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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    CUPCAKES (GLUTEN-FREE WITH DAIRY-FREE OPTION)


    Jules Shepard

    Perfect for any occasion ... or no occasion! Your will power is no match for these moist cakes!I've provided frosting recipes too, so get started celebrating!


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    Ingredients:

    • 3 cups Jules Gluten- Free All-Purpose Flour
    • 1 Tbs. gluten-free baking powder
    • ¼ cup powdered milk, dairy or non-dairy (I use DariFree Original)
    • ¼ tsp. salt
    • ½ cup butter or non-dairy alternative (I like Earth Balance® Buttery Sticks)
    • 2 cups granulated cane sugar
    • 4 large eggs
    • 2 tsp gluten-free vanilla extract
    • 1 cup milk or non-dairy alternative (vanilla flavor)
    Directions:
    Pre-heat oven to 350° F (static) or 325° F (convection). Spray 24 cupcake tins with non-stick cooking spray or line with paper liners.

    Whisk together the flour, baking powder, powdered milk and salt and set aside.

    In a large mixing bowl, combine the butter and sugar and beat well with your mixer's paddle attachment, until the mixture is very light and fluffy (approximately 3-4 minutes). Add the eggs next, one at a time, beating well after each addition. Mix in the vanilla with the last egg addition. Slowly add the milk, alternating with the flour mixture and beating in between the additions. Beat until smooth and pour into the prepared pans.

    Bake for 20 minutes, turning the pans half-way through if using convection setting. Test the cupcakes for doneness by inserting a cake tester or toothpick in the middle of a cupcake and be sure it comes out clean. The cupcakes will also begin to pull away slightly from the sides of the pans. If necessary, add bake time in 5 minute increments until fully baked.

    When done, turn off the oven and leave the oven door open to let the cupcakes cool slowly there for 10 minutes or so, then remove to a cooling rack. After 15-20 minutes of total cooling time, remove from cupcake pans to finish cooling.

    Frost only when fully cooled, or wrap the cooled cupcakes with wax paper or plastic wrap and seal inside freezer bags to freeze until ready to use.

    Gluten-Free White Frosting

    Ingredients:
    • ½ cup butter or non-dairy alternative, softened (I like Earth Balance® Buttery Sticks)
    • 2 ½ cups confectioner's sugar
    • 1 ½ teaspoon gluten-free vanilla extract
    • ¼ cup dairy or non-dairy milk of choice (up to ¼ cup)
    • Food coloring, optional
    Directions:
    Cream the sugar and butter together with an electric mixer. Add the vanilla and 2 tablespoons of milk, beating well to combine, then add the food coloring if using, and milk (if and as necessary) to achieve a spreadable consistency, beating for several minutes at the end until light and fluffy.

    Gluten-Free Chocolate Frosting

    Use white frosting base and add ½ cup cocoa powder. Use additional milk until proper consistency is achieved.

    Image Caption: Gluten-Free Cupcakes
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  • Related Articles

    admin
    1 ¾ cup rice flour
    ¾ cup cocoa
    1 teaspoon Baking powder
    1 cup brewed black coffee
    ½ cup oil
    1 teaspoon Vanilla
    2 cups sugar
    2 teaspoon Baking soda
    1 teaspoon Salt
    2 eggs
    1 cup sour milk
    Add liquid ingredients to dry and beat at medium speed for 3 minutes. Bake in 9 x 13 pan for 45 to 50 minutes, or in 2 layer pans for 25 to 30 minutes. Notes: sour milk can be made by adding 1 teaspoon vinegar to 1 cup milk and letting it set for 5 minutes. Sift the dry ingredients, black coffee can be replaced with water if desired.

    admin
    Ingredients: to make a 1½ lb cake in an 8 tin
    1 large banana
    or 4 oz/100g grated carrot or apple
    or 4 oz / 100g unsweetened tinned chestnut purée
    or 4 oz / 100g tofu
    2 eggs
    4 oz or 100g margarine - hard
    4 oz or 100g granulated sugar
    8 oz or 200g mixed fruit
    several glacé cherries
    ¼ pint or 150ml hot water
    4 oz or 100g lentil flour ( or gram flour)
    4 oz or 100g rice flour
    ½ teaspoon or 2g bicarbonate of soda
    ¼ teaspoon or 1g cream of tartar
    ¼ teaspoon or 1g tartaric acid
    1 level teaspoon 1g mixed spice
    Put the margarine, sugar, mixed fruit and hot water in a large pan and stir over low heat until the fat has melted and the sugar is dissolved. Simmer gently for 5 to 10 minutes before cooling until lukewarm.
    Beat the banana / apple / carrot / chestnut / tofu to a smooth purée with the milk and egg. This is best done in a liquidizer. Beat the purée into the cooled fruit mixture. Mix the flours together with the bicarbonate of soda, cream of tartar, tartaric acid and mixed spice. Fold the flour mixture in quickly to the cooled fruit mixture and pour the mixture immediately into a deep 8 cake or 2 LB loaf tin lined with a layer of nonstick baking paper.
    Preheated oven gas mark 4 350°F 180°C
    Bake for 1 ¼ to 1 ½ hours.
    Cool in tin before turning out and removing paper.
    Variations: Use 8 oz/225g mixture of any of the following: sorghum flour, millet flour, sweet chestnut flour, teff flour - to replace the rice flour and lentil flour.

