pleasantly surprising loaf with a softer texture and an unexpected volume and height at least equal to that achieved when using oat flour.  The only issues with this loaf is that a single crack did develop in the top crust and the taste is somewhat less hearty and bread-like than when using oat flour.

    The height of this loaf is a little bit too tall at 4-3/8 inches, so a blend using only 1-1/4 cups buckwheat flour plus 2-1/2 cups water is recommended to achieve the desired 4 inch height.  This would also likely eliminate any cracking in the top crust.  Teff flour is generally available in the USA from Idaho grown ivory or brown teff grain.  Ivory teff is described as being sweeter and milder than brown teff which is described as having a stronger, earthy, hazelnut to chocolate aftertaste.  Using brown teff flour might give this loaf a more robust and desirable flavor than ivory teff flour.  Using full flavored molasses rather than mild molasses might also help.

    Teff flour is a bit pricey in small quantities.  Teffco.com sells 25 lb bags of its brown or ivory Maskal Teff flour at only $2.60 a pound with free shipping, but 6 one pound bags at $5.00 a piece.  Anthonysgoods.com sells a 5 pound bag of brown teff flour for $4.00 a pound with free shipping, the next lowest price online.  The winner is the large discount grocery superstore chain, WinCo Foods in the western USA states, which sells ivory Maskal Teff flour in-store in bulk for only $2.66 a pound, but, unfortunately, not brown teff flour.  So I will have to shell out the extra bucks at Whole Foods for a small bag of brown teff flour to see if brown teff produces the desired taste, something I am now anxious to try in my next loaf.  Replacing oat flour with amaranth flour is also on my list to try.


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  • About Me

    Roy Jamron

    Roy S. Jamron holds a B.S. in Physics from the University of Michigan and an M.S. in Engineering Applied Science from the University of California at Davis, and independently investigates the latest research on celiac disease and related disorders.

