• Join our community!

    Do you have questions about celiac disease or the gluten-free diet?

  • Ads by Google:
     




    Get email alerts Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

    Ads by Google:



       Get email alertsSubscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

  • Member Statistics

    77,491
    Total Members
    3,093
    Most Online
    victoriakihlstrom
    Newest Member
    victoriakihlstrom
    Joined
  • 0

    What Happened to the Great Gluten-Free Companies of Yesterday?


    Jefferson Adams


    • The gluten-free graveyard is piled high with the bones of once great companies that gave up the ghost.


    Image Caption: The gluten-free graveyard is full of great companies that didn't survive. Photo: CC--Kicki Zeilon

    Celiac.com 11/10/2017 - Gluten-free foods are more popular than ever, and the range of choices and the availability of gluten-free products continues to expand.


    Ads by Google:




    ARTICLE CONTINUES BELOW ADS
    Ads by Google:



    One of the more significant changes in the last few years has been the entry of major players in a market once dominated by small companies. General Mills has taken their ubiquitous Cheerios line gluten-free, and is now one of the largest manufacturers of gluten-free food in the U.S. Udi's has grown from a once small company into a gluten-free bread giant.

    Major retailers like Amazon have taken a bite out of numerous smaller businesses. The gluten-free graveyard is piled high with the bones of once great companies that gave up the ghost.

    Here are some gluten-free companies that used to be popular, but are now out of business, went bankrupt, or no longer selling gluten-free products:

    • Bimbo's Goodbye Gluten
    • Blue Ribbon Bakery
    • Bready
    • Bye Bye Gluti / Gluten Out
    • Cookies for Me
    • Dads Pizza Crust
    • Del's Gluten-Free Eats
    • El Peto
    • gluten-free Meals / Your Dinner Secret
    • Gia's Gluten-Free Bakery
    • Gluten Free A2Z
    • Gluten Intolerance Essentials
    • Glutenfreeapp.com
    • Gluten-Free Artisan Bakery
    • Gluten-Free Trading Company, LLC / Gluten-Free Warehouse
    • GlutenFreeVitamins.com / Point Natural
    • Gluten Less Dining
    • The Lean on Me Baking Company
    • Meals in a Minute
    • Nostalgic Cookies
    • S'Better Farms
    • Sofella
    • The Lean on Me Baking Company
    • Toovaloo Gluten Free
    • Versameal
    • Zeer.com

    Do you remember any of these once proud gluten-free companies? If so, share your recollections in our comments section. And definitely let us know about any we missed.

    0


    User Feedback

    Recommended Comments

    Guest Michael

    Posted

    I was a customer of glutenfreevitamins.com. I was diagnosed by an MD who is a nutritionist. I chose my own supplements. Unfortunately I became disabled with my immune system attacking my brain, thyroid, etc and had to forgo most supplements due to poverty and had to widen my avoidances. This is how some good companies lose customers.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    In Canada we had El Peto, they sold Gluten Free Flours and other premade foods. They were around for decades. I used to buy all my Flours from them in bulk. They are now gone .

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    "Udi's has grown from a once small company into a gluten-free bread giant." I was surprised to see this, I was expecting Udi's to be in the list of companies that had gone! The reason for this is that I live in the UK. I was only diagnosed 3 years ago, and found Udi's products very good. Then they stopped selling them here and I thought the company was not doing very well. I still miss their bagels and granola and wish they would come back here!

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites
    Guest NLM

    Posted

    Mona's gluten free mixes originally out of Victoria, BC and then from Woodinville, WA were delicious and a favorite of ours. The company is no longer in business.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites


    Your content will need to be approved by a moderator

    Guest
    You are commenting as a guest. If you have an account, please sign in.
    Add a comment...

    ×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

      Only 75 emoji are allowed.

