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Is a Reovirus Infection a Prime Cause of Celiac Disease?

Reovirus infection triggers inflammatory responses to dietary antigens and development of celiac disease.


Photo: CC--Yuri Samoilov

Celiac.com 04/17/2017 - A team of researchers recently set out to test this hypothesis and to gain insights into mechanisms underlying virus-induced loss of tolerance to dietary antigens. To do so, they developed a viral infection model that makes use of two reovirus strains that infect the intestine, but which differ in their immunopathological outcomes.

The research team included Romain Bouziat, Reinhard Hinterleitner, Judy J. Brown, Jennifer E. Stencel-Baerenwald, Mine Ikizler, Toufic Mayassi, Marlies Meisel, Sangman M. Kim, Valentina Discepolo, Andrea J. Pruijssers, Jordan D. Ernest, Jason A. Iskarpatyoti, Léa M. M. Costes, Ian Lawrence, Brad A. Palanski, Mukund Varma, Matthew A. Zurenski, Solomiia Khomandiak, Nicole McAllister, Pavithra Aravamudhan, Karl W. Boehme, Fengling Hu, Janneke N. Samsom, Hans-Christian Reinecker, Sonia S. Kupfer, Stefano Guandalini, Carol E. Semrad, Valérie Abadie, Chaitan Khosla, Luis B. Barreiro, Ramnik J. Xavier, Aylwin Ng, Terence S. Dermody, and Bana Jabri.

Reoviruses usually infect humans and mice without overt physical symptoms. Prior research by Bouziat et al., has shown that immune responses to two gut-infecting reoviruses take different paths in mice, as noted in the Perspective by Verdu and Caminero.

Both reoviruses triggered protective immune responses. However, when one of the reoviruses occurred in the presence of a dietary antigen, such as gluten or ovalbumin, tolerance to the dietary antigen disappeared. This was because this strain blocked the formation of tolerogenic T cells. Instead, it promoted T helper 1 immunity to the dietary antigen through interferon regulatory factor 1 signaling. Moreover, celiac disease patients also showed elevated levels of antibodies against reovirus.

Reovirus is an avirulent pathogen that elicits protective immunity, but these researcher have shown that it can also cause a disruption of intestinal immune homeostasis at inductive and effector sites of oral tolerance by suppressing peripheral regulatory T cell (pTreg) conversion, and promoting TH1 immunity to dietary antigen. TH1 immunity to dietary antigen depended on interferon regulatory factor 1, and was unconnected to suppression of pTreg conversion, which was mediated by type-1 interferon.

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This study provides important scientific support for the idea that this seemingly mild reovirus plays a major role in the development of celiac disease.

Clearly further study is needed to determine the exact nature of the role of reovirus in celiac disease, and to determine if these connections might prompt any changes in celiac diagnosis and treatment.

Source:

 

 

The researchers are variously affiliated with the Department of Medicine, the Department of Pathology, and the Committee on Immunology at the University of Chicago in Chicago, IL, USA; the Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, the Department of Pediatrics, and the Elizabeth B. Lamb Center for Pediatric Research at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, TN, USA; the Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Section of Pediatrics, University of Naples Federico II, and CeInGe–Biotecnologie Avanzate, Naples, Italy; the Laboratory of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam-Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam, Netherlands; the Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; the Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Gastrointestinal Unit and Center for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA; the University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center at the University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; the Section of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; the Department of Microbiology, Infectiology, and Immunology, University of Montreal, and the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Sainte-Justine Research Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; the Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; the Stanford ChEM-H, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA; the Department of Genetics, CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; the Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; the Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; and the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

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1 Response:

 
coloradosue
Rating: ratingfullratingfullratingfullratingfullratingfull Unrated
said this on
24 Apr 2017 9:57:29 PM PDT
Like I have been saying since my diagnosis in 2004, my celiac disease developed shortly after exposure (from someone I worked for) to a virus that then developed into double pnuemonia. However, I suspect that over the years, I displayed the typical symptoms of dermatitis herpetiformis and other milder symptoms typical of celiac disease, but thought that the symptoms were indicative of something else. And I had had pneumonia before but did not "turn my CD on" until the last exposure to the virus that caused my pneumonia in 2004. So the question(s) are what type of virus caused the changes? I would like answers to that and many other questions. The same happened to my only child and one of my grandson. Both had viral indications. Both had their CD turned on. How about it researchers --- can you answer those questions for us and many other people who have the same questions!!!!!!