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    Celiac.com 10/30/2006 - Triticum monococcum wheat is also known as Einkorn wheat and small spelt, but do not confuse it with common spelt which is not the same thing. Einkorn is the oldest and most primitive cultivated wheat, and recent studies have shown that it appears to lack gliadin toxicity and may be a safe wheat alternative for those with celiac disease. In the most recent study the researchers conclude that data show a lack of toxicity of triticum monococcum gliadin in an in vitro organ culture system, suggesting new dietary opportunities for celiac patients. If this is the case it appears that this grain is non-toxic to those with celiac disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2006 Nov;41(11):1305-11.
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    Pizzuti D, Buda A, DOdorico A, DInca R, Chiarelli S, Curioni A, Martines D.
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    Einkorn Breadmaking Sites:
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    Connie Sarros
    This article originally appeared in the Spring 2003 edition of Celiac.com's Journal of Gluten-Sensitivity.
    Celiac.com 12/14/2011 - Finding a slice of pre-packaged gluten-free bread that is 100% enjoyable seems to be the bane of many celiacs.  So you finally decide to make your own.  You read up on baking breads; you spend money to buy the ingredients; you take the time to prepare the mixture, then you put your creation in the oven.  Oh, the wonderful aroma of bread begins to fill the air.  You wait in anticipation.  Finally, the oven timer goes off and you remove your creation, only to discover that something went terribly wrong!  Don’t despair.  Below are some of the more common problems and solutions. 
    Bread machines have become very popular.  While they are tooted as being time-savers, baking bread in the oven actually takes very little extra time and effort, and usually yields better results.
    The most common complaint in gluten-free bread-baking is that the top of the loaf is dark brown while the inside is still doughy.  If this is a problem for you, try lowering the oven temperature by 25 degrees the next time you bake, and set your oven rack higher.  After the loaf is partially baked, cover it with a piece of foil for the remainder of the baking time.  A sure-fire way to get the inside to bake thoroughly is to use two small loaf pans instead of one large one.  Something else that will cause your bread not to bake through is the density factor, which leads us to issue number two.
    Number two in the complaint department is that gluten-free breads are too dense and heavy.  The alternative flours are heavier than wheat flour, so “tricks” must be played with the dough to obtain lighter, wheat-like results.   The use two smaller pans to bake the bread instead of a single large pan will also help avoid this problem by giving the bread more room to expand.  You can also use a bit more leavening and sugar (the sugar-to-yeast ratio must remain the same for the bread to rise properly).  Use only fresh yeast that is dissolved in warm—not hot—liquid; if the liquid is too hot, the yeast will not rise properly.
    Another trick is to have all of the liquid ingredients at room temperature, and then whip the liquid ingredients together in a blender to incorporate more air before adding them to the flour mixture.  You can also use a little less xanthan gum, and be sure to blend the dough mixture thoroughly, and then knead it a little more.
    The issue of how much liquid to use to make your bread lighter is much more confusing.  If you are using an egg replacer, you may need to add a little more liquid to replace the liquid in eggs.  If you use extra large eggs, and your bread is too dense, try using a smaller size egg.  For a lighter loaf of bread, use slightly less liquid in the recipe; this also applies if you live at a high altitude.  When baking at very low altitudes, slightly increase the amount of liquid.  If you are not confused yet, then continue reading!
    Different gluten-free flours absorb different amounts of liquids.  Some alternative flours require that you add more liquid to your recipe to prevent the loaf from being too dry and crumbly, while others require that you reduce the amount of liquid used to enable the loaf to be lighter and less dense so that it will bake evenly all the way through.  Now “humidity” quietly enters into the picture.  If it is humid, reduce the amount of liquid.  Ultimately, only experimentation will determine exactly how much liquid will be needed for the flours you are using.
    Have you ever taken a perfect loaf of bread out of the oven, only to watch it slowly collapse as it cools?  You are not alone.  This usually indicates that the bread is not completely cooked inside.  The simplest remedy is to use two smaller baking pans instead of one large one.  Increase your oven temperature slightly, and slightly decrease the amount of liquid used.
    After experimenting and adjusting oven temperatures, amounts of liquids used, types of flours used, you finally remove the perfect of loaf bread from the oven.  You wait in anticipation for it to cool.  You get out the knife to cut your first slice—and it crumbles.  Oh, the disappointment!  The dough was too dry, resulting in a loaf that will not hold together.  First—do not throw out the crumbs!  Put them in a small freezer bag and freeze them for the day when you want to make bread dressing, croutons, a crumb topping for a casserole, or breadcrumbs to coat fish, chicken or pork chops, or for use in a meatloaf. 
    To avoid the crumbling when you make bread in the future, reduce the amount of flour mixture slightly.  Add a little more binding by increasing the amount of xanthan gum or dough enhancer.  Use milk (cow, soy or rice) in place of the water called for in the recipe.  Once the bread is baked, cool the loaf completely before slicing it with a serrated knife that has been sprayed with a gluten-free nonstick spray.
    There are many variables when baking with gluten-free flours and yeast.  The important thing to remember is that the “real” taste of bread is achievable.  All the time spent in trial and error will be worth it—enjoy!
    No-Knead Toasting Bread
    This bread slices without crumbling, is moist, and is perfect for toasting!
    3 eggs
    1 ½ Tbsp. warm water
    1 Tbsp. quick-rising gluten-free yeast
    ¾ tsp. sugar
    ¾ cup milk
    2 cups gluten-free flour mixture
    ½ tsp. gluten-free baking powder
    1 tsp. cinnamon
    ¼ tsp. salt
    ½ cup + 1 Tbsp. sugar
    ¼ tsp. cider vinegar
    2 tsp. gluten-free mayonnaise
    4 Tbsp. butter, melted
    ½ cup gluten-free flour mixture*
    1 egg
    1 Tbsp. sesame seeds
    Place 3 eggs in a bowl of warm water for 10 minutes.  In a small bowl, stir together the 1 ½ Tbsp. warm water, yeast, and ¾ tsp. sugar; set aside for 15 minutes.  Scald milk, then let it cool till lukewarm.  Sift together the 2 cups flour mixture, baking powder, cinnamon, salt, and sugar; set aside.  In a mixer bowl, mix together vinegar, mayonnaise, eggs and melted butter.  Add the yeast and milk and beat until smooth.  Slowly add the flour mixture, beating at low speed until blended.  With a spoon, stir in the remaining ½ cup of flour mixture.   Generously spray a loaf pan (9X5”) with gluten-free nonstick spray.  Spoon the batter into the pan.  Dip a spoon in a little gluten-free flour and use the back of the spoon to smooth the dough in the pan.  Whip the remaining egg with a few drops of warm water, then brush this egg mixture on top of the loaf.  Sprinkle loaf with sesame seeds.  Spray one side of a piece of waxed paper with gluten-free nonstick spray; cover loaf with paper, sprayed side down.  Place a bowl of very hot water on the bottom shelf of the oven.  Place the loaf pan on the shelf above the water.  Close oven door and let the dough rise for 1 hour.  Remove water and loaf pan from oven.  Preheat oven to 350F for 10 minutes.  Remove waxed paper and place bread in oven to bake for 25 to 30 minutes.  If the top of the bread is browning too quickly, cover pan with a sheet of foil until loaf is baked through.  Let baked bread sit in pan for 5 minutes, then remove bread and let it finish cooling on a wire rack.  If you are not going to be eating the bread the day you bake it, wrap it well and freeze it.  Spray a serrated knife with gluten-free nonstick spray to cut the bread.
    *Gluten-free Flour Mixture:
    The flour mixture I use is a combination of rice, potato starch, tapioca and garbanzo bean flours, cornstarch and xanthan gum.  If you are allergic to any of these products, alternative flours may be substituted.