    ×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

    ×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

    ×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


  • Popular Contributors

  • Ads by Google:

  • Who's Online   11 Members, 1 Anonymous, 436 Guests (See full list)

  • Related Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 10/07/2016 - Sales of gluten-free products continue to rise, with global the market expected to approach $5 billion by 2021, up from $2.84 billion in 2014, according to a new report from Transparency Market Research.
    Analysts are projecting annual revenue growth of about 7.7% across the sector from 2015 to 2021. They also project that, by 2021, North America will become the fastest growing gluten-free market, though Europe still currently dominates with a 52.5% share. Rising consumer belief in the potential health benefits of gluten-free products is a main factor driving growth in the gluten-free market. That, together with more cases of celiac disease and/or gluten sensitivity, increased use of gluten-free products as a weight management tool. Also a major factor is the high demand for gluten-free bakery products, the largest category in the gluten-free market.
    The sharp growth in gluten-free foods continues, even as scientists question its effectiveness for people with out celiac disease. The fact that there is no evidence to support the idea that people without celiac disease gain any health benefits from gluten-free products, seems to have little impact, and so the trend continues apace. Never ones to miss major consumer trends, companies from PepsiCo Quaker to Snyder's-Lance to General Mills' cereal brands are working to offer gluten-free options.
    The move by manufacturers toward more gluten-free products is probably a wise one. Even though nearly half of consumers claim gluten-free food is a fad, nearly one-in-four consumers said they consumed gluten-free products last year, and the demand for gluten-free products shows no sign of slowing down.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/07/2017 - After nearly a decade of high double-digit growth, the US market for gluten-free foods is set to level off to single digit rates in coming years, according to a study from Research and Markets.
    The firm's report, titled Gluten-Free Foods in the U.S., 5th Edition, looks at sales of gluten-free food across nine product categories, specifically traditional grain-based salty snacks and crackers, bread, pasta, cereal, making mix, cookies, flour and frozen dough.
    The report covers gluten-free food products sold through all types of retail outlets, including supermarkets, discount stores and super-centers, warehouse clubs, and mass merchandisers, along with convenience stores, drugstores, health and natural food stores, dollar stores, farms and farmers' markets. The report projects sales of more than $2 billion in 2020, up nearly $400 million from 2015.
    Researchers included products based on the possibility that they could be formulated with gluten, and whether they were clearly labeled and marketed as gluten-free.
    The company culls data for sales and market size from a proprietary Packaged Facts national online consumer survey conducted in July/August 2014; IRI sales tracking through U.S. supermarkets and grocery stores, drugstores, and mass merchandisers (including Target, Kmart, and Wal-Mart) with annual sales of $2 million or more; and from the Simmons National Consumer Survey from Experian Marketing Services.
    The report provides analysis of leading brands and marketers, key facts about gluten and how it can be avoided, gluten-free trends and opportunities, competition, food service markets, regulations and product development, and marketing trends.
    The full report is available at: Pizzamarketplace.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 09/06/2017 - Gluten-free food is now so mainstream that its lack of gluten is no longer a highlight, but is now just another of the many ways manufacturers signal a healthy product.
    Gluten-free has gone from specialty niche to mainstream, says David Sprinkle, research director of the market research firm Packaged Facts.
    "Where once upon a time a package might have had a singular fat-free or no-sugar-added label, it is now common to see packages that carry a host of tags such as certified organic, non-GMO, gluten-free, no antibiotics ever, no artificial preservatives, cage-free and more," says Sprinkle. Gluten-free tag is now just one of many "free-from" tags that help to lure consumers.
    That sentiment is shared by Kara Nielsen, sales and engagement manager at U.S.A., for Dutch company Innova Market Insights. Nielson says that Innova's data from "both global product launches and consumer surveys show that gluten-free is not going away, but rather found a place in the mainstream."
    So a market once dedicated to people with medical issues has now become a market for consumers who see avoiding gluten as a lifestyle choice.
    As that has happened, gluten-free has become part of that mix instead of being a focal point. This has in turn driven an evolution towards more healthy ingredients, and healthier overall profiles for many gluten-free foods.
    "The gluten-free trend is evolving in bakery products to feature more high-fiber and high-protein ancient grains and seeds, including buckwheat, teff and chia seeds, as well as gluten-free oats," Ms. Nielsen said.
    For consumers who have celiac disease or gluten intolerance, this can require more diligence in their shopping. They can't necessarily trust a gluten-free label without proper scrutiny. There are more than a few tricky labels out there. Some products that appear to be gluten-free may not meet FDA standards.
    The upside is a flood of new gluten-free products that are not only safe for people with celiac disease, but markedly healthier than gluten-free products of the past.
    Source:
    foodbusinessnews.net