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I am very interested in this too. My daughter tested negative for celiac, but has terrible primarily neurological symptoms. Because she tested positive for SIBO at the time and was having some GI symptoms, I was told it was just a Fodmap issue. I knew better and we have been gluten free for 2 years. Fast forward to this February. She had a SIBO recurrence that I treated at home with diet and herbal antibiotics because I couldn't get the insurance referral. She was doing great. Then stupid me brought in gluten containing chick feed for the new baby chicks we got. Feed dust everywhere. Total mess. Really, no GI symptoms (she was SIBO free by then)...but the neurological symptoms! my daughter couldn't walk for three days. Burning down one leg, nerve pain in the foot. Also heaviness of limbs, headache and fatigue. Better after three days. But unfortunately she had a TINY gluten exposure at that three day mark and had another severe reaction: loss of balance, loss of feeling in her back and arms, couldn't see for a few seconds, and three days of hand numbness, fatigue, concentration problems. Well, I actually contacted Dr. Hadjivassilou by email and he confirmed that the symptoms are consistent with gluten ataxia but any testing would require a gluten challenge. Even with these exposures, antibodies would not be high enough. His suggestion was maintain vigilance gluten free. I just saw my daughter's GI at U of C and she really only recognizes celiac disease and neurological complications of that. But my impression is that gluten ataxia is another branch in the autoimmune side of things (with celiac and DH being the other two). At this point, I know a diagnosis is important. But I don't know how to get there. We homeschool right now so I can give her time to heal when she is accidentally glutened, I can keep my home safe for her (ugh, that I didn't think of the chicken feed!) But at some point, she is going to be in college, needing to take exams, and totally incapacitated because of an exposure. And doctors state side that are worth seeing? Who is looking at gluten ataxia in the US?

Caro..............monitoring only the TSH to gauge thyroid function is what endo's do who don' t do a good job of managing thyroid disease. They should do the full panel and check the actual thyroid hormone numbers.........T3 and T4. The importance of the TSH comes second to hormone levels. In order to track how severely the thyroid is under attack, you need to track antibody levels.......not the TSH. I did not stay with endocrinologists because I found they did not do a very good job and found much greater help and results with a functional medicine MD. You should not have a goiter if your thyroid is functioning well and your TSH is "normal". Maybe they should do a full panel? Going gluten free can have a profound affect for the better on thyroid function and that is something that is becoming more and more accepted today. Ask most people with Celiac and thyroid disease and they will tell you that. My thyroid never functioned well or was under control under after I discovered I had Celiac and went gluten free. It was the only way I got my antibody numbers back down close to normal and they were around 1200 when it was diagnosed with Celiac. I was diagnosed with Hashi's long before the Celiac diagnosis. I am not sure Vitamin D has anything to do with thyroid antibodies but who knows? Maybe it does have an affect for the better. It is really hard to get Vitmain D levels up, depending on where you live. Mine are going up, slowly, even after 12 years gluten-free but I live in the Northeast in the US and we don't have sun levels like they do in the South. I take 5,000 IU daily and that is a safe level to take, believe it or not. I get no sun on my job so the large dose it is! Having Celiac Disease should not stop you from being able to travel, especially S. America. I travel, although I do agree that some countries might be very difficult to be gluten free in. You can be a foodie and travel with Celiac so no worries on that front. You may not be able to sample from someone else's plate, unless they are eating gluten-free too but I have had awesome experiences with food when traveling so you can too!

I don't know what you drank or where.... so here are a few thoughts. - sure, a dive bar might have dirty glasses and serve a cocktail in a beer glass? But a nice reminder place, with a dishwasher, should be fine. If it's a sketchy place, Stick to wine, then it's served in wine glasses that aren't used for beer or bottled ciders in the bottle. - ciders on tap might, just a slight chance, have an issue. Because of beer on tap, mixed up lines, etc. - you may have a problem with alcohol - you may have issues with The high sugar content of the drink. I know I have similar issues if I drink serveral ciders of extra sugary brands - are you positive it was a gluten-free drink? Not this " redds Apple" pretending to be a cider - it's beer with apple flavor. Or one of those " gluten removed " beers?

Hi Stephanie, I'm also from the UK, I've found this site more helpful than anything we have! As already mentioned above, in my experience it could depend on what and where you were drinking. Gluten free food and drink isn't always (not usually) 100% gluten free as you may know, maybe you have become more sensitive to even a trace of gluten that is probably in gluten free food/drink. Is it possible you have a problem with corn, particularly high fructose corn syrup that is in a lot of alcoholic drinks? This was a big problem for me and the only alcoholic drinks I can tolerate are William Chase vodka and gin. I contacted the company last year and all their drinks are 100% gluten and corn free, made the old fashioned way with no additives, so maybe try their products if you like the occasional drink and see how you get on. If you drink out, not many pubs sell their products but I know Wetherspoons do and smaller wine bars may too. l was never a spirit drinker but I must say their products are absolutely lovely! Very easy on a compromised gut too considering it's alcohol. I second the suggestion on seeing a natural health practitioner. I've recently started seeing a medical herbalist, as I've got nowhere with my now many food intolerances since going gluten free last year and I've noticed a difference in my health already.

Sorry for the very late reply and thanks for the replies, I didn't get a notification of any. In case anyone else comes across this and has been wondering the same as I was, I did try a vegetable broth and I did react to it in the same way as if I'd eaten the vegetables. As for the candida, I've been using coconut oil and am seeing a medical herbalist for this and leaky gut. It's only been a few weeks but I've noticed an improvement all round.