    Miranda Jade
    Celiac.com 10/06/2016 - You do not need to be celiac to need to stay away from gluten. Wheat isn't just harmful to celiac or gluten-sensitive individuals. Did you know that just one slice of wheat bread raises one's blood sugar higher than 3 teaspoons of table sugar? That is equivalent to 12 grams of sugar! Talk about diabetes waiting to happen!
    I am very diligent in reading over even the gluten–free ingredients of products to ensure they are indeed gluten-free. I decided to start grabbing items off of the shelf to read the other listed ingredients as well. Wow, was I surprised! Sugar, high fructose corn syrup, corn syrup, fructose etc.! Sweetener and especially sugar are added to so many things; it is really horrible. No wonder Americans are addicted to it. We have many new diagnoses and physical disorders stemming from the standard American Diet, the "improper diet", not to mention a rapid rise in obesity statistics and diagnosed diabetes.
    Americans love bread, gluten-free or not. Go to a restaurant and what is the first thing brought to the table? Bread! Can you imagine being brought some cut up cucumbers and celery instead? Now THAT would be a nice change! I often ask for this by the way and suggest you do as well.
    Kids products are the worst! To give a tiny or growing body with a rapidly developing brain that needs proper nutrition all that junk, additives and unhealthy ingredient are a crime. If your child has been having trouble focusing in school, I highly advise you to look at the ingredients list of the food and snacks he or she eats and check out the children's menu at a restaurant. Gluten-free foods as well.
    You may not have any issues with gluten and wheat type bread but it is harming your body in one way or another and I strongly advise you to stay away from it and keep your family off of it too. I also highly suggest you start being diligent and read your gluten-free product's ingredients list. Going gluten-free is the first step as a diagnosed celiac or one who is gluten intolerant, but getting healthier or staying healthy is of utmost importance to a long and healthy lifestyle. Your body's future is in your hands.

