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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    TEN BEST GLUTEN-FREE HOLIDAY STUFFING RECIPES 2014


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 12/17/2014 - Along with turkey, mashed potatoes and gravy, stuffing is the foundation of any great holiday feast. To my way of thinking, if there’s no stuffing, it’s just another meal.


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    This year, Celiac.com offers up our favorite recipe for classic holiday stuffing, along with nine more gluten-free stuffing recipes that are guaranteed to help you deliver a delicious gluten-free holiday meal.

    Classic Gluten-free Holiday Stuffing

    Ingredients:

    • 5-6 cups white, gluten-free bread (about 2 loaves), cut into one-inch cubes, toasted and cooled (I use Udi’s or Rudi’s)
    • 2 tablespoons olive oil
    • 3 cups celery, chopped
    • 2 shallots, minced
    • 1 large or 2 medium yellow onions, chopped
    • 1 tablespoon fresh thyme, minced
    • 1 tablespoon fresh sage, minced
    • 1-2 teaspoons fresh rosemary, minced
    • 1-1½ cups gluten-free chicken broth
    • ½ cup white wine
    • 1 egg yolk
    • 1 teaspoon salt
    • ½ teaspoon pepper

    Add bits of cooked sausage or bacon, diced chestnut, pecan, apple, cranberry, currant, or raisin, as desired, but make sure any sausage is gluten-free!

    Preparation:
    Sauté shallots, onion and celery in olive oil on medium-low heat until translucent.

    Stir in the rosemary, sage, and thyme, and cook another one or two minutes, until the aroma of the herbs fills the air. Add wine and continue cooking over medium heat until liquid is reduced by half. Remove from heat and allow to cool.

    Bring the chicken stock to boil on high heat. Note: If cooking stuffing inside turkey, add just 1 cup of chicken broth.

    Place the egg yolk in a large bowl and carefully spoon two or three ounces of the chicken stock into the egg yolk, slowly, while whisking the mixture.

    Add the rest of the chicken stock to the egg mixture. Make sure to blend a small amount of stock into the egg first to prevent scrambled eggs.

    Add the cooled celery, onion, and herbs mixture into the stock and egg mixture. Toss the bread cubes into this mixture and coat thoroughly. Add the salt and pepper and mix.

    Place the stuffing mixture into a greased casserole dish and cook in 400°F oven for 40-50 min, covering as needed with aluminum foil, until done.

    Note: The stuffing is done when you can insert a toothpick into the stuffing and it comes out clean. Make sure you bake stuffing until the toothpick comes out clean.

    Serves about six to eight people. Scale recipe according to amount of stuffing required.

    PLUS: Here are Nine More Recipes for Great Gluten-free Stuffing:

    1. Brown and Wild Rice Savory Mushroom Stuffing
    2. Rice Stuffing with Apples, Herbs, and Bacon
    3. Best Gluten-free Holiday Stuffing Recipe
    4. Chestnut, Wild Rice, and Pistachio Dressing
    5. Gluten-free Bread Stuffing with Herbs
    6. Gluten Free Holiday Stuffing
    7. Whole Foods Market Classic Gluten-free Stuffing
    8. Food Network Classic Gluten-free Stuffing
    9. Rudi’s Bakery Gluten-free Stuffing Mix

    Image Caption: Photo: CC--Anita Sarkeesian
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    Jefferson Adams
    This gluten-free version of classic beef stew is easy to make and sure to satisfy the heartiest eaters. Serve it with gluten-free cornbread, or bacon and cheese cornbread for extra smiles.
    Ingredients:
    2 pounds of beef stew meat, trimmed and cubed
    2 sweet yellow onions chopped into large pieces
    2 large potatoes
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    8 cloves of garlic, chopped
    1 tablespoon olive oil
    1 large can diced tomatoes
    ¼ cup of fresh thyme, chopped
    1 bay leaf
    1 tsp garlic powder
    10 cups of gluten-free beef stock
    1 cup red wine
    ½ teaspoon salt to taste
    ½ teaspoon black pepper to taste
    Directions:
    Add half of the olive oil to large stock pot on medium heat and brown stew meat evenly on all sides. Remove meat and add the rest of the oil and the onions to the pot. Cook onions until clear. Add garlic and cook another 30 seconds or so, stirring to avoid burning the garlic.
    Add tomatoes, seasonings, stew meat, and stock. Cover and cook on low for at least 3 hours. At that point, add the vegetables to the stew and add more beef broth if low.
    Taste and season as desired. Cover and cook on low until vegetables are tender, about 1½ - 2 hours more.