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 09/07/2017 - It's summer and the consumer market reports are flying. Most of them project major growth in the gluten-free market and its numerous components over the next decade.
    The latest is a report by Grand View Research, Inc., which projects rising incidences of celiac disease, diabetes, and obesity across developed economies will help to drive the global gluten-free products market to USD 33.05 billion by 2025.
    In addition, the rising consumer awareness of celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is expected to aid product demand.
    Another key market driver is consumer perception of gluten-free products as part of a healthier diet. The vast majority of gluten-free foods are consumed by people with no medical necessity, but merely as a lifestyle choice.
    Gluten-free products are perceived to ease digestive ailments, lower the cholesterol level, and be less fattening, which in turn are expected to drive the product demand over the forecast years. Furthermore, the easy availability of the products, through nearly every grocery store, is expected to aid industry growth, most notably in the U.S. and major European countries.
    Gluten-Free Products Market Analysis breaks down the gluten-free market by product, by distribution, and by segment forecasts from 2014 to 2025.
    Products include Baked Goods, Dairy Alternatives, Desserts & Ice-Creams, Prepared Foods, Pasta & Rice. Distribution includes Grocery Stores, Mass Merchandiser, and Club Stores.
    Browse the full report at: Grandviewresearch.com

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/19/2018 - Could baking soda help reduce the inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease? Scientists at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University say that a daily dose of baking soda may in fact help reduce inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease.
    Those scientists recently gathered some of the first evidence to show that cheap, over-the-counter antacids can prompt the spleen to promote an anti-inflammatory environment that could be helpful in combating inflammatory disease.
    A type of cell called mesothelial cells line our body cavities, like the digestive tract. They have little fingers, called microvilli, that sense the environment, and warn the organs they cover that there is an invader and an immune response is needed.
    The team’s data shows that when rats or healthy people drink a solution of baking soda, the stomach makes more acid, which causes mesothelial cells on the outside of the spleen to tell the spleen to go easy on the immune response.  "It's most likely a hamburger not a bacterial infection," is basically the message, says Dr. Paul O'Connor, renal physiologist in the MCG Department of Physiology at Augusta University and the study's corresponding author.
    That message, which is transmitted with help from a chemical messenger called acetylcholine, seems to encourage the gut to shift against inflammation, say the scientists.
    In patients who drank water with baking soda for two weeks, immune cells called macrophages, shifted from primarily those that promote inflammation, called M1, to those that reduce it, called M2. "The shift from inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory profile is happening everywhere," O'Connor says. "We saw it in the kidneys, we saw it in the spleen, now we see it in the peripheral blood."
    O'Connor hopes drinking baking soda can one day produce similar results for people with autoimmune disease. "You are not really turning anything off or on, you are just pushing it toward one side by giving an anti-inflammatory stimulus," he says, in this case, away from harmful inflammation. "It's potentially a really safe way to treat inflammatory disease."
    The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