    Leszek Jaszczak
    Celiac.com 07/08/2017 - The most frequently used materials in the baking industry are wheat, rye, and barley flours. However, due to the presence of gluten, they cannot be used for gluten-free food production. Gluten-free products are characterized by a low content of nutrients such as protein and minerals which are important for meeting normal physiological requirements. In addition, these products are readily available and the taste is far different from typical bread. [Marciniak-Åukasiak K., M. concentrate Skrzypacz gluten-free bread with amaranth flour in foods. Science. Technology. Quality, 2008, 4 (59), 131 - 140]. These issues raise the need for finding new raw materials for bread production, which would improve the nutritional value and sensory experience [Wolska P., CegliÅ„ska A., Dubicka A. 2010. Manufacture of bread for gluten-free cereal żurkach. FOOD. Science. Technology. Quality, 2010, 5 (72), 104 – 111]. Due to the low intake of foods rich in essential nutrients and minerals, people with celiac disease are seeking supplements to avoid deficiencies.
    Buckwheat, is an alternative raw material that can be used for production of gluten-free foods and has generated a growing interest. However, the scientific research regarding these crops is scarce [Zmijewski M. dough and bread quality wheat and buckwheat, depending on the technology food additives. Science. Technology. Quality, 2010, 5 (72), 93 - 103]. Common Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) although it does not require any complicated or unusual cultivation practices, it is rarely cultivated by farmers. Buckwheat is now grown in areas of Russia, China, Brazil, and Poland. The energy value of buckwheat is higher than the other grains such as wheat and rye. It is a good source of saccharides and proteins with well-balanced amino acid composition. It also contains high levels of lysine, fats, vitamins and minerals. It is also characterized by a significant amount of dietary fiber of varied fractional composition and biologically active compounds.
    Specific levels depend on the variety, anatomical part, climate, and growing conditions. These factors also effect the content of biologically active substances, such as flavonoids and routins, thought to have health promoting effects on the human body. Buckwheat is also the source of many compounds with antioxidant effects, which are: tocopherols, quercetin, kaempferol, and phenolic acids [Krzysztof Dziedzic et al, Content of antioxidants in buckwheat and products made in the processing, Food. Science. Technology. Quality, 2009, 6 (67), 81 – 90]
    The protein content of buckwheat is from 8.5 to 18.9%, depending on the species. Buckwheat protein has a high nutritional value. Its value is higher than pork protein, casein, fish meal and a bit lower than egg white. The scientific literature reports that extracts of buckwheat protein can successfully be used as a functional food additive for the treatment of diseases such as hypertension, obesity, cancer, and alcoholism. Scientists studying buckwheat demonstrate its beneficial effects on human health: buckwheat proteins prevent the formation of gallstones, they have the ability to bind vitamin B1, contribute to the prevention of colon cancer and breast cancer. In addition, buckwheat protein does not contain α-gliadin fraction, allowing buckwheat products to be successfully used in the production of food for people with celiac disease [M. Zmijewski, Jakość ciasta i chleba pszenno-gryczanego w zależnoÅ›ci od dodatków technologicznych żywność. Nauka. Technologia. Jakość, 2010, 5 (72), 93 – 103]
    Technological processes used in the production of buckwheat have a significant impact on the content of antioxidant compounds. The highest content of phenolic compounds are found in grains of buckwheat after roasting and the lowest in whole buckwheat groats. Buckwheat hulls have lower level of these compounds compared with buckwheat before the roasting process. Routin is an antioxidant compound present in the largest amounts in the above product. [Krzysztof Dziedzic et al, Content of antioxidants in buckwheat and products made in the processing, Food. Science. Technology. Quality, 2009, 6 (67), 81 – 90].
    Manufacture of bread with only buckwheat flour is impossible due to the lack or very low level of gluten proteins. Recipes that use buckwheat flour are enriched with corn starch, which replaces wheat flour. Such raw materials compositions are used in the production of bread for people with celiac disease. Complete removal of wheat flour results in the dough deterioration and structure for baking. Crumb color changes from cream to gray, the taste and smell is unpleasant when compared with traditional bread. In order to improve these defects some additives are used from dairy products such as milk and whey, which improve the quality of the bread [Jurga R., 2008. Wykorzystanie mÄ…ki gryczanej przy produkcji chleba pszennego. Przegl. Zboż.--MÅ‚yn. 11: 18]. Products with roasted buckwheat flour stand out, with clear and distinct flavors of buckwheat, due to the higher content of dextrin, sugar and pectin [Wronkowska M., Soral-Åšmietana M., 2008. Buckwheat flour – a valuable component of gluten-free formulations. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 58: 59-6].