    Jefferson Adams
    I’ve always loved a combination of kalamata and green olives in this dish because their tart saltiness plays nicely against the rich, creamy mushroom sauce. However, almost any variety would work well, just keep an eye out for pits.
    The chicken is a great agent for the graceful preparation of mushrooms; you’ll surely find yourself scooping up every last bit of mushroom with your fork. In a spell of culinary enthusiasm, I often also add some red wine to the sauce for an extra kick. This recipe is easily adaptable for smaller or larger parties and as an added bonus, any leftover sauce goes great atop other vegetables, meats or rice.
    Ingredients:
    4 boneless, skinless chicken breasts
    1 pound button mushrooms, sliced
    1 cup olives, chopped
    1 small onion, chopped
    1 cup heavy cream
    2 cloves garlic, minced
    ½ teaspoon dried thyme
    ¼ cup olive oil, divided
    2 tablespoons butter
    4 toothpicks, optional
    1 ½ teaspoons each salt and pepper, plus more to taste
    Directions:
    Preheat oven to 350° F.
    Rinse and pat dry chicken. Cut a pocket in the thickest part of the breast and stuff with ¼ cup of chopped olives. If olives spill out, pierce with a toothpick to keep closed. Season with salt and pepper.
    Heat 2 tablespoons olive oil in a large pan and sear chicken 3-4 minutes on each side. Transfer to a baking dish and finish in the oven for 15-20 minutes depending on the thickness of the breast.
    Meanwhile, heat remaining oil with butter in the same pan over medium heat. Add onion and cook for 5 minutes until translucent. Add mushrooms, stirring frequently for an additional 5 minutes. Add cream, garlic and thyme to pan and reduce heat to low. Let simmer until sauce begins to thicken, 5-10 minutes. Season with salt and pepper.
    Remove chicken from oven and discard toothpicks. Spoon mushroom sauce over chicken and serve.


    Jefferson Adams
    Want to make an easy romantic dinner that will fill the house with wonderful aromas? Try this recipe for steamed fresh lobster.
    Ingredients:
    2 large onions, quartered 4 shallots, quartered 8 cloves garlic, peeled and chopped 2 lemons, quartered 2 oranges, quartered 6 stalks celery, quartered with leaves 4 tablespoons black pepper 4 tablespoons seasoned salt 2 fresh live lobsters or 4 (6 ounce) lobster tails ½ cup butter, melted Directions:
    Pour about 1 inch of water in the bottom of a large pot. Add all ingredients except lobster and butter. Bring to a boil.
    Add the salt and place a steamer insert inside the pot so that it is just above the water level. Put the lobster tails on the rack and cover the pot.
    Cover and steam for 8 minutes. Keep covered and do not lift the lid!
    While the lobster is steaming, set the table, pour a glass of white wine, and light a few candles. Serve with melted butter for dipping.

    Jefferson Adams
    This glazed version is one of my many favorite ways to enjoy salmon. The glaze offers just the right blend of honey, ginger, and soy, along with a tiny zing from the hot sauce, to produce grilled salmon that is sure to please. Glaze can be prepared ahead of time, as needed. Great for barbeques and cookouts!
    Ingredients:
    4 salmon fillets, about 1 pound ½ cup soy sauce ¼ cup honey ¼ cup water ¼ cup olive oil 1 teaspoon fresh ginger, shredded dash of lemon pepper dash of garlic powder dash of onion powder dash of salt 1 teaspoon Sriracha hot sauce Directions:
    Season salmon fillets with lemon pepper, garlic powder, and salt.
    In a small bowl, mix soy sauce, hot sauce, honey, ginger, water, and olive oil until honey dissolves.
    Place fish in a large resealable plastic bag with the soy sauce mixture, seal, and turn to coat. Refrigerate for at least 2 hours.
    Heat grill to medium-high. Lightly oil grill grate.
    Remove the filets to a plate and discard the marinade.
    Place salmon skin up on a hot grill, about 475 degrees Fahrenheit. Sear to capture the juices, then flip to skin-side down. Cook salmon about 3 minutes per side, or until the fat begins to seep from the seams. Plate and serve with rice and vegetables.

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
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    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
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    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
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    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
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    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com