    Read more at: Sciencedaily.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/18/2018 - Celiac disease has been mainly associated with Caucasian populations in Northern Europe, and their descendants in other countries, but new scientific evidence is beginning to challenge that view. Still, the exact global prevalence of celiac disease remains unknown.  To get better data on that issue, a team of researchers recently conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis to get a reasonably accurate estimate the global prevalence of celiac disease. 
    The research team included P Singh, A Arora, TA Strand, DA Leffler, C Catassi, PH Green, CP Kelly, V Ahuja, and GK Makharia. They are variously affiliated with the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India; Innlandet Hospital Trust, Lillehammer, Norway; Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Gastroenterology Research and Development, Takeda Pharmaceuticals Inc, Cambridge, MA; Department of Pediatrics, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; USA Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; and the Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    For their review, the team searched Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE for the keywords ‘celiac disease,’ ‘celiac,’ ‘tissue transglutaminase antibody,’ ‘anti-endomysium antibody,’ ‘endomysial antibody,’ and ‘prevalence’ for studies published from January 1991 through March 2016. 
    The team cross-referenced each article with the words ‘Asia,’ ‘Europe,’ ‘Africa,’ ‘South America,’ ‘North America,’ and ‘Australia.’ They defined celiac diagnosis based on European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines. The team used 96 articles of 3,843 articles in their final analysis.
    Overall global prevalence of celiac disease was 1.4% in 275,818 individuals, based on positive blood tests for anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or anti-endomysial antibodies. The pooled global prevalence of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease was 0.7% in 138,792 individuals. That means that numerous people with celiac disease potentially remain undiagnosed.
    Rates of celiac disease were 0.4% in South America, 0.5% in Africa and North America, 0.6% in Asia, and 0.8% in Europe and Oceania; the prevalence was 0.6% in female vs 0.4% males. Celiac disease was significantly more common in children than adults.
    This systematic review and meta-analysis showed celiac disease to be reported worldwide. Blood test data shows celiac disease rate of 1.4%, while biopsy data shows 0.7%. The prevalence of celiac disease varies with sex, age, and location. 
    This review demonstrates a need for more comprehensive population-based studies of celiac disease in numerous countries.  The 1.4% rate indicates that there are 91.2 million people worldwide with celiac disease, and 3.9 million are in the U.S.A.
    Source:
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jun;16(6):823-836.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.06.037.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/16/2018 - Summer is the time for chips and salsa. This fresh salsa recipe relies on cabbage, yes, cabbage, as a secret ingredient. The cabbage brings a delicious flavor and helps the salsa hold together nicely for scooping with your favorite chips. The result is a fresh, tasty salsa that goes great with guacamole.
    Ingredients:
    3 cups ripe fresh tomatoes, diced 1 cup shredded green cabbage ½ cup diced yellow onion ¼ cup chopped fresh cilantro 1 jalapeno, seeded 1 Serrano pepper, seeded 2 tablespoons lemon juice 2 tablespoons red wine vinegar 2 garlic cloves, minced salt to taste black pepper, to taste Directions:
    Purée all ingredients together in a blender.
    Cover and refrigerate for at least 1 hour. 
    Adjust seasoning with salt and pepper, as desired. 
    Serve is a bowl with tortilla chips and guacamole.