    Studies indicate that gluten free bread with buckwheat added is characterized by an increased volume compared with traditional recipes. The result may be affected by other components in particular hydrocolloids. Loaves with more buckwheat content are characterized by greater height and size. The loaf shape will also vary depending on the addition of buckwheat flour [Krupa-Kozak Urszula et al J. Food Sci. Vol 29, 2011, No. 2: 103-108 Effect of Buckwheat Flour He Contents icroelements and Proteins in Gluten-Free Bread].
    Enriching with common buckwheat flour, rich in protein and minerals, gives a positive effect on the content of important ingredients. As reported by the literature, add 10% buckwheat flour, by weight, to a typical bread recipe and you will double the content of protein in the product. Further increasing the buckwheat portion of the flour recipe resulted in further significant increases in protein content. Buckwheat flour also increases the copper and manganese content. Buckwheat grains are a good source of micronutrients and trace elements such as zinc, selenium, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium. Adding buckwheat also increases the amount of vitamins, especially of the B group. A valuable component of buckwheat grain is the flavonoid rutin. It has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. It seals blood vessels, prevents capillary fragility and reduces the risk of atherosclerosis [urszula Krupa-Kozak, Margaret and Wronka owska and Maria Soral-cream Czech J. Food Sci. Vol 29, 2011, No. 2: 103-108 Effect of Buckwheat Flour He Contents icroelements and Proteins in Gluten-Free Bread].
    Buckwheat's high fiber content is also beneficial for the human body, a role that has only recently been appreciated. The fiber content of bright wheat flour is about 2.5%, while in buckwheat flour it is about 6.8%. Dietary fiber increases the volume of food intake, while not increasing the energy value, which is especially important for people who are overweight or obese. This substance reduces the feeling of hunger and acts as a filler in the gastrointestinal tract. Fiber also binds cholesterol, which indirectly reduces its level in the bloodstream. In addition, fiber absorbs harmful substances such as heavy metals, toxic components of plant antinutrients, and the products of their metabolism [Magdalena Fujarczuk, MirosÅ‚aw Å»mijewski Jakość pieczywa pszennego w zależnoÅ›ci od dodatku otrÄ…b pochodzÄ…cych z różnych odmian gryki żywność. Nauka. Technologia. Jakość, 2009, 6 (67), 91 – 101].
    In buckwheat nuts, valuable antioxidants such as flavonoid compounds and phenolic acids can be detected, which obstruct free radical reactions and inhibit oxidative enzymes. Due to its high antioxidant capacity and a significant share of the total pool of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, buckwheat products can provide a valuable complementary component of the gluten free diet [WpÅ‚yw obróbki termicznej na skÅ‚ad chemiczny i wÅ‚aÅ›ciwoÅ›ci przeciwutleniajÄ…ce ziarniaków gryki; żywność. Nauka. Technologia. Jakość, 2007, 5 (54), 66 – 76 StempiÅ„ska Karolina et al]
    Traditional food can be enriched by buckwheat bran containing protein, fiber, B vitamins and minerals. Buckwheat may well be a functional food ingredient. It is also a noteworthy possibility to use buckwheat as a component of a prebiotic. The presence of flavonoids in buckwheat can be used by the pharmaceutical industry.
    In summary, buckwheat flour as an additive increases and improves the nutritional value and technological parameters of bakery products. It has a positive effect on the volume and shape of the loaves. Usage of these grains increases the flour's content of minerals such as copper, manganese, iron and zinc [Krupa-Kozak Urszula et al Buckwheat Flour Effect of a Microelements and Protein Contents in Gluten-Free Bread, Czech J. Food Sci. Vol 29, 2011, No. 2: 103-108]. However, when creating new products with health promoting features, we have to remember the consumer's preferences, especially in relation to the textural characteristics of bakery products. [Dziedzic K. et al 2010. The possibilities of using buckwheat in the production of functional foods. Science inc. Technol. 4, 2, # 28]

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