    Jules Shepard
    Celiac.com 02/23/2008 - Before we get to the details of how to make this amazing gluten-free chocolate cake, I think a few words on the latest gluten-free beers are in order.
    You probably already know that Anheuser-Busch has made their very own sorghum beer - Redbridge - which is widely available (if your favorite establishments do not carry it yet, tell them to order it from their distributor!).  This beer truly tastes like it comes from the Budweiser family; during the Superbowl, for example, I was grateful to have the perfect football-watching beer at my fingertips again!
    For this cake recipe though, I needed something with more body and a richer taste.  I explored the options at my favorite little specialty shop in historic Ellicott City, Maryland - Carpe Vinum.  If you are ever in the neighborhood, stop by and have a chat with the proprietor, John.  He is a most fascinating man and will order with a smile whatever you desire in the realm of wines and beers.
    Ok, back to the beer.  So, John and I chatted and I decided to try two different beers for my cake experiments: Hambleton Ales' "Toleration Ale" (http://www.hambletonales.co.uk/gfa.htm) out of the UK, and Green's Endeavour Dubbel Dark (http://www.glutenfreebeers.co.uk/) from Belgium.  The website of Green's US distributor (http://www.merchantduvin.com/pages/5_breweries/greens.html) has some useful trivia on the grains Green's uses in its vegan beer -- a drink which boasts no wheat, barley, crustaceans, eggs, fish, peanuts, soya beans, milk, lactose, nuts, celery, mustard, sesame seeds, sulphur dioxide or sulfites (please stop me if I ever do drink a beverage containing crustaceans - yuck!).  I'll admit that I was so grateful to have gluten-free beer options that I bought one of all he had in the store, but I settled on these two for making my cakes (I did my own beer taste test later...).
    The Toleration Ale cake was somewhat lighter, but no less delicious in its own way.  The Dubbel Dark was indeed that, and probably most mimicked a true Guinness cake.  I used two different frostings for my two cakes: one a canned ready-made white gluten-free frosting (I used Pillsbury) and the other a homemade cream cheese frosting.  They were both tasty with this cake, so feel free to use what you have available as time and ingredients will allow.  Aside from the frosting, I give you substitutions in the recipe to make it milk free and just as yummy - yay!
    So go ahead and treat yourself to this wonderfully light, yet sinfully rich gluten-free Chocolate Beer Cake!  It will make those 6 more weeks of winter go by much more smoothly...
    xoxo,
    ~jules
    Gluten-Free Chocolate Beer Cake
    Ingredients:
    1 cup gluten-free ale
    8 Tbs. unsalted butter or Earth Balance Shortening
    ¾ cup unsweetened cocoa powder
    2 cups granulated cane sugar
    ¾ cup sour cream or Tofutti Sour Supreme
    2 eggs
    1 Tablespoon gluten-free vanilla extract
    2 cups All Purpose Nearly Normal Gluten-Free Flour Mix
    1 Tablespoon baking soda
    Directions:
    Preheat oven to 350F.
    (Note- you will need a large saucepan for this recipe, not a mixer and mixing bowl!)
    Butter a 9-inch springform tube or springform pan (if using plain springform pan, line the bottom with parchment paper).
    In a small bowl, whisk the sour cream with the eggs and vanilla.
    Pour the 1-cup beer into a large saucepan (drink the rest!).  Add the butter and heat just until melted over medium heat.  Whisk in the cocoa powder and the sugar until smooth.
    Add the egg mixture into saucepan mixture and whisk.  Add the flour and baking soda until mixed.  Pour into the greased pan and bake for 35-40 minutes, or until a cake tester inserted into the center of the cake comes out clean.  Let the cake cool completely in the pan on a cooling rack and remove from the pan when fully cooled.
    Frost the top of the cake with a gluten-free cream cheese or white frosting of choice.
    Easy Cream Cheese Frosting:
    8 oz. cream cheese (can use fat free!)
    1 cup confectioners' sugar
    ½ cup heavy cream (can use half & half, but use less than ½ cup)
    Whip the cream cheese and sugar until smooth, then slowly stir in the cream to make spread-able consistency.


    Melissa Reed
    Celiac.com 08/14/2014 - I have missed ice cream cakes since I was diagnosed with celiac disease. Below is a make-ahead ice cream cake for a gluten-free birthday celebration, so that no one has to miss ice cream cake again!
    You will need:
    1 Gluten Free Betty Crocker Devil’s Food Cake Mix ½ - 1 gallon Gluten Free Vanilla Ice Cream, or Favorite gluten-free Ice Cream Flavor 1- 2 Containers Duncan Hines or other Gluten Free Fudge Frosting Cake Decorating Frosting, optional to write happy birthday message Candles, optional for birthday party. Directions:
    Bake the Gluten free Devil’s Food Cake as per box instructions, in two 8” cake pans. Remove from oven and cool. When the cake is completely cool, take the ice cream out of freezer to soften. Place one Gluten Free Cake Layer on a cake platter. Put an even layer of softened ice cream on top. Next, place the other Gluten Free Cake Layer on top of the softened ice cream. If the ice cream is getting to soft place the cake in the freezer for 10 minutes before frosting. After frosting the cake put it back into the freezer until about to serve. Take out 10 minutes before serving, add birthday candles to top if using and enjoy! “Eat well and live well!”-Melissa Bess Reed

  • Recent Articles

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
    Due to personal health reasons and restrictions, I find that I need to retire. My husband and I can no longer travel the country speaking at conferences and to support groups (which we dearly loved to do) nor can I commit to writing more books, articles, or menus. Consequently, I will no longer be contributing articles to the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. 
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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
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    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
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    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.
    Source:
    cnbc.com

    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center