    Dr. Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.
    Celiac.com 06/15/2018 - There seems to be widespread agreement in the published medical research reports that stuttering is driven by abnormalities in the brain. Sometimes these are the result of brain injuries resulting from a stroke. Other types of brain injuries can also result in stuttering. Patients with Parkinson’s disease who were treated with stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, an area of the brain that regulates some motor functions, experienced a return or worsening of stuttering that improved when the stimulation was turned off (1). Similarly, stroke has also been reported in association with acquired stuttering (2). While there are some reports of psychological mechanisms underlying stuttering, a majority of reports seem to favor altered brain morphology and/or function as the root of stuttering (3). Reports of structural differences between the brain hemispheres that are absent in those who do not stutter are also common (4). About 5% of children stutter, beginning sometime around age 3, during the phase of speech acquisition. However, about 75% of these cases resolve without intervention, before reaching their teens (5). Some cases of aphasia, a loss of speech production or understanding, have been reported in association with damage or changes to one or more of the language centers of the brain (6). Stuttering may sometimes arise from changes or damage to these same language centers (7). Thus, many stutterers have abnormalities in the same regions of the brain similar to those seen in aphasia.
    So how, you may ask, is all this related to gluten? As a starting point, one report from the medical literature identifies a patient who developed aphasia after admission for severe diarrhea. By the time celiac disease was diagnosed, he had completely lost his faculty of speech. However, his speech and normal bowel function gradually returned after beginning a gluten free diet (8). This finding was so controversial at the time of publication (1988) that the authors chose to remain anonymous. Nonetheless, it is a valuable clue that suggests gluten as a factor in compromised speech production. At about the same time (late 1980’s) reports of connections between untreated celiac disease and seizures/epilepsy were emerging in the medical literature (9).
    With the advent of the Internet a whole new field of anecdotal information was emerging, connecting a variety of neurological symptoms to celiac disease. While many medical practitioners and researchers were casting aspersions on these assertions, a select few chose to explore such claims using scientific research designs and methods. While connections between stuttering and gluten consumption seem to have been overlooked by the medical research community, there is a rich literature on the Internet that cries out for more structured investigation of this connection. Conversely, perhaps a publication bias of the peer review process excludes work that explores this connection.
    Whatever the reason that stuttering has not been reported in the medical literature in association with gluten ingestion, a number of personal disclosures and comments suggesting a connection between gluten and stuttering can be found on the Internet. Abid Hussain, in an article about food allergy and stuttering said: “The most common food allergy prevalent in stutterers is that of gluten which has been found to aggravate the stutter” (10). Similarly, Craig Forsythe posted an article that includes five cases of self-reporting individuals who believe that their stuttering is or was connected to gluten, one of whom also experiences stuttering from foods containing yeast (11). The same site contains one report of a stutterer who has had no relief despite following a gluten free diet for 20 years (11). Another stutterer, Jay88, reports the complete disappearance of her/his stammer on a gluten free diet (12). Doubtless there are many more such anecdotes to be found on the Internet* but we have to question them, exercising more skepticism than we might when reading similar claims in a peer reviewed scientific or medical journal.
    There are many reports in such journals connecting brain and neurological ailments with gluten, so it is not much of a stretch, on that basis alone, to suspect that stuttering may be a symptom of the gluten syndrome. Rodney Ford has even characterized celiac disease as an ailment that may begin through gluten-induced neurological damage (13) and Marios Hadjivassiliou and his group of neurologists and neurological investigators have devoted considerable time and effort to research that reveals gluten as an important factor in a majority of neurological diseases of unknown origin (14) which, as I have pointed out previously, includes most neurological ailments.
    My own experience with stuttering is limited. I stuttered as a child when I became nervous, upset, or self-conscious. Although I have been gluten free for many years, I haven’t noticed any impact on my inclination to stutter when upset. I don’t know if they are related, but I have also had challenges with speaking when distressed and I have noticed a substantial improvement in this area since removing gluten from my diet. Nonetheless, I have long wondered if there is a connection between gluten consumption and stuttering. Having done the research for this article, I would now encourage stutterers to try a gluten free diet for six months to see if it will reduce or eliminate their stutter. Meanwhile, I hope that some investigator out there will research this matter, publish her findings, and start the ball rolling toward getting some definitive answers to this question.
    Sources:
    1. Toft M, Dietrichs E. Aggravated stuttering following subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease--two cases. BMC Neurol. 2011 Apr 8;11:44.
    2. Tani T, Sakai Y. Stuttering after right cerebellar infarction: a case study. J Fluency Disord. 2010 Jun;35(2):141-5. Epub 2010 Mar 15.
    3. Lundgren K, Helm-Estabrooks N, Klein R. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature. J Neurolinguistics. 2010 Sep 1;23(5):447-454.
    4. Jäncke L, Hänggi J, Steinmetz H. Morphological brain differences between adult stutterers and non-stutterers. BMC Neurol. 2004 Dec 10;4(1):23.
    5. Kell CA, Neumann K, von Kriegstein K, Posenenske C, von Gudenberg AW, Euler H, Giraud AL. How the brain repairs stuttering. Brain. 2009 Oct;132(Pt 10):2747-60. Epub 2009 Aug 26.
    6. Galantucci S, Tartaglia MC, Wilson SM, Henry ML, Filippi M, Agosta F, Dronkers NF, Henry RG, Ogar JM, Miller BL, Gorno-Tempini ML. White matter damage in primary progressive aphasias: a diffusion tensor tractography study. Brain. 2011 Jun 11.
    7. Lundgren K, Helm-Estabrooks N, Klein R. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature. J Neurolinguistics. 2010 Sep 1;23(5):447-454.
    8. [No authors listed] Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 43-1988. A 52-year-old man with persistent watery diarrhea and aphasia. N Engl J Med. 1988 Oct 27;319(17):1139-48
    9. Molteni N, Bardella MT, Baldassarri AR, Bianchi PA. Celiac disease associated with epilepsy and intracranial calcifications: report of two patients. Am J Gastroenterol. 1988 Sep;83(9):992-4.
    10. http://ezinearticles.com/?Food-Allergy-and-Stuttering-Link&id=1235725 
    11. http://www.craig.copperleife.com/health/stuttering_allergies.htm 
    12. https://www.celiac.com/forums/topic/73362-any-help-is-appreciated/
    13. Ford RP. The gluten syndrome: a neurological disease. Med Hypotheses. 2009 Sep;73(3):438-40. Epub 2009 Apr 29.
    14. Hadjivassiliou M, Gibson A, Davies-Jones GA, Lobo AJ, Stephenson TJ, Milford-Ward A. Does cryptic gluten sensitivity play a part in neurological illness? Lancet. 1996 Feb 10;347(8998):369-71.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/14/2018 - Refractory celiac disease type II (RCDII) is a rare complication of celiac disease that has high death rates. To diagnose RCDII, doctors identify a clonal population of phenotypically aberrant intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). 
    However, researchers really don’t have much data regarding the frequency and significance of clonal T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (TCR-GRs) in small bowel (SB) biopsies of patients without RCDII. Such data could provide useful comparison information for patients with RCDII, among other things.
    To that end, a research team recently set out to try to get some information about the frequency and importance of clonal T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (TCR-GRs) in small bowel (SB) biopsies of patients without RCDII. The research team included Shafinaz Hussein, Tatyana Gindin, Stephen M Lagana, Carolina Arguelles-Grande, Suneeta Krishnareddy, Bachir Alobeid, Suzanne K Lewis, Mahesh M Mansukhani, Peter H R Green, and Govind Bhagat.
    They are variously affiliated with the Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, and the Department of Medicine at the Celiac Disease Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, New York, USA. Their team analyzed results of TCR-GR analyses performed on SB biopsies at our institution over a 3-year period, which were obtained from eight active celiac disease, 172 celiac disease on gluten-free diet, 33 RCDI, and three RCDII patients and 14 patients without celiac disease. 
    Clonal TCR-GRs are not infrequent in cases lacking features of RCDII, while PCPs are frequent in all disease phases. TCR-GR results should be assessed in conjunction with immunophenotypic, histological and clinical findings for appropriate diagnosis and classification of RCD.
    The team divided the TCR-GR patterns into clonal, polyclonal and prominent clonal peaks (PCPs), and correlated these patterns with clinical and pathological features. In all, they detected clonal TCR-GR products in biopsies from 67% of patients with RCDII, 17% of patients with RCDI and 6% of patients with gluten-free diet. They found PCPs in all disease phases, but saw no significant difference in the TCR-GR patterns between the non-RCDII disease categories (p=0.39). 
    They also noted a higher frequency of surface CD3(−) IELs in cases with clonal TCR-GR, but the PCP pattern showed no associations with any clinical or pathological feature. 
    Repeat biopsy showed that the clonal or PCP pattern persisted for up to 2 years with no evidence of RCDII. The study indicates that better understanding of clonal T cell receptor gene rearrangements may help researchers improve refractory celiac diagnosis. 
    Source:
    Journal of Clinical Pathologyhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2018-205023